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# urllib3/
# Copyright 2008-2012 Andrey Petrov and contributors (see CONTRIBUTORS.txt)
# This module is part of urllib3 and is released under
# the MIT License:
from base64 import b64encode
from collections import namedtuple
from socket import error as SocketError
from hashlib import md5, sha1
from binascii import hexlify, unhexlify
from select import poll, POLLIN
except ImportError: # `poll` doesn't exist on OSX and other platforms
poll = False
from select import select
except ImportError: # `select` doesn't exist on AppEngine.
select = False
try: # Test for SSL features
SSLContext = None
HAS_SNI = False
import ssl
from ssl import wrap_socket, CERT_NONE, PROTOCOL_SSLv23
from ssl import SSLContext # Modern SSL?
from ssl import HAS_SNI # Has SNI?
except ImportError:
from .packages import six
from .exceptions import LocationParseError, SSLError
class Url(namedtuple('Url', ['scheme', 'auth', 'host', 'port', 'path', 'query', 'fragment'])):
Datastructure for representing an HTTP URL. Used as a return value for
slots = ()
def __new__(cls, scheme=None, auth=None, host=None, port=None, path=None, query=None, fragment=None):
return super(Url, cls).__new__(cls, scheme, auth, host, port, path, query, fragment)
def hostname(self):
"""For backwards-compatibility with urlparse. We're nice like that."""
def request_uri(self):
"""Absolute path including the query string."""
uri = self.path or '/'
if self.query is not None:
uri += '?' + self.query
return uri
def split_first(s, delims):
Given a string and an iterable of delimiters, split on the first found
delimiter. Return two split parts and the matched delimiter.
If not found, then the first part is the full input string.
Example: ::
>>> split_first('foo/bar?baz', '?/=')
('foo', 'bar?baz', '/')
>>> split_first('foo/bar?baz', '123')
('foo/bar?baz', '', None)
Scales linearly with number of delims. Not ideal for large number of delims.
min_idx = None
min_delim = None
for d in delims:
idx = s.find(d)
if idx < 0:
if min_idx is None or idx < min_idx:
min_idx = idx
min_delim = d
if min_idx is None or min_idx < 0:
return s, '', None
return s[:min_idx], s[min_idx+1:], min_delim
def parse_url(url):
Given a url, return a parsed :class:`.Url` namedtuple. Best-effort is
performed to parse incomplete urls. Fields not provided will be None.
Partly backwards-compatible with :mod:`urlparse`.
Example: ::
>>> parse_url('')
Url(scheme='http', host='', port=None, path='/', ...)
>>> parse_url('')
Url(scheme=None, host='', port=80, path=None, ...)
>>> parse_url('/foo?bar')
Url(scheme=None, host=None, port=None, path='/foo', query='bar', ...)
# While this code has overlap with stdlib's urlparse, it is much
# simplified for our needs and less annoying.
# Additionally, this imeplementations does silly things to be optimal
# on CPython.
scheme = None
auth = None
host = None
port = None
path = None
fragment = None
query = None
# Scheme
if '://' in url:
scheme, url = url.split('://', 1)
# Find the earliest Authority Terminator
# (
url, path_, delim = split_first(url, ['/', '?', '#'])
if delim:
# Reassemble the path
path = delim + path_
# Auth
if '@' in url:
auth, url = url.split('@', 1)
# IPv6
if url and url[0] == '[':
host, url = url[1:].split(']', 1)
# Port
if ':' in url:
_host, port = url.split(':', 1)
if not host:
host = _host
if not port.isdigit():
raise LocationParseError("Failed to parse: %s" % url)
port = int(port)
elif not host and url:
host = url
if not path:
return Url(scheme, auth, host, port, path, query, fragment)
# Fragment
if '#' in path:
path, fragment = path.split('#', 1)
# Query
if '?' in path:
path, query = path.split('?', 1)
return Url(scheme, auth, host, port, path, query, fragment)
def get_host(url):
Deprecated. Use :func:`.parse_url` instead.
p = parse_url(url)
return p.scheme or 'http', p.hostname, p.port
def make_headers(keep_alive=None, accept_encoding=None, user_agent=None,
Shortcuts for generating request headers.
:param keep_alive:
If ``True``, adds 'connection: keep-alive' header.
:param accept_encoding:
Can be a boolean, list, or string.
``True`` translates to 'gzip,deflate'.
List will get joined by comma.
String will be used as provided.
:param user_agent:
String representing the user-agent you want, such as
:param basic_auth:
Colon-separated username:password string for 'authorization: basic ...'
auth header.
Example: ::
>>> make_headers(keep_alive=True, user_agent="Batman/1.0")
{'connection': 'keep-alive', 'user-agent': 'Batman/1.0'}
>>> make_headers(accept_encoding=True)
{'accept-encoding': 'gzip,deflate'}
headers = {}
if accept_encoding:
if isinstance(accept_encoding, str):
elif isinstance(accept_encoding, list):
accept_encoding = ','.join(accept_encoding)
accept_encoding = 'gzip,deflate'
headers['accept-encoding'] = accept_encoding
if user_agent:
headers['user-agent'] = user_agent
if keep_alive:
headers['connection'] = 'keep-alive'
if basic_auth:
headers['authorization'] = 'Basic ' + \
return headers
def is_connection_dropped(conn): # Platform-specific
Returns True if the connection is dropped and should be closed.
:param conn:
:class:`httplib.HTTPConnection` object.
Note: For platforms like AppEngine, this will always return ``False`` to
let the platform handle connection recycling transparently for us.
sock = getattr(conn, 'sock', False)
if not sock: # Platform-specific: AppEngine
return False
if not poll:
if not select: # Platform-specific: AppEngine
return False
return select([sock], [], [], 0.0)[0]
except SocketError:
return True
# This version is better on platforms that support it.
p = poll()
p.register(sock, POLLIN)
for (fno, ev) in p.poll(0.0):
if fno == sock.fileno():
# Either data is buffered (bad), or the connection is dropped.
return True
def resolve_cert_reqs(candidate):
Resolves the argument to a numeric constant, which can be passed to
the wrap_socket function/method from the ssl module.
Defaults to :data:`ssl.CERT_NONE`.
If given a string it is assumed to be the name of the constant in the
:mod:`ssl` module or its abbrevation.
(So you can specify `REQUIRED` instead of `CERT_REQUIRED`.
If it's neither `None` nor a string we assume it is already the numeric
constant which can directly be passed to wrap_socket.
if candidate is None:
return CERT_NONE
if isinstance(candidate, str):
res = getattr(ssl, candidate, None)
if res is None:
res = getattr(ssl, 'CERT_' + candidate)
return res
return candidate
def resolve_ssl_version(candidate):
like resolve_cert_reqs
if candidate is None:
return PROTOCOL_SSLv23
if isinstance(candidate, str):
res = getattr(ssl, candidate, None)
if res is None:
res = getattr(ssl, 'PROTOCOL_' + candidate)
return res
return candidate
def assert_fingerprint(cert, fingerprint):
Checks if given fingerprint matches the supplied certificate.
:param cert:
Certificate as bytes object.
:param fingerprint:
Fingerprint as string of hexdigits, can be interspersed by colons.
# Maps the length of a digest to a possible hash function producing
# this digest.
hashfunc_map = {
16: md5,
20: sha1
fingerprint = fingerprint.replace(':', '').lower()
digest_length, rest = divmod(len(fingerprint), 2)
if rest or digest_length not in hashfunc_map:
raise SSLError('Fingerprint is of invalid length.')
# We need encode() here for py32; works on py2 and p33.
fingerprint_bytes = unhexlify(fingerprint.encode())
hashfunc = hashfunc_map[digest_length]
cert_digest = hashfunc(cert).digest()
if not cert_digest == fingerprint_bytes:
raise SSLError('Fingerprints did not match. Expected "{0}", got "{1}".'
if SSLContext is not None: # Python 3.2+
def ssl_wrap_socket(sock, keyfile=None, certfile=None, cert_reqs=None,
ca_certs=None, server_hostname=None,
All arguments except `server_hostname` have the same meaning as for
:param server_hostname:
Hostname of the expected certificate
context = SSLContext(ssl_version)
context.verify_mode = cert_reqs
if ca_certs:
# Py32 raises IOError
# Py33 raises FileNotFoundError
except Exception as e: # Reraise as SSLError
raise SSLError(e)
if certfile:
# FIXME: This block needs a test.
context.load_cert_chain(certfile, keyfile)
if HAS_SNI: # Platform-specific: OpenSSL with enabled SNI
return context.wrap_socket(sock, server_hostname=server_hostname)
return context.wrap_socket(sock)
else: # Python 3.1 and earlier
def ssl_wrap_socket(sock, keyfile=None, certfile=None, cert_reqs=None,
ca_certs=None, server_hostname=None,
return wrap_socket(sock, keyfile=keyfile, certfile=certfile,
ca_certs=ca_certs, cert_reqs=cert_reqs,
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