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Chapter 7. Process Environment

Introduction

main Function

A C program starts execution with a function called main:

int main(int argc, char *argv[]);
  • argc: number of command-line arguments
  • argv: an array of pointers to the arguments

When a C program is executed by the kernel (by one of the exec functions), a special start-up routine is called before the main function is called. The executable program file specifies this routine as the starting address for the program; this is set up by the link editor (linker) when it is invoked by the C compiler. This start-up routine takes values from the kernel (the command-line arguments and the environment) and sets things up so that the main function is called as shown earlier.

Process Termination

There are eight ways for a process to terminate.

  • Normal termination occurs in five ways:

    1. Return from main
    2. Calling exit
    3. Calling _exit or _Exit
    4. Return of the last thread from its start routine (Section 11.5)
    5. Calling pthread_exit (Section 11.5) from the last thread
  • Abnormal termination occurs in three ways:

    1. Calling abort (Section 10.17)
    2. Receipt of a signal (Section 10.2)
    3. Response of the last thread to a cancellation request (Sections 11.5 and 12.7)

Exit Functions

Three functions terminate a program normally:

apue_exit.h

#include <stdlib.h>

void exit(int status);
void _Exit(int status);

#include <unistd.h>

void _exit(int status);
  • _exit: returns to the kernel immediately
  • _Exit: same as _exit
  • exit: performs certain cleanup processing and then returns to the kernel. Historically, it has always performed a clean shutdown of the standard I/O library: the fclose function is called for all open streams

All three exit functions expect a single integer argument (exit status).

The exit status of the process is undefined, if any of the following occurs:

  • Any of these functions is called without an exit status
  • main does a return without a return value
  • main function is not declared to return an integer

If the return type of main is an integer and main "falls off the end" (an implicit return), the exit status of the process is 0.

Returning an integer value from the main function is equivalent to calling exit with the same value:

exit(0); is same as return(0); from the main function.

atexit Function

With ISO C, a process can register at least 32 functions that are automatically called by exit. These are called exit handlers and are registered by calling the atexit function.

apue_atexit.h

#include <stdlib.h>

int atexit(void (*func)(void));

/* Returns: 0 if OK, nonzero on error */
  • func argument is the address of the function to be called by exit. When this function is called, it is not passed any arguments and is not expected to return a value. The exit function calls these functions in reverse order of their registration. Each function is called as many times as it was registered.

With ISO C and POSIX.1, exit first calls the exit handlers and then closes (via fclose) all open streams. POSIX.1 extends the ISO C standard by specifying that any exit handlers installed will be cleared if the program calls any of the exec family of functions.

The only way a program can be executed by the kernel is if one of the exec functions is called. The only way a process can voluntarily terminate is if _exit or _Exit is called, either explicitly or implicitly (by calling exit). A process can also be involuntarily terminated by a signal.

Command-Line Arguments

When a program is executed, the process that does the exec can pass command-line arguments to the new program. This is part of the normal operation of the UNIX system shells.

Example:

#include "apue.h"

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) /* echo all command-line args */
        printf("argv[%d]: %s\n", i, argv[i]);
    exit(0);
}

We are guaranteed by both ISO C and POSIX.1 that argv[argc] is a null pointer. This lets us alternatively code the argument-processing loop as:

for (i = 0; argv[i] != NULL; i++)

Environment List

Each program is also passed an environment list, which is an array of character pointers, with each pointer containing the address of a null-terminated C string. It is contained in the global variable environ:

extern char **environ;

Figure 7.5 Environment consisting of five C character strings

  • environ is called the environment pointer, the array of pointers the environment list, and the strings they point to the environment strings, which by convention is name=value strings. By convetion, predefined names are entirely uppercase.

Memory Layout of a C Program

Historically, a C program has been composed of the following pieces:

  • Text segment: consists of the machine instructions that the CPU executes
  • Initialized data segment (or simply data segment): contains variables that are specifically initialized in the program
  • Uninitialized data segment (often called the "bss" segment, which is named after "block started by symbol"): data in this segment is initialized by the kernel to arithmetic 0 or null pointers before the program starts executing
  • Stack: stores automatic variables, along with information that is saved each time a function is called
  • Heap is where dynamic memory allocation usually takes place

Figure 7.5 Environment consisting of five C character strings

With Linux on a 32-bit Intel x86 processor, the text segment starts at location 0x08048000, and the bottom of the stack starts just below 0xC0000000. The stack grows from higher-numbered addresses to lower-numbered addresses on this particular architecture. The unused virtual address space between the top of the heap and the top of the stack is large

The size(1) command reports the sizes (in bytes) of the text, data, and bss segments:

$ size /usr/bin/cc /bin/sh
text data bss dec hex filename
346919 3576 6680 357175 57337 /usr/bin/cc
102134 1776 11272 115182 1c1ee /bin/sh

Shared Libraries

Shared libraries remove the common library routines from the executable file and maintains a single copy of the library routine somewhere in memory that all processes reference:

  • Pros: reduces the size of each executable file; library functions can be replaced with new versions without having to relink edit every program that uses the library
  • Cons: adds some runtime overhead, either when the program is first executed or the first time each shared library function is called

Memory Allocation

apue_malloc.h

#include <stdlib.h>

void *malloc(size_t size);
void *calloc(size_t nobj, size_t size);
void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t newsize);

/* All three return: non-null pointer if OK, NULL on error */

void free(void *ptr);
  • malloc: allocates a specified number of bytes of memory
  • calloc: allocates space for a specified number of objects of a specified size
  • realloc: increases or decreases the size of a previously allocated area. The final argument to realloc is the new size of the region, not the difference between the old and new sizes

The pointer returned by the three allocation functions is guaranteed to be suitably aligned so that it can be used for any data object.

Because the three alloc functions return a generic void * pointer, if we #include <stdlib.h> (to obtain the function prototypes), we do not explicitly have to cast the pointer returned by these functions when we assign it to a pointer of a different type. The default return value for undeclared functions is int, so using a cast without the proper function declaration could hide an error on systems where the size of type int differs from the size of a function’s return value (a pointer in this case).

  • free: causes the space pointed to by ptr to be deallocated. This freed space is usually put into a pool of available memory and can be allocated in a later call to one of the three alloc functions.

The allocation routines are usually implemented with the sbrk(2) system call. This system call expands (or contracts) the heap of the process. Although sbrk can expand or contract the memory of a process, most versions of malloc and free never decrease their memory size. The space that we free is available for a later allocation, but the freed space is not usually returned to the kernel; instead, that space is kept in the malloc pool.

Alternate Memory Allocators

[p209]

  • libmalloc
  • vmalloc
  • quick-fit
  • jemalloc
  • TCMalloc
  • alloca Function: has the same calling sequence as malloc; however, instead of allocating memory from the heap, the memory is allocated from the stack frame of the current function

Environment Variables

The environment strings are usually of the form:

name=value

The UNIX kernel never looks at these strings; their interpretation is up to the various applications.

apue_getenv.h

#include <stdlib.h>

char *getenv(const char *name);
/* Returns: pointer to value associated with name, NULL if not found */

int putenv(char *str);
/* Returns: 0 if OK, nonzero on error */

int setenv(const char *name, const char *value, int rewrite);
int unsetenv(const char *name);

/* Both return: 0 if OK, −1 on error */
  • getenv: returns a pointer to the value of a name=value string. We should always use getenv to fetch a specific value from the environment, instead of accessing environ directly

Figure 7.7 Environment variables defined in the Single UNIX Specification

  • putenv: takes a string of the form name=value and places it in the environment list. If name already exists, its old definition is first removed.
  • setenv: sets name to value. If name already exists in the environment, then:
    • If rewrite is nonzero, the existing definition for name is first removed
    • If rewrite is 0, the existing definition for name is not removed, name is not set to the new value, and no error occurs
  • unsetenv: removes any definition of name. It is not an error if such a definition does not exist.

Note the difference between putenv and setenv. Whereas setenv must allocate memory to create the name=value string from its arguments, putenv is free to place the string passed to it directly into the environment. Indeed, many implementations do exactly this, so it would be an error to pass putenv a string allocated on the stack, since the memory would be reused after we return from the current function.

  • Deleting a string: we just find the pointer in the environment list and move all subsequent pointers down one.
  • Modifying a existing name:
    • If new value is smaller than or equal to old: we just copy the string
    • If new value is larger than old: we must malloc and replace the old pointer in the environment list for name with the pointer to this allocated area
  • Adding a new name:
    • First time: we call malloc, copy the old environment list to this new area and store a pointer to the name=value string at the end of this list of pointers. We also store a null pointer at the end of this list, of course. Finally, we set environ to point to this new list of pointers. If the original environment list was contained above the top of the stack, as is common, then we have moved this list of pointers to the heap. But most of the pointers in this list still point to name=value strings above the top of the stack.
    • Not first time: we call realloc to allocate room for one more pointer. The pointer to the new name=value string is stored at the end of the list (on top of the previous null pointer), followed by a null pointer.

setjmp and longjmp Functions

In C, we can't goto a label that’s in another function. Instead, we must use the setjmp and longjmp functions to perform this type of branching. These two functions are useful for handling error conditions that occur in a deeply nested function call.

apue_setjmp.h

#include <setjmp.h>

int setjmp(jmp_buf env);
/* Returns: 0 if called directly, nonzero if returning from a call to longjmp */

void longjmp(jmp_buf env, int val);

Examples:

Automatic, Register, and Volatile Variables

When we return to main as a result of the longjmp, implementations do not try to roll back these automatic variables and register variables (in main), though standards say only that their values are indeterminate.

Example:

Compile the above program, with and without compiler optimizations, the results are different:

$ gcc testjmp.c compile without any optimization
$ ./a.out
in f1():
globval = 95, autoval = 96, regival = 97, volaval = 98, statval = 99
after longjmp:
globval = 95, autoval = 96, regival = 97, volaval = 98, statval = 99
$ gcc -O testjmp.c compile with full optimization
$ ./a.out
in f1():
globval = 95, autoval = 96, regival = 97, volaval = 98, statval = 99
after longjmp:
globval = 95, autoval = 2, regival = 3, volaval = 98, statval = 99

The optimizations don’t affect the global, static, and volatile variables. The setjmp(3) manual page on one system states that variables stored in memory will have values as of the time of the longjmp, whereas variables in the CPU and floating-point registers are restored to their values when setjmp was called. Without optimization, all five variables are stored in memory. When we enable optimization, both autoval and regival go into registers, even though the former wasn't declared register, and the volatile variable stays in memory.

Potential Problem with Automatic Variables

An automatic variable can never be referenced after the function that declared it returns.

Incorrect usage of an automatic variable:

#include <stdio.h>
FILE *
open_data(void)
{
    FILE *fp;
    char databuf[BUFSIZ]; /* setvbuf makes this the stdio buffer */
    if ((fp = fopen("datafile", "r")) == NULL)
        return(NULL);
    if (setvbuf(fp, databuf, _IOLBF, BUFSIZ) != 0)
        return(NULL);
    return(fp); /* error */
}

The problem is that when open_data returns, the space it used on the stack will be used by the stack frame for the next function that is called. But the standard I/O library will still be using that portion of memory for its stream buffer. Chaos is sure to result. To correct this problem, the array databuf needs to be allocated from global memory, either statically (static or extern) or dynamically (one of the alloc functions).

getrlimit and setrlimit Functions

Every process has a set of resource limits, some of which can be queried and changed by the getrlimit and setrlimit functions.

apue_getrlimit.h

#include <sys/resource.h>

int getrlimit(int resource, struct rlimit *rlptr);
int setrlimit(int resource, const struct rlimit *rlptr);

/* Both return: 0 if OK, −1 on error */

These two functions are defined in the XSI option in the Single UNIX Specification. The resource limits for a process are normally established by process 0 when the system is initialized and then inherited by each successive process. Each implementation has its own way of tuning the various limits.

  • rlptr: a pointer to the following structure:
struct rlimit {
    rlim_t rlim_cur; /* soft limit: current limit */
    rlim_t rlim_max; /* hard limit: maximum value for rlim_cur */
};
  • resource argument takes on one of the following values:

    • RLIMIT_AS: The maximum size in bytes of a process’s total available memory. This affects the sbrk function and the mmap function.
    • RLIMIT_CORE: The maximum size in bytes of a core file. A limit of 0 prevents the creation of a core file.
    • RLIMIT_CPU: The maximum amount of CPU time in seconds. When the soft limit is exceeded, the SIGXCPU signal is sent to the process.
    • RLIMIT_DATA: The maximum size in bytes of the data segment: the sum of the initialized data, uninitialized data, and heap from Figure 7.6.
    • RLIMIT_FSIZE: The maximum size in bytes of a file that may be created. When the soft limit is exceeded, the process is sent the SIGXFSZ signal.
    • RLIMIT_MEMLOCK: The maximum amount of memory in bytes that a process can lock into memory using mlock(2).
    • RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE: The maximum amount of memory in bytes that a process can allocate for POSIX message queues.
    • RLIMIT_NICE: The limit to which a process’s nice value can be raised to affect its scheduling priority.
    • RLIMIT_NOFILE: The maximum number of open files per process. Changing this limit affects the value returned by the sysconf function for its _SC_OPEN_MAX argument.
    • RLIMIT_NPROC: The maximum number of child processes per real user ID. Changing this limit affects the value returned for _SC_CHILD_MAX by the sysconf function.
    • RLIMIT_NPTS: The maximum number of pseudo terminals that a user can have open at one time.
    • RLIMIT_RSS: Maximum resident set size (RSS) in bytes. If available physical memory is low, the kernel takes memory from processes that exceed their RSS.
    • RLIMIT_SBSIZE: The maximum size in bytes of socket buffers that a user can consume at any given time.
    • RLIMIT_SIGPENDING: The maximum number of signals that can be queued for a process. This limit is enforced by the sigqueue function
    • RLIMIT_STACK: The maximum size in bytes of the stack. See Figure 7.6.
    • RLIMIT_SWAP: The maximum amount of swap space in bytes that a user can consume.
    • RLIMIT_VMEM This is a synonym for RLIMIT_AS.

Rules of changing resource limits:

  1. A process can change its soft limit to a value less than or equal to its hard limit.
  2. A process can lower its hard limit to a value greater than or equal to its soft limit. This lowering of the hard limit is irreversible for normal users.
  3. Only a superuser process can raise a hard limit.

The resource limits affect the calling process and are inherited by any of its children. This means that the setting of resource limits needs to be built into the shells to affect all our future processes. Indeed, the Bourne shell, the GNU Bourne-again shell, and the Korn shell have the built-in ulimit command, and the C shell has the built-in limit command. (The umask and chdir functions also have to be handled as shell built-ins.)

Example:

Summary

Understanding the environment of a C program within a UNIX system’s environment is a prerequisite to understanding the process control features of the UNIX System. This chapter discusses process start and termination, and how a process is passed an argument list and an environment. Although both the argument list and the environment are uninterpreted by the kernel, it is the kernel that passes both from the caller of exec to the new process. This chapter also examines the typical memory layout of a C program and how a process can dynamically allocate and free memory.