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%!TEX TS-program = platex
% Also note that the "draftcls" or "draftclsnofoot", not "draft", option
% should be used if it is desired that the figures are to be displayed in
% draft mode.
%
\documentclass[10pt, conference, compsocconf]{IEEEtran}
% Add the compsocconf option for Computer Society conferences.
%
% If IEEEtran.cls has not been installed into the LaTeX system files,
% manually specify the path to it like:
% \documentclass[conference]{../sty/IEEEtran}
\usepackage[dvipdfmx]{graphicx}
% *** MISC UTILITY PACKAGES ***
%\usepackage{ifpdf}
% Heiko Oberdiek's ifpdf.sty is very useful if you need conditional
% compilation based on whether the output is pdf or dvi.
% usage:
% \ifpdf
% % pdf code
% \else
% % dvi code
% \fi
% The latest version of ifpdf.sty can be obtained from:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/oberdiek/
% Also, note that IEEEtran.cls V1.7 and later provides a builtin
% \ifCLASSINFOpdf conditional that works the same way.
% When switching from latex to pdflatex and vice-versa, the compiler may
% have to be run twice to clear warning/error messages.
% *** CITATION PACKAGES ***
%
\usepackage{cite}
% cite.sty was written by Donald Arseneau
% V1.6 and later of IEEEtran pre-defines the format of the cite.sty package
% \cite{} output to follow that of IEEE. Loading the cite package will
% result in citation numbers being automatically sorted and properly
% "compressed/ranged". e.g., [1], [9], [2], [7], [5], [6] without using
% cite.sty will become [1], [2], [5]--[7], [9] using cite.sty. cite.sty's
% \cite will automatically add leading space, if needed. Use cite.sty's
% noadjust option (cite.sty V3.8 and later) if you want to turn this off.
% cite.sty is already installed on most LaTeX systems. Be sure and use
% version 4.0 (2003-05-27) and later if using hyperref.sty. cite.sty does
% not currently provide for hyperlinked citations.
% The latest version can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/cite/
% The documentation is contained in the cite.sty file itself.
% *** GRAPHICS RELATED PACKAGES ***
%
%\ifCLASSINFOpdf
% \usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
% declare the path(s) where your graphic files are
% \graphicspath{{../pdf/}{../jpeg/}}
% and their extensions so you won't have to specify these with
% every instance of \includegraphics
% \DeclareGraphicsExtensions{.pdf,.jpeg,.png}
%\else
% or other class option (dvipsone, dvipdf, if not using dvips). graphicx
% will default to the driver specified in the system graphics.cfg if no
% driver is specified.
% \usepackage[dvips]{graphicx}
% declare the path(s) where your graphic files are
% \graphicspath{{../eps/}}
% and their extensions so you won't have to specify these with
% every instance of \includegraphics
% \DeclareGraphicsExtensions{.eps}
%\fi
% graphicx was written by David Carlisle and Sebastian Rahtz. It is
% required if you want graphics, photos, etc. graphicx.sty is already
% installed on most LaTeX systems. The latest version and documentation can
% be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/required/graphics/
% Another good source of documentation is "Using Imported Graphics in
% LaTeX2e" by Keith Reckdahl which can be found as epslatex.ps or
% epslatex.pdf at: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/info/
%
% latex, and pdflatex in dvi mode, support graphics in encapsulated
% postscript (.eps) format. pdflatex in pdf mode supports graphics
% in .pdf, .jpeg, .png and .mps (metapost) formats. Users should ensure
% that all non-photo figures use a vector format (.eps, .pdf, .mps) and
% not a bitmapped formats (.jpeg, .png). IEEE frowns on bitmapped formats
% which can result in "jaggedy"/blurry rendering of lines and letters as
% well as large increases in file sizes.
%
% You can find documentation about the pdfTeX application at:
% http://www.tug.org/applications/pdftex
% *** MATH PACKAGES ***
%
%\usepackage[cmex10]{amsmath}
% A popular package from the American Mathematical Society that provides
% many useful and powerful commands for dealing with mathematics. If using
% it, be sure to load this package with the cmex10 option to ensure that
% only type 1 fonts will utilized at all point sizes. Without this option,
% it is possible that some math symbols, particularly those within
% footnotes, will be rendered in bitmap form which will result in a
% document that can not be IEEE Xplore compliant!
%
% Also, note that the amsmath package sets \interdisplaylinepenalty to 10000
% thus preventing page breaks from occurring within multiline equations. Use:
%\interdisplaylinepenalty=2500
% after loading amsmath to restore such page breaks as IEEEtran.cls normally
% does. amsmath.sty is already installed on most LaTeX systems. The latest
% version and documentation can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/required/amslatex/math/
% *** SPECIALIZED LIST PACKAGES ***
%
%\usepackage{algorithmic}
% algorithmic.sty was written by Peter Williams and Rogerio Brito.
% This package provides an algorithmic environment fo describing algorithms.
% You can use the algorithmic environment in-text or within a figure
% environment to provide for a floating algorithm. Do NOT use the algorithm
% floating environment provided by algorithm.sty (by the same authors) or
% algorithm2e.sty (by Christophe Fiorio) as IEEE does not use dedicated
% algorithm float types and packages that provide these will not provide
% correct IEEE style captions. The latest version and documentation of
% algorithmic.sty can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/algorithms/
% There is also a support site at:
% http://algorithms.berlios.de/index.html
% Also of interest may be the (relatively newer and more customizable)
% algorithmicx.sty package by Szasz Janos:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/algorithmicx/
% *** ALIGNMENT PACKAGES ***
%
%\usepackage{array}
% Frank Mittelbach's and David Carlisle's array.sty patches and improves
% the standard LaTeX2e array and tabular environments to provide better
% appearance and additional user controls. As the default LaTeX2e table
% generation code is lacking to the point of almost being broken with
% respect to the quality of the end results, all users are strongly
% advised to use an enhanced (at the very least that provided by array.sty)
% set of table tools. array.sty is already installed on most systems. The
% latest version and documentation can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/required/tools/
%\usepackage{mdwmath}
%\usepackage{mdwtab}
% Also highly recommended is Mark Wooding's extremely powerful MDW tools,
% especially mdwmath.sty and mdwtab.sty which are used to format equations
% and tables, respectively. The MDWtools set is already installed on most
% LaTeX systems. The lastest version and documentation is available at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/mdwtools/
% IEEEtran contains the IEEEeqnarray family of commands that can be used to
% generate multiline equations as well as matrices, tables, etc., of high
% quality.
%\usepackage{eqparbox}
% Also of notable interest is Scott Pakin's eqparbox package for creating
% (automatically sized) equal width boxes - aka "natural width parboxes".
% Available at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/eqparbox/
% *** SUBFIGURE PACKAGES ***
%\usepackage[tight,footnotesize]{subfigure}
% subfigure.sty was written by Steven Douglas Cochran. This package makes it
% easy to put subfigures in your figures. e.g., "Figure 1a and 1b". For IEEE
% work, it is a good idea to load it with the tight package option to reduce
% the amount of white space around the subfigures. subfigure.sty is already
% installed on most LaTeX systems. The latest version and documentation can
% be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/obsolete/macros/latex/contrib/subfigure/
% subfigure.sty has been superceeded by subfig.sty.
%\usepackage[caption=false]{caption}
%\usepackage[font=footnotesize]{subfig}
% subfig.sty, also written by Steven Douglas Cochran, is the modern
% replacement for subfigure.sty. However, subfig.sty requires and
% automatically loads Axel Sommerfeldt's caption.sty which will override
% IEEEtran.cls handling of captions and this will result in nonIEEE style
% figure/table captions. To prevent this problem, be sure and preload
% caption.sty with its "caption=false" package option. This is will preserve
% IEEEtran.cls handing of captions. Version 1.3 (2005/06/28) and later
% (recommended due to many improvements over 1.2) of subfig.sty supports
% the caption=false option directly:
%\usepackage[caption=false,font=footnotesize]{subfig}
%
% The latest version and documentation can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/subfig/
% The latest version and documentation of caption.sty can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/caption/
% *** FLOAT PACKAGES ***
%
%\usepackage{fixltx2e}
% fixltx2e, the successor to the earlier fix2col.sty, was written by
% Frank Mittelbach and David Carlisle. This package corrects a few problems
% in the LaTeX2e kernel, the most notable of which is that in current
% LaTeX2e releases, the ordering of single and double column floats is not
% guaranteed to be preserved. Thus, an unpatched LaTeX2e can allow a
% single column figure to be placed prior to an earlier double column
% figure. The latest version and documentation can be found at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/base/
%\usepackage{stfloats}
% stfloats.sty was written by Sigitas Tolusis. This package gives LaTeX2e
% the ability to do double column floats at the bottom of the page as well
% as the top. (e.g., "\begin{figure*}[!b]" is not normally possible in
% LaTeX2e). It also provides a command:
%\fnbelowfloat
% to enable the placement of footnotes below bottom floats (the standard
% LaTeX2e kernel puts them above bottom floats). This is an invasive package
% which rewrites many portions of the LaTeX2e float routines. It may not work
% with other packages that modify the LaTeX2e float routines. The latest
% version and documentation can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/sttools/
% Documentation is contained in the stfloats.sty comments as well as in the
% presfull.pdf file. Do not use the stfloats baselinefloat ability as IEEE
% does not allow \baselineskip to stretch. Authors submitting work to the
% IEEE should note that IEEE rarely uses double column equations and
% that authors should try to avoid such use. Do not be tempted to use the
% cuted.sty or midfloat.sty packages (also by Sigitas Tolusis) as IEEE does
% not format its papers in such ways.
% *** PDF, URL AND HYPERLINK PACKAGES ***
%
%\usepackage{url}
% url.sty was written by Donald Arseneau. It provides better support for
% handling and breaking URLs. url.sty is already installed on most LaTeX
% systems. The latest version can be obtained at:
% http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/misc/
% Read the url.sty source comments for usage information. Basically,
% \url{my_url_here}.
% *** Do not adjust lengths that control margins, column widths, etc. ***
% *** Do not use packages that alter fonts (such as pslatex). ***
% There should be no need to do such things with IEEEtran.cls V1.6 and later.
% (Unless specifically asked to do so by the journal or conference you plan
% to submit to, of course. )
% correct bad hyphenation here
\hyphenation{op-tical net-works semi-conduc-tor}
% ************************
% Document start
% ************************
\begin{document}
\title{Toward Fine-grained GPU Resource Management using Microcontrollers}
% author names and affiliations
% use a multiple column layout for up to two different
% affiliations
\if 0
\author{\IEEEauthorblockN{Yusuke Fujii}
\IEEEauthorblockA{line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization\\
line 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable\\
Shiga, Japan\\
yukke@ubi.cs.ritsumei.ac.jp}
\and
\IEEEauthorblockN{Takuya Azumi}
\IEEEauthorblockA{line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization\\
line 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable\\
line 3: City, Country\\
line 4: Email: name@xyz.com}
\and
\IEEEauthorblockN{Nobuhiko Nishio}
\IEEEauthorblockA{line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization\\
line 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable\\
line 3: City, Country\\
line 4: Email: name@xyz.com}
\and
\IEEEauthorblockN{Shinpei Kato}
\IEEEauthorblockA{line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization\\
line 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable\\
line 3: City, Country\\
line 4: Email: name@xyz.com}
}
\fi
% conference papers do not typically use \thanks and this command
% is locked out in conference mode. If really needed, such as for
% the acknowledgment of grants, issue a \IEEEoverridecommandlockouts
% after \documentclass
% for over three affiliations, or if they all won't fit within the width
% of the page, use this alternative format:
%
%\author{\IEEEauthorblockN{Yusuke Fujii\IEEEauthorrefmark{1},
%Takuya Azumi\IEEEauthorrefmark{1},
%Nobuhiko Nishio\IEEEauthorrefmark{1} and
%Shinpei Kato\IEEEauthorrefmark{2}}
%
%\IEEEauthorblockA{\IEEEauthorrefmark{1}Ritsumeikan University}
%\IEEEauthorblockA{\IEEEauthorrefmark{2}Nagoya University}
%}
\author{\IEEEauthorblockN{Yusuke Fujii, Takuya Azumi, and Nobuhiko
Nishio}
\IEEEauthorblockA{Department of Computer Science\\Ritsumeikan University}
\and
\IEEEauthorblockN{Shinpei Kato}
\IEEEauthorblockA{Department of Information Engineering\\Nagoya University}
}
% use for special paper notices
%\IEEEspecialpapernotice{(Invited Paper)}
% make the title area
\maketitle
\begin{abstract}
Recent graphics processing units (GPUs) integrate wimpy
microcontrollers on a chip.
These microcontrollers are highly available to extend the functionality
of GPU resource management, launching firmware code to control GPU
executions and data transfers without accessing the host CPUs at all.
In this paper, we develop a compiler and debugging environment for
NVIDIA's GPU microcontrollers in order to enhance the productivity of
GPU firmware development.
Our compiler is implemented using the well-known portable LLVM compiler
infrastructure, while together providing a debugging subsystem that can
individually execute firmware on the microcontroller.
As a proof of concept, we develop fully-functional firmware using our
compiler and debugging environment, and evaluate it using an NVIDIA's
graphics card.
Experimental results demonstrate that the overhead of introducing our
firmware is suppressed to within 2.3\%, as compared to the native
proprietary firmware.
It is also identified that the impact of overhead is no greater than
0.01\% of the total execution time of microbenchmark programs.
\end{abstract}
\begin{IEEEkeywords}
GPGPU; LLVM; Microcontrollers
\end{IEEEkeywords}
% For peer review papers, you can put extra information on the cover
% page as needed:
% \ifCLASSOPTIONpeerreview
% \begin{center} \bfseries EDICS Category: 3-BBND \end{center}
% \fi
%
% For peerreview papers, this IEEEtran command inserts a page break and
% creates the second title. It will be ignored for other modes.
\IEEEpeerreviewmaketitle
% Chapter1
\input{Sec1_Introduction}
% Chapter2
\input{Sec2_Technology}
% Chapter3
\input{Sec3_Design}
% Chapter4
\input{Sec4_Evaluation}
% Chapter5
%\input{Sec5_Related_Works}
% Chapter6
\input{Sec6_Conclusion}
\bibliography{refer}
\bibliographystyle{IEEEtran}
% that's all folks
\end{document}
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