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%!TEX root = farm.tex

\section{Conclusion}\label{sec:con}

In this paper, we have presented a new compiler and debugging
environment for NVIDIA's GPU microcontrollers.
As a basis of future work toward fined-grained GPU resource management,
we developed new firmware for those microcontrollers using our
development environment.
We executed several microbenchmark programs to demonstrate that the
overhead introduced by our firmware was no greater than 2.31\% of the
total execution, as compared to NVIDIA's proprietary firmware blob,
while our firmware even outperformed NVIDIA's firmware depending on test
cases.
One of the interesting findings obtained through the experiments was the
overhead of generating the GPU context, which must be minimized and
bounded in real-time systems.
Our development environment is all open-source, and may be download from
our web site~\cite{GIT_GDEV, GIT_FARM, GIT_NVFC}.

In future work, we pursue a new direction of GPU resource management
using microcontrollers.
First of all, the CPU load could be reduced by offloading GPU resource
management functions on to the GPU microcontroller.
This idea in fact is inspired by the Helios
project~\cite{Nightingale_SOSP09}, where networking resource management
functions are offloaded onto the NIC microcontroller.
Preemption support and power management for the GPU could also be
achieved by extending the firmware, as discussed in \cite{Kato_OSPERT11}.
We believe that such a fine-grained GPU resource management approach is
significant for real-time systems augmented with the GPU.
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