Amalg -- Amalgamation of Lua Modules/Scripts
Deploying a Lua application that is split among multiple modules is a challenge. A tool that can package a Lua script and its modules into a single file is a valuable help. This is such a tool.
- Pure Lua (compatible with Lua 5.1 and up), no other external
dependencies. (Even works for modules using the deprecated
- You don't have to take care of the order in which the modules are
- Can embed compiled C modules.
- Can collect
require'd Lua (and C) modules automatically.
What it doesn't do:
- It does not compile to bytecode. Use
luacfor that yourself, or take a look at squish, or luac.lua.
- It doesn't do static analysis of Lua code to collect
require'd modules. That won't work reliably anyway. You can write your own program for that (using the output of
luac -p -l), or use squish, or soar instead.
- It will not compress, minify, obfuscate your Lua source code, or any of the other things squish can do.
- It doesn't handle the dependencies of C modules.
You can bundle a collection of modules in a single file by calling the
amalg.lua script and passing the module names on the commandline.
./amalg.lua module1 module2
The modules are collected using
package.path, so they have to be
available there. The resulting merged Lua code will be written to the
standard output stream. You have to run the code to make the embedded
Lua modules available for
You can specify an output file to use instead of the standard output stream.
./amalg.lua -o out.lua module1 module2
You can also embed the main script of your application in the merged
Lua code as well. Of course the embedded Lua modules can be
require'd in the main script.
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -s main.lua module1 module2
If you want the original file names and line numbers to appear in error messages, you have to activate debug mode. This will require slightly more memory, however.
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -d -s main.lua module1 module2
To collect all Lua (and C) modules used by a program, you can load the
amalg.lua script as a module, and it will intercept calls to
require and save the necessary Lua module names in a file
amalg.cache in the current directory.
lua -lamalg main.lua
Multiple calls will add to this module cache. But don't access it from multiple concurrent processes!
You can use the cache (in addition to all module names given on the
commandline) using the
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -s main.lua -c
However, this will only embed the Lua modules. To also embed C modules
(both from the cache and from the command line), you have to specify
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -s main.lua -c -x
This will make the amalgamated script platform-dependent, obviously!
In some cases you may want to ignore automatically listed modules in
the cache without editing the cache file. Use the
-i option for that
and specify a Lua pattern:
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -s main.lua -c -i "^luarocks%."
-i option can be used multiple times to specify multiple
To fix a compatibility issue with Lua 5.1's vararg handling,
amalg.lua by default adds a local alias to the global
arg table to
every loaded module. If for some reason you don't want that, use the
-a flag (but be aware that in Lua 5.1 with
defined (the default) your modules can only access the global
./amalg.lua -o out.lua -a -s main.lua -c
Philipp Janda, siffiejoe(a)gmx.net
Comments and feedback are always welcome.
amalg is copyrighted free software distributed under the MIT
license (the same license as Lua 5.1). The full license text follows:
amalg (c) 2013-2016 Philipp Janda Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR COPYRIGHT HOLDER BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.