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;; Emacs Lisp Archive Entry
;; Package: translate
;; Filename: translate.el
;; Version: 0.01
;; Keywords: natural language, language, translate, translation
;; Author: Vivek Dasmohapatra <>
;; Maintainer: Vivek Dasmohapatra <>
;; Created: 2006-05-10
;; Description: use gnome translate/libtranslate to translate text
;; Compatibility: Emacs21, Emacs22
;; Last modified: Fri 2006-05-12 02:52:44 +0100
;; Based on work by:
;; Deepak Goel <>
;; Alejandro Benitez <>
;; This file is NOT (yet) part of GNU Emacs.
;; This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
;; any later version.
;; This is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING. If not, write to the
;; Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
;; Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
;; You need to install libtranslate for this to work. The binary,
;; translate and the library are provided (for example)
;; in Ubuntu Dapper:
(defvar translate-version "0.01")
(defvar translate-pairs nil
"A cache for the language pairs. A list of entries of the form: \n
'((fromaliases) (toaliases) (types)).\n
The first elements of fromaliases and toaliases are the canonical two letter
language codes (possibly with a -XX country variant extension). Any remaining
elements are human-readable aliases. (types) is a list of translation types,
usually text, and occasionally web-page as well. No other types are currently
(defvar translate-unsupported-langs '("he" "pap")
"Languages (two/three letter codes) that we cannot utf-8 encode yet.")
(defgroup translate nil
"Translate natural languages using gnome translate (or workalikes)."
:group 'external
:prefix "translate-")
(defcustom translate-program "translate"
"External translation program."
:group 'translate
:type '(choice string file))
(defun translate-req-to-pair (from to)
"Taking a pair of string arguments, find a matching translation service
and return it as a cons of the form (\"origin\" . \"dest\")"
(let ( (code nil) )
(mapc (lambda (p) (if (and (member-ignore-case from (car p))
(member-ignore-case to (cadr p)))
(setq code (cons (caar p) (car (cadr p))) )) )
(defun translate-full-name (code-or-name)
"Return the full name of a language based on a code or one of its aliases."
(interactive "sLanguage (eg en or zh-TW): ")
(let ((name nil) (lang nil) (ldata translate-pairs))
(while (and ldata (not name))
(setq lang (car ldata) ldata (cdr ldata))
(if (member-ignore-case code-or-name (car lang))
(setq lang (car lang))
(if (member-ignore-case code-or-name (cadr lang))
(setq lang (cadr lang))
(setq lang nil)))
(when lang
(setq name (mapconcat (lambda (l) (format "%s" l)) (cdr lang) " ")) ))
(defconst translate-pair-regex
(concat "^\\([a-z]\\{2,3\\}\\(?:-..\\)?\\)" ;; language code (from)
"(\\(.*\\))" ;; language names (from)
"\\([a-z]\\{2,3\\}\\(?:-..\\)?\\)" ;; language code (to)
"(\\(.*\\)):" ;; language aliases (to)
"\\(.*\\)")) ;; capabilities
(defun translate-parse-pair (pair-line)
"Parse a line of output from `translate-program' --list-pairs, return
an element for insertion into `translate-pairs'."
(if (string-match translate-pair-regex pair-line)
(let ( (from (match-string 1 pair-line))
(from-alias (match-string 2 pair-line))
(to (match-string 3 pair-line))
(to-alias (match-string 4 pair-line))
(cap (match-string 5 pair-line))
(cleanup (lambda (x) (replace-regexp-in-string ",.*" "" x)))
(from-names nil)
(to-names nil))
(setq from-alias (split-string from-alias ";")
to-alias (split-string to-alias ";")
from-alias (mapcar cleanup from-alias)
to-alias (mapcar cleanup to-alias )
cap (split-string cap ",\\s-+"))
(mapc (lambda (x)
(let ((pos 0))
(while (setq pos (string-match "\\<\\(\\S-+\\)\\>" x pos))
(setq from-names (cons (match-string 1 x) from-names)
pos (match-end 1)) )))
(mapc (lambda (x)
(let ((pos 0))
(while (setq pos (string-match "\\<\\(\\S-+\\)\\>" x pos))
(setq to-names (cons (match-string 1 x) to-names)
pos (match-end 1)) )))
(list (cons from from-names)
(cons to to-names ) cap))
(message "%S does not match.\n" pair-line) nil))
(defun translate-load-pairs (&optional reload)
"Parse the output of `translate-program' -l into `translate-pairs'
Called interactively with a prefix argument, or non-interactively with a
non-nil reload argument, it will empty translate-pairs first. Otherwise,
if translate-pairs has already been loaded, it will not do anything."
(interactive "P")
(if reload (setq translate-pairs nil))
(when (not translate-pairs)
(let ( (y nil)
(pair-text (shell-command-to-string
(concat translate-program " -l"))) )
(lambda (x)
(when (setq y (translate-parse-pair x))
(setq translate-pairs (cons y translate-pairs))))
(split-string pair-text "\n")) ))
(defun translate-list-pairs (&optional from to)
"Return the subset of `translate-pairs' that matches the FROM and TO
(if (string-match "^\\(?:\*\\|any\\|-\\|\\)$" from) (setq from nil))
(if (string-match "^\\(?:\*\\|any\\|-\\|\\)$" to ) (setq to nil))
(if (not (translate-load-pairs))
(error "translate doesn't seem to have been setup - no languages found.")
( (and (not from) (not to)) ;; neither end point specified
translate-pairs )
( (or (not to) (not from)) ;; one end point specified
(let ( (op (if from 'car 'cadr))
(op2 (if from 'cadr 'car))
(s nil)
(fl (format "%s" (or from to))) )
(mapc (lambda (p) (if (member-ignore-case fl (funcall op p))
(setq s (cons p s))))
s ))
(t ;; fully spec'd translation
(let ( (s nil) (fl (format "%s" from)) (tl (format "%s" to )) )
(mapc (lambda (p)
(if (and (member-ignore-case fl (car p))
(member-ignore-case tl (cadr p)))
(setq s (cons p s)) ))
s) )) ))
(defun translate (from to &rest text)
"Given a language code or language name for the origin and destination
languages FROM and TO (see `translate-pairs') and some TEXT, returns a string
containing the translated text from `translate-program' (gnome translate
or a work-alike). If an error occurs, either internally or while invoking
`translate-program', signals an `error' instead."
(setq text (mapconcat #'(lambda (arg) (format "%s" arg)) text " "))
;; =======================================================================
;; we might have to force the locale, according to the translate docs,
;; but this doesn't actually seem to be necessary at the moment.
;; -----------------------------------------------------------------------
;; call-process should use utf-8, that's what libtranslate wants: hence
;; we set process-coding-system-alist.
;; -----------------------------------------------------------------------
(let ( (from-lang (format "%s" from))
(to-lang (format "%s" to))
(translation nil) ;; translated text, or libtranslate error
(code nil) ;; cons of (origin-lang . dest-lang)
(status nil) );; return code of command. 0 => success.
(setq code (translate-req-to-pair from-lang to-lang)
from (car code)
to (cdr code))
( (not code)
(error "%s -> %s: no matching translation services found.\n"
(or (translate-full-name from-lang) from-lang)
(or (translate-full-name to-lang ) to-lang )) )
( (member (car code) translate-unsupported-langs)
(error "Sorry, unicode support for %s is not yet complete."
(translate-full-name from-lang)) )
( (member (cdr code) translate-unsupported-langs)
(error "Sorry, unicode support for %s is not yet complete."
(translate-full-name to-lang)) )
( t
(let ( (lc-all (getenv "LC_ALL"))
(lang (getenv "LANG"))
(coding-system-for-read 'utf-8)
(coding-system-for-write 'utf-8)
(process-coding-system-alist '("." . utf-8)) )
(insert text)
(setenv "LC_ALL" nil)
(setenv "LANG" "en_GB.UTF-8")
(setq status
(call-process-region (point-min) (point-max)
:delete-input (current-buffer) nil
"-f" from "-t" to)
translation (buffer-substring-no-properties (point-min)
(setenv "LANG" lang)
(setenv "LC_ALL" lc-all)
)) ))
(if (/= 0 status)
(error "%d - %s" status translation))
translation ))
(provide 'translate)
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