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Blake Mizerany authored
1 = Sinatra
2
4c91e54 @watchdogtimer Web applications should not be hyphenated
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3 Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web applications in Ruby with minimal
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4 effort:
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5
6 # myapp.rb
7 require 'rubygems'
8 require 'sinatra'
9 get '/' do
10 'Hello world!'
11 end
12
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13 Install the gem and run with:
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14
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15 sudo gem install sinatra
16 ruby myapp.rb
17
18 View at: http://localhost:4567
19
20 == Routes
21
22 In Sinatra, a route is an HTTP method paired with an URL matching pattern.
23 Each route is associated with a block:
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24
25 get '/' do
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26 .. show something ..
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27 end
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28
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29 post '/' do
30 .. create something ..
31 end
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32
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33 put '/' do
34 .. update something ..
35 end
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36
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37 delete '/' do
38 .. annihilate something ..
39 end
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40
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41 Routes are matched in the order they are defined. The first route that
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42 matches the request is invoked.
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43
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44 Route patterns may include named parameters, accessible via the
45 <tt>params</tt> hash:
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46
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47 get '/hello/:name' do
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48 # matches "GET /hello/foo" and "GET /hello/bar"
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49 # params[:name] is 'foo' or 'bar'
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50 "Hello #{params[:name]}!"
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51 end
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52
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53 You can also access named parameters via block parameters:
54
55 get '/hello/:name' do |n|
56 "Hello #{n}!"
57 end
58
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59 Route patterns may also include splat (or wildcard) parameters, accessible
60 via the <tt>params[:splat]</tt> array.
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61
9c85e99 @vic Specs, documentation and fixes for splat'n routes
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62 get '/say/*/to/*' do
63 # matches /say/hello/to/world
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64 params[:splat] # => ["hello", "world"]
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65 end
66
67 get '/download/*.*' do
68 # matches /download/path/to/file.xml
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69 params[:splat] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"]
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70 end
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71
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72 Route matching with Regular Expressions:
73
74 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do
75 "Hello, #{params[:captures].first}!"
76 end
77
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78 Or with a block parameter:
79
80 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do |c|
81 "Hello, #{c}!"
82 end
83
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84 Routes may include a variety of matching conditions, such as the user agent:
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85
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86 get '/foo', :agent => /Songbird (\d\.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do
87 "You're using Songbird version #{params[:agent][0]}"
88 end
89
90 get '/foo' do
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91 # Matches non-songbird browsers
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92 end
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93
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94 == Static Files
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95
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96 Static files are served from the <tt>./public</tt> directory. You can specify
97 a different location by setting the <tt>:public</tt> option:
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98
99 set :public, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/static'
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100
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101 Note that the public directory name is not included in the URL. A file
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102 <tt>./public/css/style.css</tt> is made available as
103 <tt>http://example.com/css/style.css</tt>.
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104
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105 == Views / Templates
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106
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107 Templates are assumed to be located directly under the <tt>./views</tt>
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108 directory. To use a different views directory:
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109
110 set :views, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/templates'
111
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112 One important thing to remember is that you always have to reference
113 templates with symbols, even if they're in a subdirectory (in this
114 case use <tt>:'subdir/template'</tt>). Rendering methods will render
115 any strings passed to them directly.
116
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117 === Haml Templates
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118
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119 The haml gem/library is required to render HAML templates:
120
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121 ## You'll need to require haml in your app
122 require 'haml'
123
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124 get '/' do
125 haml :index
126 end
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127
128 Renders <tt>./views/index.haml</tt>.
129
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130 {Haml's options}[http://haml.hamptoncatlin.com/docs/rdoc/classes/Haml.html]
131 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
132 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
133 and overridden on an individual basis.
134
135 set :haml, {:format => :html5 } # default Haml format is :xhtml
136
137 get '/' do
138 haml :index, :haml_options => {:format => :html4 } # overridden
139 end
140
141
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142 === Erb Templates
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143
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144 ## You'll need to require erb in your app
145 require 'erb'
146
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147 get '/' do
148 erb :index
149 end
150
151 Renders <tt>./views/index.erb</tt>
152
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153 === Builder Templates
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154
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155 The builder gem/library is required to render builder templates:
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156
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157 ## You'll need to require builder in your app
158 require 'builder'
159
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160 get '/' do
161 content_type 'application/xml', :charset => 'utf-8'
162 builder :index
163 end
164
165 Renders <tt>./views/index.builder</tt>.
166
167 === Sass Templates
168
169 The sass gem/library is required to render Sass templates:
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170
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171 ## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
172 require 'sass'
173
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174 get '/stylesheet.css' do
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175 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
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176 sass :stylesheet
177 end
178
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179 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.sass</tt>.
180
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181 {Sass' options}[http://haml.hamptoncatlin.com/docs/rdoc/classes/Sass.html]
182 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
183 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
184 and overridden on an individual basis.
185
186 set :sass, {:style => :compact } # default Sass style is :nested
187
188 get '/stylesheet.css' do
189 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
190 sass :stylesheet, :sass_options => {:style => :expanded } # overridden
191 end
192
193
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194 === Inline Templates
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195
196 get '/' do
197 haml '%div.title Hello World'
198 end
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199
200 Renders the inlined template string.
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201
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202 === Accessing Variables in Templates
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203
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204 Templates are evaluated within the same context as route handlers. Instance
205 variables set in route handlers are direcly accessible by templates:
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206
207 get '/:id' do
208 @foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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209 haml '%h1= @foo.name'
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210 end
211
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212 Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:
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213
214 get '/:id' do
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215 foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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216 haml '%h1= foo.name', :locals => { :foo => foo }
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217 end
218
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219 This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within
220 other templates.
221
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222 === Inline Templates
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223
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224 Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:
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225
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226 require 'rubygems'
227 require 'sinatra'
228
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229 get '/' do
230 haml :index
231 end
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232
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233 __END__
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234
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235 @@ layout
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236 %html
237 = yield
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238
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239 @@ index
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240 %div.title Hello world!!!!!
241
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242 NOTE: Inline templates defined in the source file that requires sinatra
243 are automatically loaded. Call `enable :inline_templates` explicitly if you
244 have inline templates in other source files.
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245
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246 === Named Templates
247
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248 Templates may also be defined using the top-level <tt>template</tt> method:
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249
250 template :layout do
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251 "%html\n =yield\n"
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252 end
253
254 template :index do
255 '%div.title Hello World!'
256 end
257
258 get '/' do
259 haml :index
260 end
261
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262 If a template named "layout" exists, it will be used each time a template
263 is rendered. You can disable layouts by passing <tt>:layout => false</tt>.
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264
265 get '/' do
266 haml :index, :layout => !request.xhr?
267 end
268
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269 == Helpers
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270
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271 Use the top-level <tt>helpers</tt> method to define helper methods for use in
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272 route handlers and templates:
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273
274 helpers do
275 def bar(name)
276 "#{name}bar"
277 end
278 end
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279
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280 get '/:name' do
281 bar(params[:name])
282 end
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283
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284 == Filters
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285
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286 Before filters are evaluated before each request within the context of the
287 request and can modify the request and response. Instance variables set in
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288 filters are accessible by routes and templates:
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289
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290 before do
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291 @note = 'Hi!'
292 request.path_info = '/foo/bar/baz'
293 end
294
295 get '/foo/*' do
296 @note #=> 'Hi!'
297 params[:splat] #=> 'bar/baz'
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298 end
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299
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300 After filter are evaluated after each request within the context of the
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301 request and can also modify the request and response. Instance variables
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302 set in before filters and routes are accessible by after filters:
303
304 after do
305 puts response.status
306 end
307
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308 == Halting
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309
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310 To immediately stop a request within a filter or route use:
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311
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312 halt
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313
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314 You can also specify a body when halting ...
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315
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316 halt 'this will be the body'
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317
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318 Or set the status and body ...
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319
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320 halt 401, 'go away!'
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321
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322 == Passing
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323
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324 A route can punt processing to the next matching route using <tt>pass</tt>:
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325
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326 get '/guess/:who' do
327 pass unless params[:who] == 'Frank'
328 "You got me!"
329 end
330
331 get '/guess/*' do
332 "You missed!"
333 end
334
335 The route block is immediately exited and control continues with the next
336 matching route. If no matching route is found, a 404 is returned.
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337
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338 == Configuration
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339
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340 Run once, at startup, in any environment:
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341
342 configure do
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343 ...
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344 end
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345
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346 Run only when the environment (RACK_ENV environment variable) is set to
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347 <tt>:production</tt>:
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348
349 configure :production do
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350 ...
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351 end
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352
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353 Run when the environment is set to either <tt>:production</tt> or
354 <tt>:test</tt>:
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355
356 configure :production, :test do
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357 ...
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358 end
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359
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360 == Error handling
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361
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362 Error handlers run within the same context as routes and before filters, which
363 means you get all the goodies it has to offer, like <tt>haml</tt>, <tt>erb</tt>,
364 <tt>halt</tt>, etc.
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365
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366 === Not Found
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367
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368 When a <tt>Sinatra::NotFound</tt> exception is raised, or the response's status
369 code is 404, the <tt>not_found</tt> handler is invoked:
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370
371 not_found do
372 'This is nowhere to be found'
373 end
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374
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375 === Error
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376
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377 The +error+ handler is invoked any time an exception is raised from a route
378 block or before filter. The exception object can be obtained from the
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379 <tt>sinatra.error</tt> Rack variable:
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380
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381 error do
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382 'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + env['sinatra.error'].name
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383 end
384
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385 Custom errors:
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386
387 error MyCustomError do
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388 'So what happened was...' + request.env['sinatra.error'].message
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389 end
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390
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391 Then, if this happens:
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392
393 get '/' do
394 raise MyCustomError, 'something bad'
395 end
396
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397 You get this:
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398
399 So what happened was... something bad
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400
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401 Sinatra installs special <tt>not_found</tt> and <tt>error</tt> handlers when
402 running under the development environment.
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403
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404 == Mime types
405
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406 When using <tt>send_file</tt> or static files you may have mime types Sinatra
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407 doesn't understand. Use +mime_type+ to register them by file extension:
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408
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409 mime_type :foo, 'text/foo'
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410
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411 == Rack Middleware
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412
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413 Sinatra rides on Rack[http://rack.rubyforge.org/], a minimal standard
414 interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack's most interesting capabilities
415 for application developers is support for "middleware" -- components that sit
416 between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the
417 HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.
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418
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419 Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level
420 +use+ method:
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421
422 require 'sinatra'
423 require 'my_custom_middleware'
424
425 use Rack::Lint
426 use MyCustomMiddleware
427
428 get '/hello' do
429 'Hello World'
430 end
431
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432 The semantics of +use+ are identical to those defined for the
433 Rack::Builder[http://rack.rubyforge.org/doc/classes/Rack/Builder.html] DSL
434 (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the +use+ method
435 accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:
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436
437 use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
438 username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
439 end
440
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441 Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging,
442 debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses
443 many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you
444 typically don't have to +use+ them explicitly.
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445
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446 == Testing
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447
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448 Sinatra tests can be written using any Rack-based testing library
449 or framework. {Rack::Test}[http://gitrdoc.com/brynary/rack-test] is
450 recommended:
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451
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452 require 'my_sinatra_app'
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453 require 'rack/test'
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454
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455 class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
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456 include Rack::Test::Methods
457
458 def app
459 Sinatra::Application
460 end
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461
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462 def test_my_default
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463 get '/'
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464 assert_equal 'Hello World!', last_response.body
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465 end
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466
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467 def test_with_params
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468 get '/meet', :name => 'Frank'
469 assert_equal 'Hello Frank!', last_response.body
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470 end
471
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472 def test_with_rack_env
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473 get '/', {}, 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => 'Songbird'
474 assert_equal "You're using Songbird!", last_response.body
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475 end
476 end
477
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478 NOTE: The built-in Sinatra::Test module and Sinatra::TestHarness class
479 are deprecated as of the 0.9.2 release.
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480
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481 == Sinatra::Base - Middleware, Libraries, and Modular Apps
482
483 Defining your app at the top-level works well for micro-apps but has
484 considerable drawbacks when building reuseable components such as Rack
485 middleware, Rails metal, simple libraries with a server component, or
486 even Sinatra extensions. The top-level DSL pollutes the Object namespace
487 and assumes a micro-app style configuration (e.g., a single application
488 file, ./public and ./views directories, logging, exception detail page,
489 etc.). That's where Sinatra::Base comes into play:
490
491 require 'sinatra/base'
492
493 class MyApp < Sinatra::Base
494 set :sessions, true
495 set :foo, 'bar'
496
497 get '/' do
498 'Hello world!'
499 end
500 end
501
502 The MyApp class is an independent Rack component that can act as
503 Rack middleware, a Rack application, or Rails metal. You can +use+ or
504 +run+ this class from a rackup +config.ru+ file; or, control a server
505 component shipped as a library:
506
507 MyApp.run! :host => 'localhost', :port => 9090
508
509 The methods available to Sinatra::Base subclasses are exactly as those
510 available via the top-level DSL. Most top-level apps can be converted to
511 Sinatra::Base components with two modifications:
512
513 * Your file should require +sinatra/base+ instead of +sinatra+;
514 otherwise, all of Sinatra's DSL methods are imported into the main
515 namespace.
516 * Put your app's routes, error handlers, filters, and options in a subclass
517 of Sinatra::Base.
518
519 +Sinatra::Base+ is a blank slate. Most options are disabled by default,
520 including the built-in server. See {Options and Configuration}[http://sinatra.github.com/configuration.html]
521 for details on available options and their behavior.
522
523 SIDEBAR: Sinatra's top-level DSL is implemented using a simple delegation
524 system. The +Sinatra::Application+ class -- a special subclass of
525 Sinatra::Base -- receives all :get, :put, :post, :delete, :before,
526 :error, :not_found, :configure, and :set messages sent to the
527 top-level. Have a look at the code for yourself: here's the
528 {Sinatra::Delegator mixin}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/master/lib/sinatra/base.rb#L1064]
529 being {included into the main namespace}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/master/lib/sinatra/main.rb#L25].
530
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531 == Command line
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532
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533 Sinatra applications can be run directly:
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534
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535 ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-e ENVIRONMENT] [-p PORT] [-s HANDLER]
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536
537 Options are:
538
539 -h # help
540 -p # set the port (default is 4567)
541 -e # set the environment (default is development)
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542 -s # specify rack server/handler (default is thin)
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543 -x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)
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544
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545 == The Bleeding Edge
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546
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547 If you would like to use Sinatra's latest bleeding code, create a local
548 clone and run your app with the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory on the
549 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt>:
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550
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551 cd myapp
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552 git clone git://github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git
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553 ruby -Isinatra/lib myapp.rb
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554
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555 Alternatively, you can add the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory to the
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556 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt> in your application:
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557
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558 $LOAD_PATH.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/sinatra/lib'
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559 require 'rubygems'
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560 require 'sinatra'
561
562 get '/about' do
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563 "I'm running version " + Sinatra::VERSION
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564 end
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565
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566 To update the Sinatra sources in the future:
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567
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568 cd myproject/sinatra
569 git pull
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570
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571 == More
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572
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573 * {Project Website}[http://sinatra.github.com/] - Additional documentation,
574 news, and links to other resources.
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575 * {Contributing}[http://sinatra.github.com/contributing.html] - Find a bug? Need
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576 help? Have a patch?
577 * {Lighthouse}[http://sinatra.lighthouseapp.com] - Issue tracking and release
578 planning.
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579 * {Twitter}[http://twitter.com/sinatra]
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580 * {Mailing List}[http://groups.google.com/group/sinatrarb]
581 * {IRC: #sinatra}[irc://chat.freenode.net/#sinatra] on http://freenode.net
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