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df800b5 Docs are started
Blake Mizerany authored
1 = Sinatra
2
4c91e54 @watchdogtimer Web applications should not be hyphenated
watchdogtimer authored
3 Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web applications in Ruby with minimal
17cb177 @cypher README and CHANGES tweaks for 0.9.0 release (#63)
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4 effort:
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5
6 # myapp.rb
7 require 'sinatra'
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8
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9 get '/' do
10 'Hello world!'
11 end
12
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13 Install the gem and run with:
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14
8465d49 @rkh Avoid `require "rubygems"` and `sudo` in README.
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15 gem install sinatra
16 ruby -rubygems myapp.rb
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17
18 View at: http://localhost:4567
19
20 == Routes
21
22 In Sinatra, a route is an HTTP method paired with an URL matching pattern.
23 Each route is associated with a block:
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24
25 get '/' do
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26 .. show something ..
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27 end
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28
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29 post '/' do
30 .. create something ..
31 end
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32
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33 put '/' do
34 .. update something ..
35 end
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36
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37 delete '/' do
38 .. annihilate something ..
39 end
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40
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41 Routes are matched in the order they are defined. The first route that
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42 matches the request is invoked.
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43
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44 Route patterns may include named parameters, accessible via the
45 <tt>params</tt> hash:
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46
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47 get '/hello/:name' do
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48 # matches "GET /hello/foo" and "GET /hello/bar"
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49 # params[:name] is 'foo' or 'bar'
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50 "Hello #{params[:name]}!"
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51 end
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52
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53 You can also access named parameters via block parameters:
54
55 get '/hello/:name' do |n|
56 "Hello #{n}!"
57 end
58
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59 Route patterns may also include splat (or wildcard) parameters, accessible
60 via the <tt>params[:splat]</tt> array.
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61
9c85e99 @vic Specs, documentation and fixes for splat'n routes
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62 get '/say/*/to/*' do
63 # matches /say/hello/to/world
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64 params[:splat] # => ["hello", "world"]
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65 end
66
67 get '/download/*.*' do
68 # matches /download/path/to/file.xml
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69 params[:splat] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"]
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70 end
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71
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72 Route matching with Regular Expressions:
73
74 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do
75 "Hello, #{params[:captures].first}!"
76 end
77
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78 Or with a block parameter:
79
80 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do |c|
81 "Hello, #{c}!"
82 end
83
726feeb @rkh Documentation for condition. Fixes GH #15.
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84 === Conditions
85
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86 Routes may include a variety of matching conditions, such as the user agent:
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87
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88 get '/foo', :agent => /Songbird (\d\.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do
89 "You're using Songbird version #{params[:agent][0]}"
90 end
91
92 get '/foo' do
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93 # Matches non-songbird browsers
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94 end
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95
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96 Other available conditions are +host_name+ and +provides+:
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97
98 get '/', :host_name => /^admin\./ do
99 "Admin Area, Access denied!"
100 end
101
102 get '/', :provides => 'html' do
103 haml :index
104 end
105
106 get '/', :provides => ['rss', 'atom', 'xml'] do
107 builder :feed
108 end
109
110 You can easily define your own conditions:
111
112 set(:probability) { |value| condition { rand <= value } }
113
114 get '/win_a_car', :probability => 0.1 do
115 "You won!"
116 end
117
118 get '/win_a_car' do
119 "Sorry, you lost."
120 end
121
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122 === Return values
123
124 The return value of a route block determines at least the response body passed
125 on to the HTTP client, or at least the next middleware in the Rack stack.
126 Most commonly this is a string, as in the above examples. But other values are
127 also accepted.
128
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129 You can return any object that would either be a valid Rack response, Rack
130 body object or HTTP status code:
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131
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132 * An Array with three elements: <tt>[status (Fixnum), headers (Hash), response body (responds to #each)]</tt>
133 * An Array with two elements: <tt>[status (Fixnum), response body (responds to #each)]</tt>
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134 * An object that responds to <tt>#each</tt> and passes nothing but strings to the given block
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135 * A Fixnum representing the status code
136
137 That way we can for instance easily implement a streaming example:
138
139 class Stream
140 def each
141 100.times { |i| yield "#{i}\n" }
142 end
143 end
144
8fbd9c2 @rkh Simplify streaming example.
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145 get('/') { Stream.new }
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146
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147 == Static Files
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148
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149 Static files are served from the <tt>./public</tt> directory. You can specify
150 a different location by setting the <tt>:public</tt> option:
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151
152 set :public, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/static'
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153
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154 Note that the public directory name is not included in the URL. A file
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155 <tt>./public/css/style.css</tt> is made available as
156 <tt>http://example.com/css/style.css</tt>.
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157
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158 == Views / Templates
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159
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160 Templates are assumed to be located directly under the <tt>./views</tt>
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161 directory. To use a different views directory:
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162
163 set :views, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/templates'
164
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165 One important thing to remember is that you always have to reference
166 templates with symbols, even if they're in a subdirectory (in this
167 case use <tt>:'subdir/template'</tt>). Rendering methods will render
168 any strings passed to them directly.
169
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170 === Haml Templates
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171
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172 The haml gem/library is required to render HAML templates:
173
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174 ## You'll need to require haml in your app
175 require 'haml'
176
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177 get '/' do
178 haml :index
179 end
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180
181 Renders <tt>./views/index.haml</tt>.
182
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183 {Haml's options}[http://haml-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.HAML_REFERENCE.html#options]
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184 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
185 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
186 and overridden on an individual basis.
187
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188 set :haml, :format => :html5 # default Haml format is :xhtml
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189
190 get '/' do
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191 haml :index, :format => :html4 # overridden
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192 end
193
194
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195 === Erb Templates
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196
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197 ## You'll need to require erb in your app
198 require 'erb'
199
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200 get '/' do
201 erb :index
202 end
203
204 Renders <tt>./views/index.erb</tt>
205
7c5d693 @sr Doc for erubis
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206 === Erubis
207
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208 The erubis gem/library is required to render erubis templates:
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209
210 ## You'll need to require erubis in your app
211 require 'erubis'
212
213 get '/' do
214 erubis :index
215 end
216
217 Renders <tt>./views/index.erubis</tt>
218
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219 === Builder Templates
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220
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221 The builder gem/library is required to render builder templates:
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222
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223 ## You'll need to require builder in your app
224 require 'builder'
225
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226 get '/' do
227 content_type 'application/xml', :charset => 'utf-8'
228 builder :index
229 end
230
231 Renders <tt>./views/index.builder</tt>.
232
233 === Sass Templates
234
235 The sass gem/library is required to render Sass templates:
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236
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237 ## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
238 require 'sass'
239
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240 get '/stylesheet.css' do
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241 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
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242 sass :stylesheet
243 end
244
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245 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.sass</tt>.
246
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247 {Sass' options}[http://sass-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.SASS_REFERENCE.html#options]
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248 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
249 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
250 and overridden on an individual basis.
251
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252 set :sass, :style => :compact # default Sass style is :nested
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253
254 get '/stylesheet.css' do
255 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
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256 sass :stylesheet, :style => :expanded # overridden
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257 end
258
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259 === Scss Templates
260
261 The sass gem/library is required to render Scss templates:
262
263 ## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
264 require 'sass'
265
266 get '/stylesheet.css' do
267 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
268 scss :stylesheet
269 end
270
271 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.scss</tt>.
272
273 {Scss' options}[http://sass-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.SASS_REFERENCE.html#options]
274 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
275 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
276 and overridden on an individual basis.
277
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278 set :scss, :style => :compact # default Scss style is :nested
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279
280 get '/stylesheet.css' do
281 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
282 scss :stylesheet, :style => :expanded # overridden
283 end
284
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285 === Less Templates
286
287 The less gem/library is required to render Less templates:
288
289 ## You'll need to require less in your app
290 require 'less'
291
292 get '/stylesheet.css' do
293 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
294 less :stylesheet
295 end
296
297 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.less</tt>.
298
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299 === Liquid Templates
300
301 The liquid gem/library is required to render Liquid templates:
302
303 ## You'll need to require liquid in your app
304 require 'liquid'
305
306 get '/' do
307 liquid :index
308 end
309
310 Renders <tt>./views/index.liquid</tt>.
311
312 Since you cannot call Ruby methods (except for +yield+) from a Liquid
313 template, you almost always want to pass locals to it:
314
315 liquid :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }
316
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317 === Markdown Templates
318
319 The rdiscount gem/library is required to render Markdown templates:
320
321 ## You'll need to require rdiscount in your app
322 require "rdiscount"
323
324 get '/' do
325 markdown :index
326 end
327
328 Renders <tt>./views/index.markdown</tt> (+md+ and +mkd+ are also valid file
329 extensions).
330
331 It is not possible to call methods from markdown, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:
332
333 erb :overview, :locals => { :text => markdown(:introduction) }
334
335 Note that you may also call the markdown method from within other templates:
336
337 %h1 Hello From Haml!
338 %p= markdown(:greetings)
339
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340 === Textile Templates
341
342 The RedCloth gem/library is required to render Textile templates:
343
344 ## You'll need to require rdiscount in your app
345 require "redcloth"
346
347 get '/' do
348 textile :index
349 end
350
351 Renders <tt>./views/index.textile</tt>.
352
353 It is not possible to call methods from textile, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:
354
355 erb :overview, :locals => { :text => textile(:introduction) }
356
357 Note that you may also call the textile method from within other templates:
358
359 %h1 Hello From Haml!
360 %p= textile(:greetings)
361
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362 === Inline Templates
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363
364 get '/' do
365 haml '%div.title Hello World'
366 end
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367
368 Renders the inlined template string.
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369
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370 === Accessing Variables in Templates
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371
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372 Templates are evaluated within the same context as route handlers. Instance
373 variables set in route handlers are direcly accessible by templates:
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374
375 get '/:id' do
376 @foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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377 haml '%h1= @foo.name'
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378 end
379
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380 Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:
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381
382 get '/:id' do
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383 foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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384 haml '%h1= foo.name', :locals => { :foo => foo }
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385 end
386
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387 This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within
388 other templates.
389
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390 === Inline Templates
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391
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392 Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:
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393
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394 require 'sinatra'
395
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396 get '/' do
397 haml :index
398 end
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399
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400 __END__
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401
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402 @@ layout
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403 %html
404 = yield
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405
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406 @@ index
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407 %div.title Hello world!!!!!
408
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409 NOTE: Inline templates defined in the source file that requires sinatra
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410 are automatically loaded. Call +enable :inline_templates+ explicitly if you
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411 have inline templates in other source files.
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412
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413 === Named Templates
414
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415 Templates may also be defined using the top-level <tt>template</tt> method:
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416
417 template :layout do
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418 "%html\n =yield\n"
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419 end
420
421 template :index do
422 '%div.title Hello World!'
423 end
424
425 get '/' do
426 haml :index
427 end
428
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429 If a template named "layout" exists, it will be used each time a template
430 is rendered. You can disable layouts by passing <tt>:layout => false</tt>.
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431
432 get '/' do
433 haml :index, :layout => !request.xhr?
434 end
435
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436 == Helpers
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437
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438 Use the top-level <tt>helpers</tt> method to define helper methods for use in
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439 route handlers and templates:
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440
441 helpers do
442 def bar(name)
443 "#{name}bar"
444 end
445 end
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446
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447 get '/:name' do
448 bar(params[:name])
449 end
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450
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451 == Filters
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452
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453 Before filters are evaluated before each request within the same context as
454 the routes will be and can modify the request and response. Instance variables
455 set in filters are accessible by routes and templates:
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456
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457 before do
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458 @note = 'Hi!'
459 request.path_info = '/foo/bar/baz'
460 end
461
462 get '/foo/*' do
463 @note #=> 'Hi!'
464 params[:splat] #=> 'bar/baz'
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465 end
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466
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467 After filter are evaluated after each request within the same context and can
468 also modify the request and response. Instance variables set in before filters
469 and routes are accessible by after filters:
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470
471 after do
472 puts response.status
473 end
474
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475 Filters optionally taking a pattern, causing them to be evaluated only if the
476 request path matches that pattern:
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477
478 before '/protected/*' do
479 authenticate!
480 end
481
482 after '/create/:slug' do |slug|
483 session[:last_slug] = slug
484 end
485
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486 == Halting
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487
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488 To immediately stop a request within a filter or route use:
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489
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490 halt
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491
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492 You can also specify the status when halting:
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493
494 halt 410
495
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496 Or the body:
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497
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498 halt 'this will be the body'
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499
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500 Or both:
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501
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502 halt 401, 'go away!'
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503
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504 With headers:
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505
506 halt 402, {'Content-Type' => 'text/plain'}, 'revenge'
507
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508 == Passing
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509
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510 A route can punt processing to the next matching route using <tt>pass</tt>:
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511
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512 get '/guess/:who' do
513 pass unless params[:who] == 'Frank'
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514 'You got me!'
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515 end
516
517 get '/guess/*' do
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518 'You missed!'
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519 end
520
521 The route block is immediately exited and control continues with the next
522 matching route. If no matching route is found, a 404 is returned.
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523
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524 == Configuration
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525
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526 Run once, at startup, in any environment:
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527
528 configure do
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529 ...
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530 end
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531
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532 Run only when the environment (RACK_ENV environment variable) is set to
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533 <tt>:production</tt>:
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534
535 configure :production do
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536 ...
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537 end
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538
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539 Run when the environment is set to either <tt>:production</tt> or
540 <tt>:test</tt>:
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541
542 configure :production, :test do
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543 ...
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544 end
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545
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546 == Error handling
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547
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548 Error handlers run within the same context as routes and before filters, which
c6d0614 @rkh Minor README improvements.
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549 means you get all the goodies it has to offer, like <tt>haml</tt>,
550 <tt>erb</tt>, <tt>halt</tt>, etc.
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551
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552 === Not Found
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553
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554 When a <tt>Sinatra::NotFound</tt> exception is raised, or the response's status
555 code is 404, the <tt>not_found</tt> handler is invoked:
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556
557 not_found do
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558 'This is nowhere to be found.'
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559 end
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560
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561 === Error
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562
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563 The +error+ handler is invoked any time an exception is raised from a route
63fd773 @sr Small doc fix re. after filter
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564 block or a filter. The exception object can be obtained from the
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565 <tt>sinatra.error</tt> Rack variable:
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566
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567 error do
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568 'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + env['sinatra.error'].name
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569 end
570
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571 Custom errors:
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572
573 error MyCustomError do
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574 'So what happened was...' + request.env['sinatra.error'].message
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575 end
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576
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577 Then, if this happens:
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578
579 get '/' do
580 raise MyCustomError, 'something bad'
581 end
582
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583 You get this:
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584
585 So what happened was... something bad
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586
59e797e @sr Doc for error(500) { }
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587 Alternatively, you can install error handler for a status code:
588
589 error 403 do
590 'Access forbidden'
591 end
592
593 get '/secret' do
594 403
595 end
596
597 Or a range:
598
599 error 400..510 do
600 'Boom'
601 end
602
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603 Sinatra installs special <tt>not_found</tt> and <tt>error</tt> handlers when
604 running under the development environment.
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605
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606 == Mime types
607
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608 When using <tt>send_file</tt> or static files you may have mime types Sinatra
6d8b333 @sr Update README re. mime_type
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609 doesn't understand. Use +mime_type+ to register them by file extension:
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610
6d8b333 @sr Update README re. mime_type
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611 mime_type :foo, 'text/foo'
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612
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613 You can also use it with the +content_type+ helper:
614
615 content_type :foo
616
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617 == Rack Middleware
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618
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619 Sinatra rides on Rack[http://rack.rubyforge.org/], a minimal standard
620 interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack's most interesting capabilities
621 for application developers is support for "middleware" -- components that sit
622 between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the
623 HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.
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624
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625 Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level
626 +use+ method:
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627
628 require 'sinatra'
629 require 'my_custom_middleware'
630
631 use Rack::Lint
632 use MyCustomMiddleware
633
634 get '/hello' do
635 'Hello World'
636 end
637
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638 The semantics of +use+ are identical to those defined for the
639 Rack::Builder[http://rack.rubyforge.org/doc/classes/Rack/Builder.html] DSL
640 (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the +use+ method
641 accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:
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642
643 use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
644 username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
645 end
646
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647 Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging,
648 debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses
649 many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you
650 typically don't have to +use+ them explicitly.
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651
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652 == Testing
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653
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654 Sinatra tests can be written using any Rack-based testing library
655 or framework. {Rack::Test}[http://gitrdoc.com/brynary/rack-test] is
656 recommended:
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657
7cfe04a @jcrosby Fix for test/unit and test/spec docs
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658 require 'my_sinatra_app'
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659 require 'rack/test'
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660
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661 class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
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662 include Rack::Test::Methods
663
664 def app
665 Sinatra::Application
666 end
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667
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668 def test_my_default
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669 get '/'
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670 assert_equal 'Hello World!', last_response.body
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671 end
10c90d5 @sr document testing with rspec
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672
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673 def test_with_params
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674 get '/meet', :name => 'Frank'
675 assert_equal 'Hello Frank!', last_response.body
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676 end
677
2f377e2 @rtomayko Trim down Testing section in the README; link to doc site instead
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678 def test_with_rack_env
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679 get '/', {}, 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => 'Songbird'
680 assert_equal "You're using Songbird!", last_response.body
1fb5b99 @dylanegan Bacon support
dylanegan authored
681 end
682 end
683
c831278 @rtomayko Recommend Rack::Test in README / note Sinatra::Test deprecation
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684 NOTE: The built-in Sinatra::Test module and Sinatra::TestHarness class
685 are deprecated as of the 0.9.2 release.
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686
5360333 @sr Add a note about Sinatra::Base to the README
sr authored
687 == Sinatra::Base - Middleware, Libraries, and Modular Apps
688
689 Defining your app at the top-level works well for micro-apps but has
690 considerable drawbacks when building reuseable components such as Rack
691 middleware, Rails metal, simple libraries with a server component, or
692 even Sinatra extensions. The top-level DSL pollutes the Object namespace
693 and assumes a micro-app style configuration (e.g., a single application
694 file, ./public and ./views directories, logging, exception detail page,
695 etc.). That's where Sinatra::Base comes into play:
696
697 require 'sinatra/base'
698
699 class MyApp < Sinatra::Base
700 set :sessions, true
701 set :foo, 'bar'
702
703 get '/' do
704 'Hello world!'
705 end
706 end
707
708 The MyApp class is an independent Rack component that can act as
709 Rack middleware, a Rack application, or Rails metal. You can +use+ or
710 +run+ this class from a rackup +config.ru+ file; or, control a server
711 component shipped as a library:
712
713 MyApp.run! :host => 'localhost', :port => 9090
714
715 The methods available to Sinatra::Base subclasses are exactly as those
716 available via the top-level DSL. Most top-level apps can be converted to
717 Sinatra::Base components with two modifications:
718
719 * Your file should require +sinatra/base+ instead of +sinatra+;
720 otherwise, all of Sinatra's DSL methods are imported into the main
721 namespace.
722 * Put your app's routes, error handlers, filters, and options in a subclass
723 of Sinatra::Base.
724
725 +Sinatra::Base+ is a blank slate. Most options are disabled by default,
726 including the built-in server. See {Options and Configuration}[http://sinatra.github.com/configuration.html]
727 for details on available options and their behavior.
728
729 SIDEBAR: Sinatra's top-level DSL is implemented using a simple delegation
730 system. The +Sinatra::Application+ class -- a special subclass of
731 Sinatra::Base -- receives all :get, :put, :post, :delete, :before,
732 :error, :not_found, :configure, and :set messages sent to the
733 top-level. Have a look at the code for yourself: here's the
035fe47 @sr fix Delegator links in README
sr authored
734 {Sinatra::Delegator mixin}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/ceac46f0bc129a6e994a06100aa854f606fe5992/lib/sinatra/base.rb#L1128]
735 being {included into the main namespace}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/ceac46f0bc129a6e994a06100aa854f606fe5992/lib/sinatra/main.rb#L28]
5360333 @sr Add a note about Sinatra::Base to the README
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736
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737 == Command line
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738
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739 Sinatra applications can be run directly:
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740
4d61607 @sr update README/CHANGES re. -o
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741 ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-e ENVIRONMENT] [-p PORT] [-o HOST] [-s HANDLER]
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742
743 Options are:
744
745 -h # help
746 -p # set the port (default is 4567)
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747 -o # set the host (default is 0.0.0.0)
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748 -e # set the environment (default is development)
f29486b @karmi Note "-s" (server) command line option in README
karmi authored
749 -s # specify rack server/handler (default is thin)
e7e0e55 @rtomayko Minor docfixes in README.rdoc
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750 -x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)
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751
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752 == The Bleeding Edge
6326809 @cypher Add a subsection about tools needed for Sinatra to the Contributing s…
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753
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754 If you would like to use Sinatra's latest bleeding code, create a local
755 clone and run your app with the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory on the
756 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt>:
6326809 @cypher Add a subsection about tools needed for Sinatra to the Contributing s…
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757
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758 cd myapp
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bmizerany authored
759 git clone git://github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git
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760 ruby -Isinatra/lib myapp.rb
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rtomayko authored
761
4f30c1c fix unclosed <tt> in README
Mathew Cucuzella authored
762 Alternatively, you can add the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory to the
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763 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt> in your application:
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764
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765 $LOAD_PATH.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/sinatra/lib'
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766 require 'rubygems'
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767 require 'sinatra'
768
769 get '/about' do
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770 "I'm running version " + Sinatra::VERSION
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771 end
e6c5471 @cypher Add a community section with info about the mailing list and irc channel
cypher authored
772
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773 To update the Sinatra sources in the future:
d8fec16 @cypher Add subsection about contributing a patch as well as a link to the is…
cypher authored
774
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
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775 cd myproject/sinatra
776 git pull
e6c5471 @cypher Add a community section with info about the mailing list and irc channel
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777
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
rtomayko authored
778 == More
e6c5471 @cypher Add a community section with info about the mailing list and irc channel
cypher authored
779
754f116 @rtomayko README: better links to project website and mailing list
rtomayko authored
780 * {Project Website}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/] - Additional documentation,
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
rtomayko authored
781 news, and links to other resources.
754f116 @rtomayko README: better links to project website and mailing list
rtomayko authored
782 * {Contributing}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/contributing] - Find a bug? Need
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
rtomayko authored
783 help? Have a patch?
60ac449 @sr lighthouse => github issue
sr authored
784 * {Issue tracker}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/issues]
5018264 @rtomayko Tidy up README a bit; link to @sinatra on Twitter
rtomayko authored
785 * {Twitter}[http://twitter.com/sinatra]
754f116 @rtomayko README: better links to project website and mailing list
rtomayko authored
786 * {Mailing List}[http://groups.google.com/group/sinatrarb/topics]
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
rtomayko authored
787 * {IRC: #sinatra}[irc://chat.freenode.net/#sinatra] on http://freenode.net
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