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Blake Mizerany authored
1 = Sinatra
2
4c91e54 @watchdogtimer Web applications should not be hyphenated
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3 Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web applications in Ruby with minimal
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4 effort:
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5
6 # myapp.rb
7 require 'sinatra'
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8
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9 get '/' do
10 'Hello world!'
11 end
12
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13 Install the gem and run with:
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14
8465d49 @rkh Avoid `require "rubygems"` and `sudo` in README.
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15 gem install sinatra
16 ruby -rubygems myapp.rb
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17
18 View at: http://localhost:4567
19
20 == Routes
21
22 In Sinatra, a route is an HTTP method paired with an URL matching pattern.
23 Each route is associated with a block:
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24
25 get '/' do
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26 .. show something ..
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27 end
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28
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29 post '/' do
30 .. create something ..
31 end
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32
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33 put '/' do
34 .. update something ..
35 end
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36
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37 delete '/' do
38 .. annihilate something ..
39 end
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40
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41 Routes are matched in the order they are defined. The first route that
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42 matches the request is invoked.
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43
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44 Route patterns may include named parameters, accessible via the
45 <tt>params</tt> hash:
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46
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47 get '/hello/:name' do
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48 # matches "GET /hello/foo" and "GET /hello/bar"
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49 # params[:name] is 'foo' or 'bar'
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50 "Hello #{params[:name]}!"
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51 end
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52
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53 You can also access named parameters via block parameters:
54
55 get '/hello/:name' do |n|
56 "Hello #{n}!"
57 end
58
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59 Route patterns may also include splat (or wildcard) parameters, accessible
60 via the <tt>params[:splat]</tt> array.
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61
9c85e99 @vic Specs, documentation and fixes for splat'n routes
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62 get '/say/*/to/*' do
63 # matches /say/hello/to/world
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64 params[:splat] # => ["hello", "world"]
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65 end
66
67 get '/download/*.*' do
68 # matches /download/path/to/file.xml
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69 params[:splat] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"]
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70 end
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71
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72 Route matching with Regular Expressions:
73
74 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do
75 "Hello, #{params[:captures].first}!"
76 end
77
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78 Or with a block parameter:
79
80 get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do |c|
81 "Hello, #{c}!"
82 end
83
726feeb @rkh Documentation for condition. Fixes GH #15.
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84 === Conditions
85
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86 Routes may include a variety of matching conditions, such as the user agent:
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87
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88 get '/foo', :agent => /Songbird (\d\.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do
89 "You're using Songbird version #{params[:agent][0]}"
90 end
91
92 get '/foo' do
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93 # Matches non-songbird browsers
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94 end
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95
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96 Other available conditions are +host_name+ and +provides+:
726feeb @rkh Documentation for condition. Fixes GH #15.
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97
98 get '/', :host_name => /^admin\./ do
99 "Admin Area, Access denied!"
100 end
101
102 get '/', :provides => 'html' do
103 haml :index
104 end
105
106 get '/', :provides => ['rss', 'atom', 'xml'] do
107 builder :feed
108 end
109
110 You can easily define your own conditions:
111
112 set(:probability) { |value| condition { rand <= value } }
113
114 get '/win_a_car', :probability => 0.1 do
115 "You won!"
116 end
117
118 get '/win_a_car' do
119 "Sorry, you lost."
120 end
121
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122 === Return values
123
124 The return value of a route block determines at least the response body passed
125 on to the HTTP client, or at least the next middleware in the Rack stack.
126 Most commonly this is a string, as in the above examples. But other values are
127 also accepted.
128
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129 You can return any object that would either be a valid Rack response, Rack
130 body object or HTTP status code:
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131
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132 * An Array with three elements: <tt>[status (Fixnum), headers (Hash), response body (responds to #each)]</tt>
133 * An Array with two elements: <tt>[status (Fixnum), response body (responds to #each)]</tt>
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134 * An object that responds to <tt>#each</tt> and passes nothing but strings to the given block
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135 * A Fixnum representing the status code
136
137 That way we can for instance easily implement a streaming example:
138
139 class Stream
140 def each
141 100.times { |i| yield "#{i}\n" }
142 end
143 end
144
8fbd9c2 @rkh Simplify streaming example.
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145 get('/') { Stream.new }
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146
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147 == Static Files
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148
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149 Static files are served from the <tt>./public</tt> directory. You can specify
150 a different location by setting the <tt>:public</tt> option:
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151
152 set :public, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/static'
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153
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154 Note that the public directory name is not included in the URL. A file
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155 <tt>./public/css/style.css</tt> is made available as
156 <tt>http://example.com/css/style.css</tt>.
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157
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158 == Views / Templates
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159
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160 Templates are assumed to be located directly under the <tt>./views</tt>
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161 directory. To use a different views directory:
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162
163 set :views, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/templates'
164
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165 One important thing to remember is that you always have to reference
166 templates with symbols, even if they're in a subdirectory (in this
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167 case use <tt>:'subdir/template'</tt>). You must use a symbol because
168 otherwise rendering methods will render any strings passed to them
169 directly.
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170
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171 === Haml Templates
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172
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173 The haml gem/library is required to render HAML templates:
174
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175 ## You'll need to require haml in your app
176 require 'haml'
177
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178 get '/' do
179 haml :index
180 end
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181
182 Renders <tt>./views/index.haml</tt>.
183
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184 {Haml's options}[http://haml-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.HAML_REFERENCE.html#options]
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185 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
186 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
187 and overridden on an individual basis.
188
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189 set :haml, :format => :html5 # default Haml format is :xhtml
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190
191 get '/' do
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192 haml :index, :format => :html4 # overridden
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193 end
194
195
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196 === Erb Templates
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197
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198 ## You'll need to require erb in your app
199 require 'erb'
200
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201 get '/' do
202 erb :index
203 end
204
205 Renders <tt>./views/index.erb</tt>
206
7c5d693 @sr Doc for erubis
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207 === Erubis
208
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209 The erubis gem/library is required to render erubis templates:
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210
211 ## You'll need to require erubis in your app
212 require 'erubis'
213
214 get '/' do
215 erubis :index
216 end
217
218 Renders <tt>./views/index.erubis</tt>
219
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220 === Builder Templates
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221
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222 The builder gem/library is required to render builder templates:
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223
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224 ## You'll need to require builder in your app
225 require 'builder'
226
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227 get '/' do
228 builder :index
229 end
230
231 Renders <tt>./views/index.builder</tt>.
232
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233 === Nokogiri Templates
234
235 The nokogiri gem/library is required to render nokogiri templates:
236
237 ## You'll need to require nokogiri in your app
238 require 'nokogiri'
239
240 get '/' do
241 nokogiri :index
242 end
243
244 Renders <tt>./views/index.nokogiri</tt>.
245
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246 === Sass Templates
247
248 The sass gem/library is required to render Sass templates:
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249
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250 ## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
251 require 'sass'
252
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253 get '/stylesheet.css' do
254 sass :stylesheet
255 end
256
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257 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.sass</tt>.
258
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259 {Sass' options}[http://sass-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.SASS_REFERENCE.html#options]
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260 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
261 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
262 and overridden on an individual basis.
263
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264 set :sass, :style => :compact # default Sass style is :nested
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265
266 get '/stylesheet.css' do
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267 sass :stylesheet, :style => :expanded # overridden
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268 end
269
cf3c218 @pedromenezes Adding scss support through specific command
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270 === Scss Templates
271
272 The sass gem/library is required to render Scss templates:
273
274 ## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
275 require 'sass'
276
277 get '/stylesheet.css' do
278 scss :stylesheet
279 end
280
281 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.scss</tt>.
282
283 {Scss' options}[http://sass-lang.com/docs/yardoc/file.SASS_REFERENCE.html#options]
284 can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations,
285 see {Options and Configurations}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/configuration.html],
286 and overridden on an individual basis.
287
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288 set :scss, :style => :compact # default Scss style is :nested
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289
290 get '/stylesheet.css' do
291 scss :stylesheet, :style => :expanded # overridden
292 end
293
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294 === Less Templates
295
296 The less gem/library is required to render Less templates:
297
298 ## You'll need to require less in your app
299 require 'less'
300
301 get '/stylesheet.css' do
302 less :stylesheet
303 end
304
305 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.less</tt>.
306
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307 === Liquid Templates
308
309 The liquid gem/library is required to render Liquid templates:
310
311 ## You'll need to require liquid in your app
312 require 'liquid'
313
314 get '/' do
315 liquid :index
316 end
317
318 Renders <tt>./views/index.liquid</tt>.
319
320 Since you cannot call Ruby methods (except for +yield+) from a Liquid
321 template, you almost always want to pass locals to it:
322
323 liquid :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }
324
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325 === Markdown Templates
326
327 The rdiscount gem/library is required to render Markdown templates:
328
329 ## You'll need to require rdiscount in your app
330 require "rdiscount"
331
332 get '/' do
333 markdown :index
334 end
335
336 Renders <tt>./views/index.markdown</tt> (+md+ and +mkd+ are also valid file
337 extensions).
338
339 It is not possible to call methods from markdown, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:
340
341 erb :overview, :locals => { :text => markdown(:introduction) }
342
343 Note that you may also call the markdown method from within other templates:
344
345 %h1 Hello From Haml!
346 %p= markdown(:greetings)
347
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348 === Textile Templates
349
350 The RedCloth gem/library is required to render Textile templates:
351
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352 ## You'll need to require redcloth in your app
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353 require "redcloth"
354
355 get '/' do
356 textile :index
357 end
358
359 Renders <tt>./views/index.textile</tt>.
360
361 It is not possible to call methods from textile, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:
362
363 erb :overview, :locals => { :text => textile(:introduction) }
364
365 Note that you may also call the textile method from within other templates:
366
367 %h1 Hello From Haml!
368 %p= textile(:greetings)
369
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370 === RDoc Templates
371
372 The RDoc gem/library is required to render RDoc templates:
373
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374 ## You'll need to require rdoc in your app
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375 require "rdoc"
376
377 get '/' do
378 rdoc :index
379 end
380
381 Renders <tt>./views/index.rdoc</tt>.
382
383 It is not possible to call methods from rdoc, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:
384
385 erb :overview, :locals => { :text => rdoc(:introduction) }
386
387 Note that you may also call the rdoc method from within other templates:
388
389 %h1 Hello From Haml!
390 %p= rdoc(:greetings)
391
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392 === Radius Templates
393
394 The radius gem/library is required to render Radius templates:
395
396 ## You'll need to require radius in your app
397 require 'radius'
398
399 get '/' do
400 radius :index
401 end
402
403 Renders <tt>./views/index.radius</tt>.
404
405 Since you cannot call Ruby methods (except for +yield+) from a Radius
406 template, you almost always want to pass locals to it:
407
408 radius :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }
409
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410 === Markaby Templates
411
412 The markaby gem/library is required to render Markaby templates:
413
414 ## You'll need to require markaby in your app
415 require 'markaby'
416
417 get '/' do
418 markaby :index
419 end
420
421 Renders <tt>./views/index.mab</tt>.
422
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423 === CoffeeScript Templates
424
425 The coffee-script gem/library and the `coffee` binary are required to render
426 CoffeeScript templates:
427
428 ## You'll need to require coffee-script in your app
429 require 'coffee-script'
430
431 get '/application.js' do
432 coffee :application
433 end
434
435 Renders <tt>./views/application.coffee</tt>.
436
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437 === Inline Templates
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438
439 get '/' do
440 haml '%div.title Hello World'
441 end
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442
443 Renders the inlined template string.
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444
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445 === Accessing Variables in Templates
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446
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447 Templates are evaluated within the same context as route handlers. Instance
448 variables set in route handlers are direcly accessible by templates:
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449
450 get '/:id' do
451 @foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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452 haml '%h1= @foo.name'
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453 end
454
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455 Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:
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456
457 get '/:id' do
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458 foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
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459 haml '%h1= foo.name', :locals => { :foo => foo }
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460 end
461
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462 This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within
463 other templates.
464
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465 === Inline Templates
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466
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467 Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:
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468
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469 require 'sinatra'
470
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471 get '/' do
472 haml :index
473 end
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474
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475 __END__
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476
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477 @@ layout
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478 %html
479 = yield
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480
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481 @@ index
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482 %div.title Hello world!!!!!
483
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sr authored
484 NOTE: Inline templates defined in the source file that requires sinatra
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485 are automatically loaded. Call +enable :inline_templates+ explicitly if you
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486 have inline templates in other source files.
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487
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488 === Named Templates
489
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490 Templates may also be defined using the top-level <tt>template</tt> method:
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491
492 template :layout do
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493 "%html\n =yield\n"
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494 end
495
496 template :index do
497 '%div.title Hello World!'
498 end
499
500 get '/' do
501 haml :index
502 end
503
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504 If a template named "layout" exists, it will be used each time a template
505 is rendered. You can disable layouts by passing <tt>:layout => false</tt>.
578bbab @djanowski Updating README for :layout => true.
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506
507 get '/' do
508 haml :index, :layout => !request.xhr?
509 end
510
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511 == Helpers
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512
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513 Use the top-level <tt>helpers</tt> method to define helper methods for use in
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514 route handlers and templates:
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515
516 helpers do
517 def bar(name)
518 "#{name}bar"
519 end
520 end
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521
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522 get '/:name' do
523 bar(params[:name])
524 end
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525
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526 == Filters
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527
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528 Before filters are evaluated before each request within the same context as
529 the routes will be and can modify the request and response. Instance variables
530 set in filters are accessible by routes and templates:
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531
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532 before do
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533 @note = 'Hi!'
534 request.path_info = '/foo/bar/baz'
535 end
536
537 get '/foo/*' do
538 @note #=> 'Hi!'
539 params[:splat] #=> 'bar/baz'
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540 end
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541
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542 After filter are evaluated after each request within the same context and can
543 also modify the request and response. Instance variables set in before filters
544 and routes are accessible by after filters:
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545
546 after do
547 puts response.status
548 end
549
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550 Filters optionally taking a pattern, causing them to be evaluated only if the
551 request path matches that pattern:
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552
553 before '/protected/*' do
554 authenticate!
555 end
556
557 after '/create/:slug' do |slug|
558 session[:last_slug] = slug
559 end
560
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561 == Halting
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562
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563 To immediately stop a request within a filter or route use:
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564
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565 halt
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566
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567 You can also specify the status when halting:
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568
569 halt 410
570
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571 Or the body:
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572
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573 halt 'this will be the body'
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574
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575 Or both:
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576
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577 halt 401, 'go away!'
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578
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579 With headers:
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580
581 halt 402, {'Content-Type' => 'text/plain'}, 'revenge'
582
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583 == Passing
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584
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585 A route can punt processing to the next matching route using <tt>pass</tt>:
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586
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587 get '/guess/:who' do
588 pass unless params[:who] == 'Frank'
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589 'You got me!'
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590 end
591
592 get '/guess/*' do
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593 'You missed!'
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594 end
595
596 The route block is immediately exited and control continues with the next
597 matching route. If no matching route is found, a 404 is returned.
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598
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599 == Accessing the Request Object
600
601 The incoming request object can be accessed form request level (filter, routes, error handlers) through the `request` method:
602
603 # app running on http://example.com/example
604 get '/foo' do
605 request.body # request body sent by the client (see below)
606 request.scheme # "http"
607 request.script_name # "/example"
608 request.path_info # "/foo"
609 request.port # 80
610 request.request_method # "GET"
611 request.query_string # ""
612 request.content_length # length of request.body
613 request.media_type # media type of request.body
614 request.host # "example.com"
615 request.get? # true (similar methods for other verbs)
616 request.form_data? # false
617 request["SOME_HEADER"] # value of SOME_HEADER header
618 request.referer # the referer of the client or '/'
619 request.user_agent # user agent (used by :agent condition)
620 request.cookies # hash of browser cookies
621 request.xhr? # is this an ajax request?
622 request.url # "http://example.com/example/foo"
623 request.path # "/example/foo"
624 request.ip # client IP address
625 request.secure? # false
626 requuest.env # raw env hash handed in by Rack
627 end
628
629 Some options, like `script_name` or `path_info` can also be written:
630
631 before { request.path_info = "/" }
632
633 get "/" do
634 "all requests end up here"
635 end
636
637 The <tt>request.body</tt> is an IO or StringIO object:
638
639 post "/api" do
640 request.body.rewind # in case someone already read it
641 data = JSON.parse request.body.read
642 "Hello #{data['name']}!"
643 end
644
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645 == Configuration
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646
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647 Run once, at startup, in any environment:
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648
649 configure do
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650 ...
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651 end
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652
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653 Run only when the environment (RACK_ENV environment variable) is set to
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654 <tt>:production</tt>:
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655
656 configure :production do
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657 ...
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658 end
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659
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660 Run when the environment is set to either <tt>:production</tt> or
661 <tt>:test</tt>:
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662
663 configure :production, :test do
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664 ...
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665 end
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666
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667 == Error handling
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668
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669 Error handlers run within the same context as routes and before filters, which
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670 means you get all the goodies it has to offer, like <tt>haml</tt>,
671 <tt>erb</tt>, <tt>halt</tt>, etc.
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672
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673 === Not Found
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674
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675 When a <tt>Sinatra::NotFound</tt> exception is raised, or the response's status
676 code is 404, the <tt>not_found</tt> handler is invoked:
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677
678 not_found do
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679 'This is nowhere to be found.'
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680 end
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681
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682 === Error
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683
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684 The +error+ handler is invoked any time an exception is raised from a route
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685 block or a filter. The exception object can be obtained from the
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686 <tt>sinatra.error</tt> Rack variable:
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687
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688 error do
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689 'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + env['sinatra.error'].name
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690 end
691
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692 Custom errors:
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693
694 error MyCustomError do
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695 'So what happened was...' + request.env['sinatra.error'].message
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696 end
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697
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698 Then, if this happens:
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699
700 get '/' do
701 raise MyCustomError, 'something bad'
702 end
703
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704 You get this:
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705
706 So what happened was... something bad
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707
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708 Alternatively, you can install error handler for a status code:
709
710 error 403 do
711 'Access forbidden'
712 end
713
714 get '/secret' do
715 403
716 end
717
718 Or a range:
719
720 error 400..510 do
721 'Boom'
722 end
723
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724 Sinatra installs special <tt>not_found</tt> and <tt>error</tt> handlers when
725 running under the development environment.
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726
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727 == Mime types
728
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729 When using <tt>send_file</tt> or static files you may have mime types Sinatra
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730 doesn't understand. Use +mime_type+ to register them by file extension:
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731
6d8b333 @sr Update README re. mime_type
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732 mime_type :foo, 'text/foo'
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733
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734 You can also use it with the +content_type+ helper:
735
736 content_type :foo
737
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738 == Rack Middleware
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739
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740 Sinatra rides on Rack[http://rack.rubyforge.org/], a minimal standard
741 interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack's most interesting capabilities
742 for application developers is support for "middleware" -- components that sit
743 between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the
744 HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.
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745
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746 Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level
747 +use+ method:
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748
749 require 'sinatra'
750 require 'my_custom_middleware'
751
752 use Rack::Lint
753 use MyCustomMiddleware
754
755 get '/hello' do
756 'Hello World'
757 end
758
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759 The semantics of +use+ are identical to those defined for the
760 Rack::Builder[http://rack.rubyforge.org/doc/classes/Rack/Builder.html] DSL
761 (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the +use+ method
762 accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:
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763
764 use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
765 username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
766 end
767
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768 Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging,
769 debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses
770 many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you
771 typically don't have to +use+ them explicitly.
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772
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773 == Testing
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774
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775 Sinatra tests can be written using any Rack-based testing library
776 or framework. {Rack::Test}[http://gitrdoc.com/brynary/rack-test] is
777 recommended:
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778
7cfe04a @jcrosby Fix for test/unit and test/spec docs
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779 require 'my_sinatra_app'
c3f167f @xentek MOD: docs for testing forgot to require test/unit
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780 require 'test/unit'
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781 require 'rack/test'
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782
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783 class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
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784 include Rack::Test::Methods
785
786 def app
787 Sinatra::Application
788 end
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789
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790 def test_my_default
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791 get '/'
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792 assert_equal 'Hello World!', last_response.body
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793 end
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794
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795 def test_with_params
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796 get '/meet', :name => 'Frank'
797 assert_equal 'Hello Frank!', last_response.body
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798 end
799
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800 def test_with_rack_env
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801 get '/', {}, 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => 'Songbird'
802 assert_equal "You're using Songbird!", last_response.body
1fb5b99 @dylanegan Bacon support
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803 end
804 end
805
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806 NOTE: The built-in Sinatra::Test module and Sinatra::TestHarness class
807 are deprecated as of the 0.9.2 release.
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808
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809 == Sinatra::Base - Middleware, Libraries, and Modular Apps
810
811 Defining your app at the top-level works well for micro-apps but has
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812 considerable drawbacks when building reusable components such as Rack
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813 middleware, Rails metal, simple libraries with a server component, or
814 even Sinatra extensions. The top-level DSL pollutes the Object namespace
815 and assumes a micro-app style configuration (e.g., a single application
816 file, ./public and ./views directories, logging, exception detail page,
817 etc.). That's where Sinatra::Base comes into play:
818
819 require 'sinatra/base'
820
821 class MyApp < Sinatra::Base
822 set :sessions, true
823 set :foo, 'bar'
824
825 get '/' do
826 'Hello world!'
827 end
828 end
829
830 The MyApp class is an independent Rack component that can act as
831 Rack middleware, a Rack application, or Rails metal. You can +use+ or
832 +run+ this class from a rackup +config.ru+ file; or, control a server
833 component shipped as a library:
834
835 MyApp.run! :host => 'localhost', :port => 9090
836
837 The methods available to Sinatra::Base subclasses are exactly as those
838 available via the top-level DSL. Most top-level apps can be converted to
839 Sinatra::Base components with two modifications:
840
841 * Your file should require +sinatra/base+ instead of +sinatra+;
842 otherwise, all of Sinatra's DSL methods are imported into the main
843 namespace.
844 * Put your app's routes, error handlers, filters, and options in a subclass
845 of Sinatra::Base.
846
847 +Sinatra::Base+ is a blank slate. Most options are disabled by default,
848 including the built-in server. See {Options and Configuration}[http://sinatra.github.com/configuration.html]
849 for details on available options and their behavior.
850
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851 === Using Sinatra as Middleware
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852
853 Not only is Sinatra able to use other Rack middleware, any Sinatra application
854 can in turn be added in front of any Rack endpoint as middleware itself. This
855 endpoint could be another Sinatra application, or any other Rack-based
856 application (Rails/Ramaze/Camping/...).
857
858 require 'sinatra/base'
859
860 class LoginScreen < Sinatra::Base
861 enable :session
862
863 get('/login') { haml :login }
864
865 post('/login') do
866 if params[:name] = 'admin' and params[:password] = 'admin'
867 session['user_name'] = params[:name]
868 else
869 redirect '/login'
870 end
871 end
872 end
873
874 class MyApp < Sinatra::Base
875 # middleware will run before filters
876 use LoginScreen
877
878 before do
879 unless session['user_name']
880 halt "Access denied, please <a href='/login'>login</a>."
881 end
882 end
883
884 get('/') { "Hello #{session['user_name']}." }
885 end
886
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887 == Scopes and Binding
888
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889 The scope you are currently in determines what methods and variables are
890 available.
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891
892 === Application/Class Scope
893
894 Every Sinatra application corresponds to a subclass of Sinatra::Base. If you
895 are using the top level DSL (<tt>require 'sinatra'</tt>), then this class is
896 Sinatra::Application, otherwise it is the subclass you created explicitly. At
897 class level you have methods like `get` or `before`, but you cannot access the
898 `request` object or the `session`, as there only is a single application class
899 for all requests.
900
901 Options created via `set` are methods at class level:
902
903 class MyApp << Sinatra::Base
904 # Hey, I'm in the application scope!
905 set :foo, 42
906 foo # => 42
907
908 get '/foo' do
909 # Hey, I'm no longer in the application scope!
910 end
911 end
912
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913 You have the application scope binding inside:
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914
915 * Your application class body
916 * Methods defined by extensions
917 * The block passed to `helpers`
918 * Procs/blocks used as value for `set`
919
920 You can reach the scope object (the class) like this:
921
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922 * Via the object passed to configure blocks (<tt>configure { |c| ... }</tt>)
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923 * `settings` from within request scope
924
925 === Request/Instance Scope
926
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927 For every incoming request, a new instance of your application class is
928 created and all handler blocks run in that scope. From within this scope you
929 can access the `request` and `session` object or call rendering methods like
930 `erb` or `haml`. You can access the application scope from within the request
931 scope via the `settings` helper:
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932
933 class MyApp << Sinatra::Base
934 # Hey, I'm in the application scope!
935 get '/define_route/:name' do
936 # Request scope for '/define_route/:name'
937 @value = 42
938
939 settings.get("/#{params[:name]}") do
940 # Request scope for "/#{params[:name]}"
941 @value # => nil (not the same request)
942 end
943
944 "Route defined!"
945 end
946 end
947
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948 You have the request scope binding inside:
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949
950 * get/head/post/put/delete blocks
951 * before/after filters
952 * helper methods
953 * templates/views
954
955 === Delegation Scope
956
957 The delegation scope just forwards methods to the class scope. However, it
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958 does not behave 100% like the class scope, as you do not have the class'
959 binding: Only methods explicitly marked for delegation are available and you
960 do not share variables/state with the class scope (read: you have a different
961 `self`). You can explicitly add method delegations by calling
962 <tt>Sinatra::Delegator.delegate :method_name</tt>.
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963
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964 You have the delegate scope binding inside:
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965
966 * The top level binding, if you did <tt>require "sinatra"</tt>
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967 * An object extended with the `Sinatra::Delegator` mixin
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968
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969 Have a look at the code for yourself: here's the
970 {Sinatra::Delegator mixin}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/ceac46f0bc129a6e994a06100aa854f606fe5992/lib/sinatra/base.rb#L1128]
69791f7 @rkh Minor README adjustments.
rkh authored
971 being {included into the main namespace}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/blob/ceac46f0bc129a6e994a06100aa854f606fe5992/lib/sinatra/main.rb#L28].
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972
f44fb6a @rtomayko grammar/formatting pass over README
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973 == Command line
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974
e75f4b3 @rtomayko misc README formatting tweaks
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975 Sinatra applications can be run directly:
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976
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977 ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-e ENVIRONMENT] [-p PORT] [-o HOST] [-s HANDLER]
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978
979 Options are:
980
981 -h # help
982 -p # set the port (default is 4567)
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983 -o # set the host (default is 0.0.0.0)
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984 -e # set the environment (default is development)
f29486b @karmi Note "-s" (server) command line option in README
karmi authored
985 -s # specify rack server/handler (default is thin)
e7e0e55 @rtomayko Minor docfixes in README.rdoc
rtomayko authored
986 -x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)
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987
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988 == The Bleeding Edge
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989
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990 If you would like to use Sinatra's latest bleeding code, create a local
991 clone and run your app with the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory on the
992 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt>:
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993
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994 cd myapp
ba92616 @bmizerany Updated README to point to github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git
bmizerany authored
995 git clone git://github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git
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996 ruby -Isinatra/lib myapp.rb
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997
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998 Alternatively, you can add the <tt>sinatra/lib</tt> directory to the
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999 <tt>LOAD_PATH</tt> in your application:
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1000
17cb177 @cypher README and CHANGES tweaks for 0.9.0 release (#63)
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1001 $LOAD_PATH.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/sinatra/lib'
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1002 require 'rubygems'
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1003 require 'sinatra'
1004
1005 get '/about' do
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1006 "I'm running version " + Sinatra::VERSION
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1007 end
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1008
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1009 To update the Sinatra sources in the future:
d8fec16 @cypher Add subsection about contributing a patch as well as a link to the is…
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1010
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1011 cd myproject/sinatra
1012 git pull
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1013
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1014 == More
e6c5471 @cypher Add a community section with info about the mailing list and irc channel
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1015
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1016 * {Project Website}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/] - Additional documentation,
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1017 news, and links to other resources.
754f116 @rtomayko README: better links to project website and mailing list
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1018 * {Contributing}[http://www.sinatrarb.com/contributing] - Find a bug? Need
4298a77 @rtomayko Tweak README formatting; move community/contributing to website
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1019 help? Have a patch?
60ac449 @sr lighthouse => github issue
sr authored
1020 * {Issue tracker}[http://github.com/sinatra/sinatra/issues]
5018264 @rtomayko Tidy up README a bit; link to @sinatra on Twitter
rtomayko authored
1021 * {Twitter}[http://twitter.com/sinatra]
754f116 @rtomayko README: better links to project website and mailing list
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1022 * {Mailing List}[http://groups.google.com/group/sinatrarb/topics]
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1023 * {IRC: #sinatra}[irc://chat.freenode.net/#sinatra] on http://freenode.net
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