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1 = Sinatra
2
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3 Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web-applications in Ruby with minimal
4 effort.
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5
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6 == Sample App
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7
8 # myapp.rb
9 require 'rubygems'
10 require 'sinatra'
11 get '/' do
12 'Hello world!'
13 end
14
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15 Run with <tt>ruby myapp.rb</tt> and view at <tt>http://localhost:4567</tt>
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16
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17 == HTTP Methods
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18
19 get '/' do
20 .. show things ..
21 end
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22
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23 post '/' do
24 .. create something ..
25 end
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26
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27 put '/' do
28 .. update something ..
29 end
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30
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31 delete '/' do
32 .. annihilate something ..
33 end
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34
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35 head '/' do
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36
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37 end
38
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39 NOTE: <tt>put</tt> and <tt>delete</tt> are also triggered when a
40 <tt>_method</tt> parameter is set to PUT or DELETE and the HTTP request method
41 is POST
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42
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43 == Routes
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44
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45 Routes are matched based on the order of declaration. The first route that
46 matches the request is invoked.
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47
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48 Simple:
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49
50 get '/hi' do
51 ...
52 end
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53
54 Named parameters:
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55
56 get '/:name' do
57 # matches /sinatra and the like and sets params[:name]
58 end
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59
60 Splat parameters:
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61
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62 get '/say/*/to/*' do
63 # matches /say/hello/to/world
64 params["splat"] # => ["hello", "world"]
65 end
66
67 get '/download/*.*' do
68 # matches /download/path/to/file.xml
69 params["splat"] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"]
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70 end
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71
72 User agent matching:
73
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74 get '/foo', :agent => /Songbird (\d\.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do
75 "You're using Songbird version #{params[:agent][0]}"
76 end
77
78 get '/foo' do
79 # matches non-songbird browsers
80 end
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81
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82 == Static files
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83
84 Put all of your static content in the ./public directory
85
86 root
87 \ public
88
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89 If a file exists that maps to the REQUEST_PATH then it is served and the
90 request ends. Otherwise, Sinatra will look for an event that matches the
91 path.
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92
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93 == Views
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94
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95 Views are searched for in a "views" directory in the same location as
96 your main application.
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97
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98 === Haml Templates
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99
100 get '/' do
101 haml :index
102 end
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103
104 Renders <tt>./views/index.haml</tt>.
105
106 === Erb
107
108 get '/' do
109 erb :index
110 end
111
112 Renders <tt>./views/index.erb</tt>
113
114 === Builder
115
116 See Sinatra::Builder
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117
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118 === Sass
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119
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120 get '/stylesheet.css' do
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121 content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
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122 sass :stylesheet
123 end
124
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125 Renders <tt>./views/stylesheet.sass</tt>.
126
127 === Inline Templates
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128
129 get '/' do
130 haml '%div.title Hello World'
131 end
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132
133 Renders the inlined template string.
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134
135 === Accessing Variables
136
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137 Templates are evaluated within the Sinatra::EventContext instance
138 used to evaluate event blocks. Instance variables set in event
139 blocks can be accessed direcly in views:
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140
141 get '/:id' do
142 @foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
143 haml '%h1== @foo.name'
144 end
145
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146 Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:
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147
148 get '/:id' do
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149 foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
150 haml '%h1== foo.name', :locals => { :foo => foo }
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151 end
152
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153 This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within
154 other templates.
155
156 === In-file Templates
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157
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158 Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:
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159
160 get '/' do
161 haml :index
162 end
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163
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164 use_in_file_templates!
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165
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166 __END__
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167
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168 @@ layout
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169 X
170 = yield
171 X
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172
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173 @@ index
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174 %div.title Hello world!!!!!
175
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176 It's also possible to define named templates using the top-level template
177 method:
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178
179 template :layout do
180 "X\n=yield\nX"
181 end
182
183 template :index do
184 '%div.title Hello World!'
185 end
186
187 get '/' do
188 haml :index
189 end
190
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191 == Helpers
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192
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193 The top-level <tt>helpers</tt> method takes a block and extends all
194 EventContext instances with the methods defined:
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195
196 helpers do
197 def bar(name)
198 "#{name}bar"
199 end
200 end
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201
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202 get '/:name' do
203 bar(params[:name])
204 end
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205
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206 == Filters
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207
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208 These are run in Sinatra::EventContext before every event.
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209
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210 before do
211 .. this code will run before each event ..
212 end
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213
214 == Halt!
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215
216 To immediately stop a request during a before filter or event use:
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217
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218 throw :halt
219
220 Set the body to the result of a helper method
221
222 throw :halt, :helper_method
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223
224 Set the body to the result of a helper method after sending it parameters from
225 the local scope
226
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227 throw :halt, [:helper_method, foo, bar]
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228
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229 Set the body to a simple string
230
231 throw :halt, 'this will be the body'
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232
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233 Set status then the body
234
235 throw :halt, [401, 'go away!']
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236
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237 Set the status then call a helper method with params from local scope
238
239 throw :halt, [401, [:helper_method, foo, bar]]
240
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241 Run a proc inside the Sinatra::EventContext instance and set the body to the
242 result
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243
244 throw :halt, lambda { puts 'In a proc!'; 'I just wrote to $stdout!' }
245
246 Create you own to_result
247
248 class MyResultObject
249 def to_result(event_context, *args)
250 event_context.body = 'This will be the body!
251 end
252 end
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253
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254 get '/' do
255 throw :halt, MyResultObject.new
256 end
257
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258 Get the gist? If you want more fun with this then checkout <tt>to_result</tt>
259 on Array, Symbol, Fixnum, NilClass.
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260
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261 == Configuration and Reloading
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262
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263 Sinatra supports multiple environments and reloading. Reloading happens
264 before every request when running under the :development environment. Wrap
265 your configurations in <tt>configure</tt> (i.e. Database connections, Constants,
266 etc.) to protect them from reloading or to target specific environments.
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267
268 All environments:
269
270 configure do
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271 ...
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272 end
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273
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274 Production:
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275
276 configure :production do
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277 ...
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278 end
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279
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280 Two at a time:
281
282 configure :production, :test do
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283 ...
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284 end
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285
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286 This is also really nifty for error handling.
287
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288 == Error handling
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289
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290 Error handlers run inside the current Sinatra::EventContext instance, which
291 means you get all the goodies it has to offer (i.e. haml, erb, throw :halt,
292 etc.)
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293
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294 === Not Found
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295
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296 When Sinatra::NotFound is raised, the not_found handler is invoked:
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297
298 not_found do
299 'This is nowhere to be found'
300 end
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301
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302 === Error
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303
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304 By default, the +error+ handler is invoked on Sinatra::ServerError or when
305 an unknown error occurs.
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306
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307 The exception can be obtained from the 'sinatra.error' variable in
308 request.env.
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309
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310 error do
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311 'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + request.env['sinatra.error'].name
312 end
313
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314 Custom errors:
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315
316 error MyCustomError do
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317 'So what happened was...' + request.env['sinatra.error'].message
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318 end
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319
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320 Then, if this happens:
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321
322 get '/' do
323 raise MyCustomError, 'something bad'
324 end
325
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326 You get this:
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327
328 So what happened was... something bad
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329
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330 Sinatra installs special not_found and error handlers when running under
331 the development.
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332
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333 == Mime types
334
335 When using send_file or static files you may have mime types Sinatra doesn't
336 understand. Use +mime+ in those cases.
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337
338 mime :foo, 'text/foo'
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339
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340 == Rack Middleware
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341
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342 Sinatra rides on Rack[http://rack.rubyforge.org/], a minimal standard
343 interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack's most interesting capabilities
344 for application developers is support for "middleware" -- components that sit
345 between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the
346 HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.
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347
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348 Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level
349 +use+ method:
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350
351 require 'sinatra'
352 require 'my_custom_middleware'
353
354 use Rack::Lint
355 use MyCustomMiddleware
356
357 get '/hello' do
358 'Hello World'
359 end
360
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361 The semantics of +use+ are identical to those defined for the
362 Rack::Builder[http://rack.rubyforge.org/doc/classes/Rack/Builder.html] DSL
363 (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the +use+ method
364 accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:
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365
366 use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
367 username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
368 end
369
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370 Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging,
371 debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses
372 many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you
373 typically don't have to +use+ them explicitly.
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374
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375 == Testing
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376
377 === Test/Unit
378
379 require 'my_sinatra_app'
380 require 'sinatra/test/unit'
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381
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382 class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
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383
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384 def test_my_default
385 get_it '/'
386 assert_equal 'My Default Page!', @response.body
387 end
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388
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389 def test_with_agent
390 get_it '/', :agent => 'Songbird'
391 assert_equal 'You're in Songbird!', @response.body
392 end
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393
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394 ...
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395
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396 end
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397
398 === Specs
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399
400 require 'my_sinatra_app'
401 require 'sinatra/test/spec'
402
403 context 'My app'
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404
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405 should "show a default page" do
406 get_it '/'
407 should.be.ok
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408 body.should.equal 'My Default Page!'
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409 end
410 ...
411
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412 end
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413
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414 See Sinatra::Test::Methods for more information on +get_it+, +post_it+,
415 +put_it+, and friends.
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416
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417 == Command line
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418
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419 Sinatra applications can be run directly:
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420
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421 ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-p PORT] [-e ENVIRONMENT]
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422
423 Options are:
424
425 -h # help
426 -p # set the port (default is 4567)
427 -e # set the environment (default is development)
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428 -x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)
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429
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430 == Contributing
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431
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432 === Tools
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433
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434 Besides Ruby itself, you only need a text editor, preferably one that supports
435 Ruby syntax hilighting. VIM and Emacs are a fine choice on any platform, but
436 feel free to use whatever you're familiar with.
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437
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438 Sinatra uses the Git source code management system. If you're unfamiliar with
439 Git, you can find more information and tutorials on http://git.or.cz/ as well
440 as http://git-scm.com/. Scott Chacon created a great series of introductory
441 screencasts about Git, which you can find here: http://www.gitcasts.com/
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442
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443 === First Time: Cloning The Sinatra Repo
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444
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445 cd where/you/keep/your/projects
446 git clone git://github.com/bmizerany/sinatra.git
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447 cd sinatra
448 cd path/to/your_project
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449 ln -s ../sinatra/
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450
451 === Updating Your Existing Sinatra Clone
452
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453 cd where/you/keep/sinatra
454 git pull
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455
456 === Using Edge Sinatra in Your App
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457
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458 at the top of your sinatra_app.rb file:
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459
460 $:.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/sinatra/lib'
461 require 'sinatra'
462
463 get '/about' do
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464 "I'm running on Version " + Sinatra::VERSION
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465 end
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466
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467 === Contributing a Patch
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468
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469 There are several ways to do this. Probably the easiest (and preferred) way is
470 to fork Sinatra on GitHub (http://github.com/bmizerany/sinatra), push your
471 changes to your Sinatra repo, and then send Blake Mizerany (bmizerany on
472 GitHub) a pull request.
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473
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474 You can also create a patch file and attach it to a feature request or bug fix
475 on the issue tracker (see below) or send it to the mailing list (see Community
476 section).
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477
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478 === Issue Tracking and Feature Requests
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479
480 http://sinatra.lighthouseapp.com/
481
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482 == Community
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483
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484 === Mailing List
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485
486 http://groups.google.com/group/sinatrarb
487
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488 If you have a problem or question, please make sure to include all the
489 relevant information in your mail, like the Sinatra version you're using, what
490 version of Ruby you have, and so on.
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491
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492 === IRC Channel
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493
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494 You can find us on the Freenode network in the channel #sinatra
495 (irc://chat.freenode.net/#sinatra)
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496
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497 There's usually someone online at any given time, but we cannot pay attention
498 to the channel all the time, so please stick around for a while after asking a
499 question.
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