Seamlessly manage Python virtual environment with a Makefile
Makefile.venv takes care of creating, updating and invoking Python virtual environment that you can use in your Makefiles. It will allow you to reduce venv related routines to almost zero!
Makefile.venv aims to be an one-stop solution for Python virtual environment management, regardless of the format used to define the venv: requirements.txt and setup․py are supported out of the box because they have become de-facto standards, but if anything else will take their place - Makefile.venv will support that too. Pip-compile, pipenv and poetry are compatible but require some configuration.
Copy Makefile.venv to your project directory and add
include statement to the bottom of your
Alternatively, you can add installation actions as the Makefile recipe:
Note the checksum step! Do not skip it, it would be as bad as piping curl to shell!
include Makefile.venv Makefile.venv: curl \ -o Makefile.fetched \ -L "https://github.com/sio/Makefile.venv/raw/v2023.04.17/Makefile.venv" echo "fb48375ed1fd19e41e0cdcf51a4a0c6d1010dfe03b672ffc4c26a91878544f82 *Makefile.fetched" \ | sha256sum --check - \ && mv Makefile.fetched Makefile.venv
- curl and/or sha256sum may not be available by default depending on what OS and configuration is used
- To install sha256sum on macOS use
brew install coreutils
- You can use Perl's shasum -a 256 instead of sha256sum, as described here.
Another alternative method
If you want to use Makefile.venv in multiple projects and to be able to conveniently manage Makefile.venv version from one place you might find this pip package useful:
- Install globally:
pip install Makefile.venvor
- Install for current user:
pip install --user Makefile.venv
This package will install Makefile.venv into your
site-packages/ and will
add a command-line entrypoint which prints the full path to Makefile.venv.
Include it it in your makefiles like this:
include $(shell Makefile.venv)
When writing your Makefile use
$(VENV)/python to refer to the Python
interpreter within virtual environment and
$(VENV)/executablename for any
other executable in venv.
Makefile.venv is not meant to be used as a standalone tool, think of it more like a library that enables extra functionality.
Makefile.venv provides the following targets. Some are meant to be executed
make $target, some are meant to be dependencies for other
targets written by you.
Use this as a dependency for any target that requires virtual environment to be created and configured.
venv is a .PHONY target and rules that depend on it will be executed every time make is run. This behavior is sensible as default because most Python projects use Makefiles for running development chores, not for artifact building. In cases where that is not desirable use order-only prerequisite syntax:
artifacts.tar.gz: | venv ...
Execute these targets to launch interactive Python shell within virtual environment. Ipython is not installed by default when creating the virtual environment but will be installed automatically when called for the first time.
shell, bash, zsh
Execute these targets to launch interactive command line shell.
launches the default shell Makefile executes its rules in (usually /bin/sh).
zsh can be used to refer to the specific desired shell (if it's
Execute this target to show versions of Python and pip, and the path to the virtual environment. Use this for debugging purposes.
Execute this target to remove virtual environment. You can add this as a
dependency to the
clean target in your main Makefile.
Use this target as a dependency for tasks that need
executablename to be
executablename is not listed as project's dependency neither in
requirements.txt nor in
setup.py. Only packages with names matching the
name of the corresponding executable are supported.
This can be a lightweight mechanism for development dependencies tracking. E.g. for one-off tools that are not required in every developer's environment, therefore are not included in formal dependency lists.
Note: Rules using such dependency MUST be defined below
include directive to make use of correct $(VENV) value.
ipython target for another example):
codestyle: $(VENV)/pyflakes # `venv` dependency is assumed and may be omitted $(VENV)/pyflakes .
Makefile.venv can be configured via following variables:
Command name for system Python interpreter. It is used only initially to create the virtual environment. Default: python3
Space separated list of paths to requirements.txt files. Paths are resolved relative to current working directory. Default: requirements.txt
Non-existent files are treated as hard dependencies, recipes for creating such
files must be provided by the main Makefile (sample usage: pip-compile).
Providing empty value (
REQUIREMENTS_TXT=) turns off processing of
requirements.txt even when the file exists.
SETUP_PY, SETUP_CFG, PYPROJECT_TOML, VENV_LOCAL_PACKAGE
Space separated list of paths to files that contain build instructions for local Python packages. Corresponding packages will be installed into venv in editable mode along with all their dependencies. Default: setup.py setup.cfg pyproject.toml (whichever present)
Non-existent and empty values are treated in the same way as for REQUIREMENTS_TXT.
Parent directory for the virtual environment. Default: current working directory
Python virtual environment directory. Default: $(WORKDIR)/.venv
Variables named starting with
PIP_ are not processed by Makefile.venv in
any way and are passed to underlying pip calls as is. See pip
for more information.
Use these variables to customize pip invocation, for example to provide custom package index url:
.PHONY: test test: venv $(VENV)/python -m unittest include Makefile.venv
$ make test ...Skipped: creating and updating virtual environment... ... ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 3 tests in 0.000s OK
$ make show-venv Python 3.5.4 (v3.5.4:3f56838, Aug 8 2017, 02:07:06) [MSC v.1900 32 bit (Intel)] pip 19.2.3 from c:\users\99e7~1\appdata\local\temp\.venv\lib\site-packages\pip (python 3.5) venv: C:\Users\99E7~1\AppData\Local\Temp\.venv
$ make python C:/Users/99E7~1/AppData/Local/Temp/.venv/Scripts/python Python 3.5.4 (v3.5.4:3f56838, Aug 8 2017, 02:07:06) [MSC v.1900 32 bit (Intel)] on win32 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> _
Makefile.venv was written for GNU Make and may not work with other make implementations. Please be aware that GNU Make can not correctly handle whitespace characters in file paths. Such filepaths therefore are considered unsupported by Makefile.venv
Support and contributing
If you need help with using this Makefile or including it into your project, please create an issue. Issues are also the primary venue for reporting bugs and posting feature requests. General discussion related to this project is also acceptable and very welcome!
In case you wish to contribute code or documentation, feel free to open a pull request. That would certainly make my day!
I'm open to dialog and I promise to behave responsibly and treat all contributors with respect. Please try to do the same, and treat others the way you want to be treated.
If for some reason you'd rather not use the issue tracker, contacting me via email is OK too. Please use a descriptive subject line to enhance visibility of your message. Also please keep in mind that public discussion channels are preferable because that way many other people may benefit from reading past conversations. My email is visible under the GitHub profile and in the commit log.
License and copyright
Copyright 2019-2023 Vitaly Potyarkin
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.