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try:
import urllib.request as urllib_request
import urllib.error as urllib_error
except ImportError:
import urllib2 as urllib_request
import urllib2 as urllib_error
try:
from cStringIO import StringIO
except ImportError:
from io import BytesIO as StringIO
from twitter.twitter_globals import POST_ACTIONS
from twitter.auth import NoAuth
import re
import gzip
try:
import json
except ImportError:
import simplejson as json
class _DEFAULT(object):
pass
class TwitterError(Exception):
"""
Base Exception thrown by the Twitter object when there is a
general error interacting with the API.
"""
pass
class TwitterHTTPError(TwitterError):
"""
Exception thrown by the Twitter object when there is an
HTTP error interacting with twitter.com.
"""
def __init__(self, e, uri, format, uriparts):
self.e = e
self.uri = uri
self.format = format
self.uriparts = uriparts
if self.e.headers['Content-Encoding'] == 'gzip':
buf = StringIO(self.e.fp.read())
f = gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=buf)
self.response_data = f.read()
else:
self.response_data = self.e.fp.read()
def __str__(self):
fmt = ("." + self.format) if self.format else ""
return (
"Twitter sent status %i for URL: %s%s using parameters: "
"(%s)\ndetails: %s" %(
self.e.code, self.uri, fmt, self.uriparts,
self.response_data))
class TwitterResponse(object):
"""
Response from a twitter request. Behaves like a list or a string
(depending on requested format) but it has a few other interesting
attributes.
`headers` gives you access to the response headers as an
httplib.HTTPHeaders instance. You can do
`response.headers.get('h')` to retrieve a header.
"""
def __init__(self, headers):
self.headers = headers
@property
def rate_limit_remaining(self):
"""
Remaining requests in the current rate-limit.
"""
return int(self.headers.get('X-Rate-Limit-Remaining', "0"))
@property
def rate_limit_limit(self):
"""
The rate limit ceiling for that given request.
"""
return int(self.headers.get('X-Rate-Limit-Limit', "0"))
@property
def rate_limit_reset(self):
"""
Time in UTC epoch seconds when the rate limit will reset.
"""
return int(self.headers.get('X-Rate-Limit-Reset', "0"))
def wrap_response(response, headers):
response_typ = type(response)
if response_typ is bool:
# HURF DURF MY NAME IS PYTHON AND I CAN'T SUBCLASS bool.
response_typ = int
class WrappedTwitterResponse(response_typ, TwitterResponse):
__doc__ = TwitterResponse.__doc__
def __init__(self, response, headers):
response_typ.__init__(self, response)
TwitterResponse.__init__(self, headers)
def __new__(cls, response, headers):
return response_typ.__new__(cls, response)
return WrappedTwitterResponse(response, headers)
class TwitterCall(object):
def __init__(
self, auth, format, domain, callable_cls, uri="",
uriparts=None, secure=True):
self.auth = auth
self.format = format
self.domain = domain
self.callable_cls = callable_cls
self.uri = uri
self.uriparts = uriparts
self.secure = secure
def __getattr__(self, k):
try:
return object.__getattr__(self, k)
except AttributeError:
def extend_call(arg):
return self.callable_cls(
auth=self.auth, format=self.format, domain=self.domain,
callable_cls=self.callable_cls, uriparts=self.uriparts \
+ (arg,),
secure=self.secure)
if k == "_":
return extend_call
else:
return extend_call(k)
def __call__(self, **kwargs):
# Build the uri.
uriparts = []
for uripart in self.uriparts:
# If this part matches a keyword argument, use the
# supplied value otherwise, just use the part.
uriparts.append(str(kwargs.pop(uripart, uripart)))
uri = '/'.join(uriparts)
method = kwargs.pop('_method', None)
if not method:
method = "GET"
for action in POST_ACTIONS:
if re.search("%s(/\d+)?$" % action, uri):
method = "POST"
break
# If an id kwarg is present and there is no id to fill in in
# the list of uriparts, assume the id goes at the end.
id = kwargs.pop('id', None)
if id:
uri += "/%s" %(id)
# If an _id kwarg is present, this is treated as id as a CGI
# param.
_id = kwargs.pop('_id', None)
if _id:
kwargs['id'] = _id
# If an _timeout is specified in kwargs, use it
_timeout = kwargs.pop('_timeout', None)
secure_str = ''
if self.secure:
secure_str = 's'
dot = ""
if self.format:
dot = "."
uriBase = "http%s://%s/%s%s%s" %(
secure_str, self.domain, uri, dot, self.format)
headers = {'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip'}
if self.auth:
headers.update(self.auth.generate_headers())
arg_data = self.auth.encode_params(uriBase, method, kwargs)
if method == 'GET':
uriBase += '?' + arg_data
body = None
else:
body = arg_data.encode('utf8')
req = urllib_request.Request(uriBase, body, headers)
return self._handle_response(req, uri, arg_data, _timeout)
def _handle_response(self, req, uri, arg_data, _timeout=None):
kwargs = {}
if _timeout:
kwargs['timeout'] = _timeout
try:
handle = urllib_request.urlopen(req, **kwargs)
if handle.headers['Content-Type'] in ['image/jpeg', 'image/png']:
return handle
elif handle.info().get('Content-Encoding') == 'gzip':
# Handle gzip decompression
buf = StringIO(handle.read())
f = gzip.GzipFile(fileobj=buf)
data = f.read()
else:
data = handle.read()
if "json" == self.format:
res = json.loads(data.decode('utf8'))
return wrap_response(res, handle.headers)
else:
return wrap_response(
data.decode('utf8'), handle.headers)
except urllib_error.HTTPError as e:
if (e.code == 304):
return []
else:
raise TwitterHTTPError(e, uri, self.format, arg_data)
class Twitter(TwitterCall):
"""
The minimalist yet fully featured Twitter API class.
Get RESTful data by accessing members of this class. The result
is decoded python objects (lists and dicts).
The Twitter API is documented at:
http://dev.twitter.com/doc
Examples::
t = Twitter(
auth=OAuth(token, token_key, con_secret, con_secret_key)))
# Get the public timeline
t.statuses.public_timeline()
# Get a particular friend's timeline
t.statuses.friends_timeline(id="billybob")
# Also supported (but totally weird)
t.statuses.friends_timeline.billybob()
# Update your status
t.statuses.update(
status="Using @sixohsix's sweet Python Twitter Tools.")
# Send a direct message
t.direct_messages.new(
user="billybob",
text="I think yer swell!")
# Get the members of tamtar's list "Things That Are Rad"
t._("tamtar")._("things-that-are-rad").members()
# Note how the magic `_` method can be used to insert data
# into the middle of a call. You can also use replacement:
t.user.list.members(user="tamtar", list="things-that-are-rad")
# An *optional* `_timeout` parameter can also be used for API
# calls which take much more time than normal or twitter stops
# responding for some reasone
t.users.lookup(
screen_name=','.join(A_LIST_OF_100_SCREEN_NAMES), \
_timeout=1)
Searching Twitter::
twitter_search = Twitter(domain="search.twitter.com")
# Find the latest search trends
twitter_search.trends()
# Search for the latest News on #gaza
twitter_search.search(q="#gaza")
Using the data returned
-----------------------
Twitter API calls return decoded JSON. This is converted into
a bunch of Python lists, dicts, ints, and strings. For example::
x = twitter.statuses.public_timeline()
# The first 'tweet' in the timeline
x[0]
# The screen name of the user who wrote the first 'tweet'
x[0]['user']['screen_name']
Getting raw XML data
--------------------
If you prefer to get your Twitter data in XML format, pass
format="xml" to the Twitter object when you instantiate it::
twitter = Twitter(format="xml")
The output will not be parsed in any way. It will be a raw string
of XML.
"""
def __init__(
self, format="json",
domain="api.twitter.com", secure=True, auth=None,
api_version=_DEFAULT):
"""
Create a new twitter API connector.
Pass an `auth` parameter to use the credentials of a specific
user. Generally you'll want to pass an `OAuth`
instance::
twitter = Twitter(auth=OAuth(
token, token_secret, consumer_key, consumer_secret))
`domain` lets you change the domain you are connecting. By
default it's `api.twitter.com` but `search.twitter.com` may be
useful too.
If `secure` is False you will connect with HTTP instead of
HTTPS.
`api_version` is used to set the base uri. By default it's
'1'. If you are using "search.twitter.com" set this to None.
"""
if not auth:
auth = NoAuth()
if (format not in ("json", "xml", "")):
raise ValueError("Unknown data format '%s'" %(format))
if api_version is _DEFAULT:
if domain == 'api.twitter.com':
api_version = '1.1'
else:
api_version = None
uriparts = ()
if api_version:
uriparts += (str(api_version),)
TwitterCall.__init__(
self, auth=auth, format=format, domain=domain,
callable_cls=TwitterCall,
secure=secure, uriparts=uriparts)
__all__ = ["Twitter", "TwitterError", "TwitterHTTPError", "TwitterResponse"]
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