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Types of Small N design
* Case Study
* Your text: AN in-depth, usually long-term examination of a single instance of a phenomenon
* Purposes: Can be descriptive and/or explanatory. They can also involve treatment effectiveness
* Single-Case Study
* Like a case-study but the researcher exerts more control over the research situation. They manipulat the IV
* It trades off the naturalism of the case study to gain more control over an individuals behavior
Some History
* In the beginning of psychology, all research was small N designs
* e.g., Ebbinghaus
* Instead of descriptive statistics (e.g., mean) researchers would report each individuals data in their reports.
* It wasn't until 1930s when Fischer developed the analysis of variance that researchers started doing large group studies
* Those who continued to use case study design were criticized for not being rigorous enough
* 1960s: Clinicians who were being trained in research methodology started to revert back to small N designs
* Why?
* Ethics of withholding treatment
* Can't find large numbers for some diseases and conditions
* 1970s: Researches, especially clinicians began to use case studies again