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Naturalistic Research
* According to the book, field research is any research done in the field (whoa!)
The problem with Field Research
* What are the disadvantages of doing field research?
* Lack of internal validity
* Hard to control for extraneous variances
* Ethical issues of data gathering
* Limited control over the IV
* Limited choice of operational definitions for the DV
* Experimenter Expectancies/Instrumentation Threats
* Cannont screen participants for particular characteristics
* Sometimes difficult to establish random assignment, without disrupting the naturalism
The Upside of Field Experiments
* High on ecological validity
* High on external validity
* Less likely to have reactivity, evaluation, apprehension, etc.
Field Experiements
* Study peoeple's natural behaviors in response to a manipulated IV in a natural setting.
* Like a lab experiment, the goal is to draw conclusions about the manipulated variable on behavior and/or the dependent measure
Designing a Field Study
* 3 considerations
1. Choosing a Research Setting
* According to Bochner (1979) research settings vary on a continuum of publicness
* What should you pick?
* Pick the one that makes the most sense for the construct you are attempting to study.
* Also, it may not be a bad idea to try out several different settings to see if your results are generalizable.
* Need to pick a location where you can manipulate the IV
* The manipulation must appear to be reasonable
* Its best to get permission to use these places to conduct experiments
2. Implementing the Independent Variable
* Two basic Approaches
* Street Theater: To stage an event that will be witnessed by everyone in the surrounding area
* Accosting: The researcher selects a target who receives a single level of IV
* Example: A Pizza Delivery Guy explains why the pizza was early/late
3. Problems
* Construct Validity is very difficult to establish. In other words, its hard to know if the DV in this context is accurately measuring the construct we're interested in.
* Control over extraneous variables: The most common problems will be people selecting themselves into being a field study
* Vulnerability to Outside Interference. If you're at Piedmont park looking at people playing sports and it rains.
Natural Experiments
Examples
* Brain Injury Patients
* Memories of events that have happened
* Gathering people's responses to a popular TV show
Natural Experiments do not:
* Randomly assign people to level of IV
* Manipulate the IV
* Control extraneous variance
Quasi-Experiments
* These studies manipulate an IV in a natural setting. However, the IV relates to pre-existing groups of people as the experimental & control group.
* It's called quasi because you do manipulate an IV as if you were conducting a true experiment.
Two Forms of Quasi Experiments
* Two forms
* Non equivalent Groups
* Interrupted time series design
Nonequaivalent Groups
* The purpose of the experiment is to see how some treatment effects one group but not the other.
* Because we are not using random assignments, the groups may differ in more than 1 way.
Interrupted Time Series Design
* Basic single case approach in which a baseline period is followed by a treatment that "interrupts" the baseline, followed by a period of post-treatment observations
* The advantage is that researchers can evaluate trend
* Can also rule out alternative explainations of pre-test post-test change
Varations
Control Series Design
* It is an interrupted time series design with the addition of one or more control cases
Interrupted Time Series Design with Switching Replications
* Two groups undergo the same implementation however each group receives the treatment at a different time & location
Interupted Time Series Design with Multiple DVs
* The idea is that only some of the DVs are expected to change