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Types of Research, The Research Process & Hypothesis Testing
Purposes of Research
* Basic
* Applied
* Evaluation
* Action
Basic Research
* Generate knowledge for the sake of knowledge
* Most always grounded in established theory
Applied Research
* Aimed at problem solving in "real-world" scenarios
* Results can have immediate impact
Evaluation Research
* Addresses the question of whether intervention research works
Action Research
* Dynamic research process that involves theory, application and evaluation.
Types of research in behavioral science
* Quantitative
* Variable: Something that takes on differenet values or categories
* Categorical
* Quantitative
* Constant: Something that does not change, or vary
* Qualitative
Types of Variables
* Independent Variable
What you change
* Dependent Variable
Changes as a result of what you're doing
* Mediating Variable
Mediates the independent variable and dependent variable
* Moderating Variable
Don't directly affect the relationship, but affect it none the less
Quantitative—Experimental Approach
* Review — What are the three criteria for establishing cause & effect?
* We must think there is cause & effect
* Cause must happen before effect
* Ruled out all other possible causes
* Experiment is the only thing that we have that we can use to determine cause & effect
* However, it's in an unnatural setting
Case Study
* An in-depth examination of a single phenomenon, for descriptive or hypothesis testing reasons.
* Usually happens with strange situations that are interesting but not readily encountered in the world.
Quanttitaive - Nonexperimental
* Correlational Approach
* A.K.A. The Passive Research Approach
* Problems
* Reverse Causation
* Reciprocal Relationships
* Third-variable Problem
Settings of Research
| Experimental | Case Study | Correlational
-----------+-------------------------+--------------------------+-------------------------
Laboratory | Traditional Experiement | Single Case Study | Use of hidden observers
-----------+-------------------------+--------------------------+-------------------------
Field | Field Experiment | Unconstrained Case Study | Questionnaire Responses
Time Perspectives on Research
* Most normal research projects will last around 30-90 minutes
* This is fine…it gives you a snapshot so to speak of a person at one moment in time.
Types of Developmental Research
* Cross-sectional - Test two different groups at once. Take a cross section of the group at a certain point.
* Longitudinal - Measure one individual at multiple points in time.
* These both have issues. The best:
* Cohort-Sequential - Measure one group at 1940. Measure group again at 1960, and add a new group. Measure both groups at 1980 then add another group.
Qualitative
* Characteristics
* Interpetive
* Multimethod
* Natural Settings