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External Validity
* The extent to which the findings from any one study apply in all other settings at other times, with different participants, when different procedures are used
* Ecological Validity: The degree to which the conditions under which research is carried out, mimic the conditions found in a natural setting to which they are to be applied
* Generalizability: The etent to which the results of a study pertain equally to more than one setting, population, or subpopulation
Setting - Generalizability
* Physical Setting
* Subtle variations in the setting that a study takes place may affect the results.
Setting - Ecological Validity
* The laboratory is a much different setting than natural environments
* The most ecologically valid setting is the natural environment
* But when that's not available, the research should try and use as similar a setting as possible
Research Procedures
* Operational Definitions
* LEvels of the Independent Variable
Research Procedures - Ecological Validity
* Do the kinds of tasks we make students do accurately reflect the kinds of tasks people have to do in the real world?
* What about consequences for poor performance?
* Artificial Dependent Measures
The White Rat
* In the 1950s, Frank Beach became alarmed that all research was using white rats
* Captured wild rats and experimented on them
* Now, the college student is the new white rat
* Convience sampling
Sears (1986)
* Thesis: Using students may create artifical findings, especially in social psychology
* Why: Developmental research shows that attitudes are easily changes in college aged students
* Problem: Conclusions that people's attitudes can be changed, might be an artifact of using college students
Even The Rat Was White
* Not only have we used college students, but because of that we have under-represented other groups
College Students are WEIRD
* W - Western
* E - Educated
* I - Industrialized
* R - Rich
* D - Democratic
Fundamental Attribution Bias
* Our tendency to favor an explanation based on the dispositional traits of someone rather than situational ones.
* However, it is not human...
Time Factors
* Time Sampling
* Seasonal Variations
* Daily Variations
* Changes Over Time
* Beliefs and Behaviors change over time
* Intra-Cultural Change
The Functional Component
* The extent to which psychological processes that affect behavior in the research situation are similar to those that affect behavior in the natural situation
* Example: Jury decision making processes
The Conceptual Component
* The extent to which problems studied int he laboratory are problems faced in the real world
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