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Attachment Study
* Is it externally valid?
* Would these findings generalize to other monkeys, not raised in a laboratory?
Research Goals that Don't Stress External Validity
* We want to know whether something can happen?
* Prediction from the real world to the lab
* Validity may be increased if we can show that something occurs in a unusual lab circumstance
* Study things without real-world analogies
Assess Exernal Validity - Generalizability
* Can't be done with one study. It needs to be established:
* Across Time
* Across Cultures
* Across Procedures & Settings
* Look for moderating variables
External Validity
* Some suggest that it's just another type of experiment one needs to perform.
* Is conducting a study in a natural setting any guarantee that it is generalizable?
My Suggestion…
* You can be on either side of the debate
* It's important that when you discuss your study, that you do not over-generalize your results.
Measurement Theory
Scales of Measurement
* Nominal
* Used to classify events into one group or another
* Example: Changing scores on a multiple choice test
* Wrong to Wrong
* Right to Wrong
* Wrong to Right
* Ordinal
* Rankings of data
* We don't know the difference between the rankings
* Interval Scale
* Data are rank ordered with the difference between positions having meaning
* IQ Test
* Ratio Scales
* It's like interval scales byt now the zero means something. -0 = the true absence of something
Descriptive Statistics
* Statistics used to summaryize the data collected from a sample of participants
* Two Important Ones:
* Measures of Central Tendency
* Mean
* Median - The response that divides a distribution in half
* Mode - Most frequent response in a set
* Measures of Variance
* Std Deviation
* Range