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commit 7fb69dd21350640a884e0487d938015482221e93 1 parent 6153901
@skalnik authored
Showing with 149 additions and 24 deletions.
  1. +18 −24 Notes/10-13.txt
  2. +15 −0 Notes/10-21.txt
  3. +18 −0 Notes/10-23.txt
  4. +98 −0 Notes/10-26.txt
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42 Notes/10-13.txt
@@ -1,24 +1,18 @@
-Methods
-
-Participants
-1. Where are the participants comming from?
- - How?
- - How many?
-2. Filter? How?
- - Why filter?
-3. Age Range?
- - Why this range (if necessary)?
-
-Design & Stimuli
-1. Tell me about your stimuli
- - What, where why how?
- - Filtering for stimuli
-2. Organization
- - IV?
- - DV?
-3. Blocked Design?
- - Tables
-
-Procedures
-1. What are you doing? In what order? Etc?
-2. Experimental Administration?
+Types of Small N design
+* Case Study
+ * Your text: AN in-depth, usually long-term examination of a single instance of a phenomenon
+ * Purposes: Can be descriptive and/or explanatory. They can also involve treatment effectiveness
+* Single-Case Study
+ * Like a case-study but the researcher exerts more control over the research situation. They manipulat the IV
+ * It trades off the naturalism of the case study to gain more control over an individuals behavior
+Some History
+* In the beginning of psychology, all research was small N designs
+ * e.g., Ebbinghaus
+* Instead of descriptive statistics (e.g., mean) researchers would report each individuals data in their reports.
+* It wasn't until 1930s when Fischer developed the analysis of variance that researchers started doing large group studies
+* Those who continued to use case study design were criticized for not being rigorous enough
+* 1960s: Clinicians who were being trained in research methodology started to revert back to small N designs
+* Why?
+ * Ethics of withholding treatment
+ * Can't find large numbers for some diseases and conditions
+* 1970s: Researches, especially clinicians began to use case studies again
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15 Notes/10-21.txt
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+Naturalistic Observation
+* Goal: Study human or animal behavior as it occurs in natural settings in response to natural events, uninfluenced by the researcher
+* Tries to maximize the ecological validity but has costs for minimized control
+Dimensions of Naturalistic Observation
+* Bouchard (1979)
+ * Participation: THe degree to which the researcher/ observer takes part in the events being observed
+ * Low participation: The observer just observes what goes on. These studies are more likely to involve group comparisons and quantitative data
+ * High participation: The observer is apart of the environment. These studies will most likely use qualitative data and be similar to case studies
+ * Deception: The degree to which the observer conceals his or her identity as the researcher
+ * Completely Deception: Everyone in the environment is unaware of the observers participation in the study
+ * Completely Informed: The individuals being observed are aware that someone is watching them.
+Complete Participant
+* The researcher becomes a full member of the research setting, without others being aware
+Participant as Observer
+* The researcher fully participates in the research setting but, all other individuals in the setting are fully informed to their true intention
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18 Notes/10-23.txt
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+Types of Small N design
+* Case Study
+ * Your text: AN in-depth, usually long-term examination of a single instance of a phenomenon
+ * Purposes: Can be descriptive and/or explanatory. They can also involve treatment effectiveness
+* Single-Case Study
+ * Like a case-study but the researcher exerts more control over the research situation. They manipulat the IV
+ * It trades off the naturalism of the case study to gain more control over an individuals behavior
+Some History
+* In the beginning of psychology, all research was small N designs
+ * e.g., Ebbinghaus
+* Instead of descriptive statistics (e.g., mean) researchers would report each individuals data in their reports.
+* It wasn't until 1930s when Fischer developed the analysis of variance that researchers started doing large group studies
+* Those who continued to use case study design were criticized for not being rigorous enough
+* 1960s: Clinicians who were being trained in research methodology started to revert back to small N designs
+* Why?
+ * Ethics of withholding treatment
+ * Can't find large numbers for some diseases and conditions
+* 1970s: Researches, especially clinicians began to use case studies again
View
98 Notes/10-26.txt
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+When are focus groups used?
+* Focus groups are often used for...
+ * Needs assessment
+ * To better understand issues
+ * Understand participant viewpoints
+ * Investigate participants's beliefs and their opinions
+ * Stand-alone
+ * Industry
+When not to use Focus Groups
+* Emotionally charged topic
+* Biased 3rd party control
+* Statistics are needed
+* Other methods are bettter
+* Confidentiality is compromised
+Planning Focus Groups
+* Purpose of study
+ * Exploratory
+ * Study new areas
+ * Confirmatory
+ * Observe and verify already known relationships
+* What do we expect to learn?
+* What are the main questions of interest?
+* What is the appropriate order of questions?
+Creating the script
+* What do you want to know?
+* What kind of response will a given item elicit?
+* Clarity of questions
+* Consensus
+Focus Group Script Refinement
+* Create the 1st draft based on research goals and a literature review
+* Pilot the script with a small sample of users
+ * Hone definitions and questions
+ * Refine the order of questions
+ * Estimate timing
+ * Don't forget to record
+* Iteration!
+Types of Focus Group Questions
+* Opening quesion (Ice breaker)
+* Introductory questions
+* Transition questions
+* Key questions
+* Ending questions
+ * All-things-considered question
+ * Summary question
+ * Final question
+Selecting Participants
+* Group Size
+ * Usually 4-10 people
+* Number of groups
+* Group composition
+ * Homogeneous vs heterogeneous
+* Strangers
+* Cost
+Conducting the Focus Group
+* Who is involved?
+ * Participants
+ * Moderator
+ * Note-taker / Assistant moderator
+The Moderator
+* Characteristics of a good moderator
+ * Crowd control
+ * Elicits discussion
+ * Participants are comfortable around
+ * Time management
+ * Doesn't interject personal opinions
+ * Encouraging but not biasing
+ * Perceived as knowledgeable
+* Practice Practice Practice
+Moderating
+* Evaluating participants before-hand
+* Eye contact
+* Open-ended questions
+ * Was it enjoyable to meet this person?
+ * How did you feel about meeting this person?
+* Dichotomous questions
+* Affirmation
+ * Yes
+ * That's good
+ * I agree
+ * Good point
+* "Why!?!?"
+ * Forces a rational response
+ * Can be to pointed
+* Uncued questions, followed by cues
+* Serendipitous questions
+Advantages
+* Socially oriented research procedure
+* Format allows the moderator to probe — flexibility to explore unanticipated issues
+* High face validity
+* Relatively low-cost
+* Relatively fast results
+Disadvantages
+* Less experimental control
+* Data is more difficult to analyze
+* Requires carefully trained moderators
+* Groups may vary considerably
+* Groups may be difficult to assemble
+* Discussion must be conducted in an environment that is conducive to conversation
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