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Notes for 9/9

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skalnik committed Sep 9, 2010
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+Important Aspects of Validity
+* Validity is inferred, not measured
+ With reliability, you measure. However, with validity you don't
+* Validity depends on many different types of evidence
+ * Content
+ * Criteria
+ * Construct
+* Validity is expressed by degree
+ Nothing is complete invalid or valid
+* Validity is specific to a particular use
+ Only really measures a single construct
+* Validity refers to inferences drawn, not the measure itself
+* Validity is a unitary construct
+ For a long time validity was split into 3 (content, criteria, construct). Now it's seen as a single thing with 3 parts
+ Types of Categories of Validity
+ * Content-related Validity
+ * Adequate Measurement
+ Has to get at what we want it to get at
+ * Relevant
+ * Representative
+* Face Validity
+ * Assesses whether the measurement items appear to measure what they are suppposed to measure.
+ e.g., Really badly worded questions.
+ * Do the assessment items look valid?
+* Criterion-Related Validity
+ DV-related validity. See if our measure of whatever construct relates to other measures of other constructs related to ours
+ e.g., SAT test and GPA. Does the SAT predict GPA of freshman year. If they're related, then we have some Criterion-related validity
+ * Types of Testing
+ * Concurrent
+ Take both tests, and then see how they both correlate with GPA
+ * Predictive
+ Have a theory that Fear of Failure/Achievement Motivation leads to Executive Success. Measurement would be average time between promotions. So with a survey used to determine FoF/Ac motivation you predict average time between promotions
+ * Types of Criterion
+* Construct Validity
+ The degree to which your manifest variable measures your hypothetical construct
+ How to get to it
+ * Formulating hypotheses about the links between the operational measure and the hypothetical construct
+ * Conduct a study to determine the empirical relationship between your measure and other measures of other related constructs
+ * Interpret the results in terms of construct-related validity
+ * Kinds of Construct Validity
+ * Convergent Validity
+ * Discriminant Validity
+ * Method Variables
+ * Substantive Variables
+ * Manifest Variable
+* Differential Validity
+ * When a measure is more valid for one group than the other.
+* The relationship between Reliability and Validity
+ * For a measure to be valid, it has to be reliable
+ * However, reliability is not sufficient to claim validity.
+ A scale. If the scale is always 2 lb heavier, then it's reliable, however it's not valid.
+Threats to Internal Validity
+* The extent to which one can be confident that the results are reported support the casual hypothesis being tested
+* It is the basic minimum without which any experiment is uninterpretable
+* Are variables that appear to be causally related, REALLY causally related, or is this relationship spurious

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