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#lang scheme
(define-syntax cons-stream
(syntax-rules ()
[(cons-stream x y) (cons x (delay y))]))
(define the-empty-stream '())
(define stream-null? null?)
(define (stream-ref s n)
(if (= n 0)
(stream-car s)
(stream-ref (stream-cdr s) (- n 1))))
(define (stream-for-each proc s)
(if (stream-null? s)
(begin (proc (stream-car s))
(stream-for-each proc (stream-cdr s)))))
(define (display-stream s)
(stream-for-each display-line s))
(define (display-line x)
(display x))
(define (stream-car stream) (car stream))
(define (stream-cdr stream) (force (cdr stream)))
(define (stream-enumerate-interval low high)
(if (> low high)
(stream-enumerate-interval (+ low 1) high))))
(define (stream-map proc . argstreams)
(if (null? (car argstreams))
(apply proc (map stream-car argstreams))
(apply stream-map
(cons proc (map stream-cdr argstreams))))))
(define (stream-append s1 s2)
(if (stream-null? s1)
(cons-stream (stream-car s1)
(stream-append (stream-cdr s1) s2))))
(define (show x)
(display-line x)
(define (add-streams s1 s2)
(stream-map + s1 s2))
(define (mul-streams s1 s2)
(stream-map * s1 s2))
(define (div-streams s1 s2)
(stream-map / s1 s2))
(define (scale-stream stream factor)
(stream-map (lambda (x) (* x factor)) stream))
(define ones (cons-stream 1 ones))
(define integers (cons-stream 1 (add-streams ones integers)))
(define (take num stream)
(if (= num 0)
(cons-stream (stream-car stream)
(take (- num 1)
(stream-cdr stream)))))
(define (stream-filter pred stream)
(cond ((stream-null? stream) the-empty-stream)
((pred (stream-car stream))
(cons-stream (stream-car stream)
(stream-filter pred (stream-cdr stream))))
(stream-filter pred (stream-cdr stream)))))
(define (stream-length stream)
(define (iter len str)
(if (stream-null? str)
(iter (+ len 1) (stream-cdr str))))
(iter 0 stream))
(define *op-table* (make-hash))
(define (put op type proc)
(hash-set! *op-table* (list op type) proc))
(define (get op type)
(hash-ref *op-table* (list op type) #f))
(define input-prompt ";;; Query input:")
(define output-prompt ";;; Query results:")
(define (prompt-for-input string)
(newline) (newline) (display string) (newline))
(define (query-driver-loop)
(prompt-for-input input-prompt)
(let ((q (query-syntax-process (read))))
(cond ((assertion-to-be-added? q)
(add-rule-or-assertion! (add-assertion-body q))
(display "Assertion added to data base.")
(display output-prompt)
(lambda (frame)
(instantiate q
(lambda (v f)
(contract-question-mark v))))
(qeval q (singleton-stream '()))))
(define (instantiate exp frame unbound-var-handler)
(define (copy exp)
(cond ((var? exp)
(let ((binding (binding-in-frame exp frame)))
(if binding
(copy (binding-value binding))
(unbound-var-handler exp frame))))
((pair? exp)
(cons (copy (car exp)) (copy (cdr exp))))
(else exp)))
(copy exp))
(define (qeval query frame-stream)
(let ((qproc (get (type query) 'qeval)))
(if qproc
(qproc (contents query) frame-stream)
(simple-query query frame-stream))))
(define (simple-query query-pattern frame-stream)
(lambda (frame)
(find-assertions query-pattern frame)
(delay (apply-rules query-pattern frame))))
;(and (manager ?x)
; (job ?x)
; (blah ?x))
;(conjoin ((manager ?x) (job ?x) (blah ?x)) '())
;(conjoin ((job ?x) (blah ?x)) stream-of-manager-frames)
;(conjoin ((blah ?x)) (qeval (job ?x) stream-of-manager-frames))
;(conjoin ((blah ?x)) stream-of-manager-and-job-frames)
;(conjoin () (qeval (blah ?x) stream-of-manage-and-job-frames))
;(conjoin ((manager ?x) (job ?x) (blah ?x)) '())
;(conjoin ((job ?x) (blah ?x)) (unify (qeval (manager ?x) '()) '())
;(conjoin ((job ?x) (blah ?x)) stream-of-manager-frames)
;(conjoin ((blah ?x)) (unify (qeval (job ?x) ()) stream-of-manager-frames))
;(conjoin ((blah ?x)) (unify stream-of-job-frames stream-of-manager-frames))
;(conjoin ((blah ?x)) stream-of-job-and-manager-frames)
;(conjoin () (unify stream-of-blah-frames stream-of-job-and-manager-frames))
;(conjoin () stream-of-job-and-manage-and-blah-frames)
(define (conjoin conjuncts frame-stream)
(if (empty-conjunction? conjuncts)
(conjoin (rest-conjuncts conjuncts)
(qeval (first-conjunct conjuncts)
(define (merge-if-consistent frame-1 frame-2)
;merge frames if consistent
(define (find-compatible-frames frame-stream-1 frame-stream-2)
(stream-flatmap (lambda (frame-1)
(stream-flatmap (lambda (frame-2)
(merge-if-consistent frame-1 frame-2))
(define (quick-conjoin conjuncts frame-stream)
(if (empty-conjunction? conjuncts)
(quick-conjoin (rest-conjuncts conjuncts)
(qeval (first-conjunct conjuncts)
(singleton-stream '()))
(put 'and 'qeval quick-conjoin)
(define (disjoin disjuncts frame-stream)
(if (empty-disjunction? disjuncts)
(qeval (first-disjunct disjuncts) frame-stream)
(delay (disjoin (rest-disjuncts disjuncts)
(put 'or 'qeval disjoin)
(define (negate operands frame-stream)
(lambda (frame)
(if (stream-null? (qeval (negated-query operands)
(singleton-stream frame)))
(singleton-stream frame)
(put 'not 'qeval negate)
(define (always-true ignore frame-stream) frame-stream)
(put 'always-true 'qeval always-true)
(define (uniquely-asserted contents frame-stream)
(lambda (frame)
(let ((newstream (qeval (car contents)
(singleton-stream frame))))
(if (= 1 (stream-length newstream))
(put 'unique 'qeval uniquely-asserted)
(define (find-assertions pattern frame)
(lambda (datum)
(check-an-assertion datum pattern frame))
(fetch-assertions pattern frame)))
(define (check-an-assertion assertion query-pat query-frame)
(let ((match-result
(pattern-match query-pat assertion query-frame)))
(if (eq? match-result 'failed)
(singleton-stream match-result))))
(define (pattern-match pat dat frame)
(cond ((eq? frame 'failed) 'failed)
((equal? pat dat) frame)
((var? pat) (extend-if-consistent pat dat frame))
((and (pair? pat) (pair? dat))
(cdr pat) (cdr dat) (pattern-match (car pat)
(car dat)
(else 'failed)))
(define (extend-if-consistent var dat frame)
(let ((binding (binding-in-frame var frame)))
(if binding
(pattern-match (binding-value binding) dat frame)
(extend var dat frame))))
(define (apply-rules pattern frame)
(stream-flatmap (lambda (rule)
(apply-a-rule rule pattern frame))
(fetch-rules pattern frame)))
(define (apply-a-rule rule query-pattern query-frame)
(let ((clean-rule (rename-variables-in rule)))
(let ((unify-result
(unify-match query-pattern
(conclusion clean-rule)
(if (eq? unify-result 'failed)
(qeval (rule-body clean-rule)
(singleton-stream unify-result))))))
(define (rename-variables-in rule)
(let ((rule-application-id (new-rule-application-id)))
(define (tree-walk exp)
(cond ((var? exp)
(make-new-variable exp rule-application-id))
((pair? exp)
(cons (tree-walk (car exp))
(tree-walk (cdr exp))))
(else exp)))
(tree-walk rule)))
(define (unify-match p1 p2 frame)
(cond ((eq? frame 'failed) 'failed)
((equal? p1 p2) frame)
((var? p1) (extend-if-possible p1 p2 frame))
((var? p2) (extend-if-possible p2 p1 frame))
((and (pair? p1) (pair? p2))
(unify-match (cdr p1)
(cdr p2)
(unify-match (car p1)
(car p2)
(else 'failed)))
(define (extend-if-possible var val frame)
(let ((binding (binding-in-frame var frame)))
(cond (binding
(binding-value binding) val frame))
((var? val)
(let ((binding (binding-in-frame val frame)))
(if binding
var (binding-value binding) frame)
(extend var val frame))))
((depends-on? val var frame)
(else (extend var val frame)))))
(define (depends-on? exp var frame)
(define (tree-walk e)
(cond ((var? e)
(if (equal? var e)
(let ((b (binding-in-frame e frame)))
(if b
(tree-walk (binding-value b))
((pair? e)
(or (tree-walk (car e))
(tree-walk (cdr e))))
(else false)))
(tree-walk exp))
(define THE-ASSERTIONS the-empty-stream)
(define (fetch-assertions pattern frame)
(if (use-index? pattern)
(get-indexed-assertions pattern)
(define (get-all-assertions) THE-ASSERTIONS)
(define (get-indexed-assertions pattern)
(get-stream (index-key-of pattern) 'assertion-stream))
(define (get-stream key1 key2)
(let ((s (get key1 key2)))
(if s s the-empty-stream)))
(define THE-RULES the-empty-stream)
(define (fetch-rules pattern frame)
(if (use-index? pattern)
(get-indexed-rules pattern)
(define (get-all-rules) THE-RULES)
(define (get-indexed-rules pattern)
(get-stream (index-key-of pattern) 'rule-stream)
(get-stream '? 'rule-stream)))
(define (add-rule-or-assertion! assertion)
(if (rule? assertion)
(add-rule! assertion)
(add-assertion! assertion)))
(define (add-assertion! assertion)
(store-assertion-in-index assertion)
(let ((old-assertions THE-ASSERTIONS))
(cons-stream assertion old-assertions))
(define (add-rule! rule)
(store-rule-in-index rule)
(let ((old-rules THE-RULES))
(set! THE-RULES (cons-stream rule old-rules))
(define (store-assertion-in-index assertion)
(if (indexable? assertion)
(let ((key (index-key-of assertion)))
(let ((current-assertion-stream
(get-stream key 'assertion-stream)))
(put key
(cons-stream assertion
(define (store-rule-in-index rule)
(let ((pattern (conclusion rule)))
(if (indexable? pattern)
(let ((key (index-key-of pattern)))
(let ((current-rule-stream
(get-stream key 'rule-stream)))
(put key
(cons-stream rule
(define (indexable? pat)
(or (constant-symbol? (car pat))
(var? (car pat))))
(define (index-key-of pat)
(let ((key (car pat)))
(if (var? key) '? key)))
(define (use-index? pat)
(constant-symbol? (car pat)))
(define (stream-append-delayed s1 delayed-s2)
(if (stream-null? s1)
(force delayed-s2)
(stream-car s1)
(stream-append-delayed (stream-cdr s1) delayed-s2))))
(define (interleave-delayed s1 delayed-s2)
(if (stream-null? s1)
(force delayed-s2)
(stream-car s1)
(interleave-delayed (force delayed-s2)
(delay (stream-cdr s1))))))
(define (stream-flatmap proc s)
(flatten-stream (stream-map proc s)))
(define (flatten-stream stream)
(if (stream-null? stream)
(stream-car stream)
(delay (flatten-stream (stream-cdr stream))))))
(define (singleton-stream x)
(cons-stream x the-empty-stream))
(define (type exp)
(if (pair? exp)
(car exp)
(error "Unknown expression TYPE" exp)))
(define (contents exp)
(if (pair? exp)
(cdr exp)
(error "Unknown expression CONTENTS" exp)))
(define (assertion-to-be-added? exp)
(eq? (type exp) 'assert!))
(define (add-assertion-body exp)
(car (contents exp)))
(define (empty-conjunction? exps) (null? exps))
(define (first-conjunct exps) (car exps))
(define (rest-conjuncts exps) (cdr exps))
(define (empty-disjunction? exps) (null? exps))
(define (first-disjunct exps) (car exps))
(define (rest-disjuncts exps) (cdr exps))
(define (negated-query exps) (car exps))
(define (predicate exps) (car exps))
(define (args exps) (cdr exps))
(define (tagged-list? exp tag)
(if (pair? exp)
(eq? (car exp) tag)
(define (rule? statement)
(tagged-list? statement 'rule))
(define (conclusion rule) (cadr rule))
(define (rule-body rule)
(if (null? (cddr rule))
(caddr rule)))
(define (query-syntax-process exp)
(map-over-symbols expand-question-mark exp))
(define (map-over-symbols proc exp)
(cond ((pair? exp)
(cons (map-over-symbols proc (car exp))
(map-over-symbols proc (cdr exp))))
((symbol? exp) (proc exp))
(else exp)))
(define (expand-question-mark symbol)
(let ((chars (symbol->string symbol)))
(if (string=? (substring chars 0 1) "?")
(list '?
(substring chars 1 (string-length chars))))
(define (var? exp)
(tagged-list? exp '?))
(define (constant-symbol? exp) (symbol? exp))
(define rule-counter 0)
(define (new-rule-application-id)
(set! rule-counter (+ 1 rule-counter))
(define (make-new-variable var rule-application-id)
(cons '? (cons rule-application-id (cdr var))))
(define (contract-question-mark variable)
(string-append "?"
(if (number? (cadr variable))
(string-append (symbol->string (caddr variable))
(number->string (cadr variable)))
(symbol->string (cadr variable))))))
(define (make-binding variable value)
(cons variable value))
(define (binding-variable binding)
(car binding))
(define (binding-value binding)
(cdr binding))
(define (binding-in-frame variable frame)
(assoc variable frame))
(define (extend variable value frame)
(cons (make-binding variable value) frame))
(define (setup-database)
(define (add-assertions! assertions)
(for-each add-rule-or-assertion! (map query-syntax-process assertions)))
(address (Bitdiddle Ben) (Slumerville (Ridge Road) 10))
(job (Bitdiddle Ben) (computer wizard))
(salary (Bitdiddle Ben) 60000)
(address (Hacker Alyssa P) (Cambridge (Mass Ave) 78))
(job (Hacker Alyssa P) (computer programmer))
(salary (Hacker Alyssa P) 40000)
(supervisor (Hacker Alyssa P) (Bitdiddle Ben))
(address (Fect Cy D) (Cambridge (Ames Street) 3))
(job (Fect Cy D) (computer programmer))
(salary (Fect Cy D) 35000)
(supervisor (Fect Cy D) (Bitdiddle Ben))
(address (Tweakit Lem E) (Boston (Bay State Road) 22))
(job (Tweakit Lem E) (computer technician))
(salary (Tweakit Lem E) 25000)
(supervisor (Tweakit Lem E) (Bitdiddle Ben))
(address (Reasoner Louis) (Slumerville (Pine Tree Road) 80))
(job (Reasoner Louis) (computer programmer trainee))
(salary (Reasoner Louis) 30000)
(supervisor (Reasoner Louis) (Hacker Alyssa P))
(supervisor (Bitdiddle Ben) (Warbucks Oliver))
(address (Warbucks Oliver) (Swellesley (Top Heap Road)))
(job (Warbucks Oliver) (administration big wheel))
(salary (Warbucks Oliver) 150000)
(address (Scrooge Eben) (Weston (Shady Lane) 10))
(job (Scrooge Eben) (accounting chief accountant))
(salary (Scrooge Eben) 75000)
(supervisor (Scrooge Eben) (Warbucks Oliver))
(address (Cratchet Robert) (Allston (N Harvard Street) 16))
(job (Cratchet Robert) (accounting scrivener))
(salary (Cratchet Robert) 18000)
(supervisor (Cratchet Robert) (Scrooge Eben))
(address (Aull DeWitt) (Slumerville (Onion Square) 5))
(job (Aull DeWitt) (administration secretary))
(salary (Aull DeWitt) 25000)
(supervisor (Aull DeWitt) (Warbucks Oliver))
(can-do-job (computer wizard) (computer programmer))
(can-do-job (computer wizard) (computer technician))
(can-do-job (computer programmer)
(computer programmer trainee))
(can-do-job (administration secretary)
(administration big wheel))
(rule (lives-near ?person-1 ?person-2)
(and (address ?person-1 (?town . ?rest-1))
(address ?person-2 (?town . ?rest-2))
(not (same ?person-1 ?person-2))))
(rule (same ?x ?x))
(rule (replaces ?person-1 ?person-2)
(and (or (and (job ?person-1 ?same-job)
(job ?person-2 ?same-job))
(and (job ?person-1 ?person-1-job)
(job ?person-2 ?person-2-job)
(can-do-job ?person-1-job ?person-2-job)))
(not (same ?person-1 ?person-2))))
(rule (big-shot ?person)
(and (job ?person (?division . ?rest1))
(or (not (supervisor ?person ?anyone))
(and (supervisor ?person ?super)
(not (job ?super (?division . ?rest2)))))))
(meeting accounting (Monday 9am))
(meeting administration (Monday 10am))
(meeting computer (Wednesday 3pm))
(meeting administration (Friday 1pm))
(meeting whole-company (Wednesday 4pm))
(rule (meeting-time ?person ?day-and-time)
(or (and (job ?person (?division . ?rest))
(meeting ?division ?day-and-time))
(meeting whole-company ?day-and-time)))
(rule (?x next-to ?y in (?x ?y . ?u)))
(rule (?x next-to ?y in (?v . ?z))
(?x next-to ?y in ?z))
(rule (last-pair (?el) (?el)))
(rule (last-pair (?x . ?rest) ?wat)
(last-pair ?rest ?wat))
(son Adam Cain)
(son Cain Enoch)
(son Enoch Irad)
(son Irad Mehujael)
(son Mehujael Methushael)
(son Methushael Lamech)
(wife Lamech Ada)
(son Ada Jabal)
(son Ada Jubal)
(rule (grandson ?grandfather ?grandson)
(and (son ?grandfather ?father)
(son ?father ?grandson)))
(rule (son ?father ?son)
(and (wife ?father ?mother)
(son ?mother ?son)))
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