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import serial
from sys import version_info
PY2 = version_info[0] == 2 #Running Python 2.x?
# Maestro Servo Controller
# Support for the Pololu Maestro line of servo controllers
# Steven Jacobs -- Aug 2013
# These functions provide access to many of the Maestro's capabilities using the
# Pololu serial protocol
class Controller:
# When connected via USB, the Maestro creates two virtual serial ports
# /dev/ttyACM0 for commands and /dev/ttyACM1 for communications.
# Be sure the Maestro is configured for "USB Dual Port" serial mode.
# "USB Chained Mode" may work as well, but hasn't been tested.
# Pololu protocol allows for multiple Maestros to be connected to a single
# serial port. Each connected device is then indexed by number.
# This device number defaults to 0x0C (or 12 in decimal), which this module
# assumes. If two or more controllers are connected to different serial
# ports, or you are using a Windows OS, you can provide the tty port. For
# example, '/dev/ttyACM2' or for Windows, something like 'COM3'.
def __init__(self,ttyStr='/dev/ttyACM0',device=0x0c):
# Open the command port
self.usb = serial.Serial(ttyStr)
# Command lead-in and device number are sent for each Pololu serial command.
self.PololuCmd = chr(0xaa) + chr(device)
# Track target position for each servo. The function isMoving() will
# use the Target vs Current servo position to determine if movement is
# occuring. Upto 24 servos on a Maestro, (0-23). Targets start at 0.
self.Targets = [0] * 24
# Servo minimum and maximum targets can be restricted to protect components.
self.Mins = [0] * 24
self.Maxs = [0] * 24
# Cleanup by closing USB serial port
def close(self):
# Send a Pololu command out the serial port
def sendCmd(self, cmd):
cmdStr = self.PololuCmd + cmd
if PY2:
# Set channels min and max value range. Use this as a safety to protect
# from accidentally moving outside known safe parameters. A setting of 0
# allows unrestricted movement.
# ***Note that the Maestro itself is configured to limit the range of servo travel
# which has precedence over these values. Use the Maestro Control Center to configure
# ranges that are saved to the controller. Use setRange for software controllable ranges.
def setRange(self, chan, min, max):
self.Mins[chan] = min
self.Maxs[chan] = max
# Return Minimum channel range value
def getMin(self, chan):
return self.Mins[chan]
# Return Maximum channel range value
def getMax(self, chan):
return self.Maxs[chan]
# Set channel to a specified target value. Servo will begin moving based
# on Speed and Acceleration parameters previously set.
# Target values will be constrained within Min and Max range, if set.
# For servos, target represents the pulse width in of quarter-microseconds
# Servo center is at 1500 microseconds, or 6000 quarter-microseconds
# Typcially valid servo range is 3000 to 9000 quarter-microseconds
# If channel is configured for digital output, values < 6000 = Low ouput
def setTarget(self, chan, target):
# if Min is defined and Target is below, force to Min
if self.Mins[chan] > 0 and target < self.Mins[chan]:
target = self.Mins[chan]
# if Max is defined and Target is above, force to Max
if self.Maxs[chan] > 0 and target > self.Maxs[chan]:
target = self.Maxs[chan]
lsb = target & 0x7f #7 bits for least significant byte
msb = (target >> 7) & 0x7f #shift 7 and take next 7 bits for msb
cmd = chr(0x04) + chr(chan) + chr(lsb) + chr(msb)
# Record Target value
self.Targets[chan] = target
# Set speed of channel
# Speed is measured as 0.25microseconds/10milliseconds
# For the standard 1ms pulse width change to move a servo between extremes, a speed
# of 1 will take 1 minute, and a speed of 60 would take 1 second.
# Speed of 0 is unrestricted.
def setSpeed(self, chan, speed):
lsb = speed & 0x7f #7 bits for least significant byte
msb = (speed >> 7) & 0x7f #shift 7 and take next 7 bits for msb
cmd = chr(0x07) + chr(chan) + chr(lsb) + chr(msb)
# Set acceleration of channel
# This provide soft starts and finishes when servo moves to target position.
# Valid values are from 0 to 255. 0=unrestricted, 1 is slowest start.
# A value of 1 will take the servo about 3s to move between 1ms to 2ms range.
def setAccel(self, chan, accel):
lsb = accel & 0x7f #7 bits for least significant byte
msb = (accel >> 7) & 0x7f #shift 7 and take next 7 bits for msb
cmd = chr(0x09) + chr(chan) + chr(lsb) + chr(msb)
# Get the current position of the device on the specified channel
# The result is returned in a measure of quarter-microseconds, which mirrors
# the Target parameter of setTarget.
# This is not reading the true servo position, but the last target position sent
# to the servo. If the Speed is set to below the top speed of the servo, then
# the position result will align well with the acutal servo position, assuming
# it is not stalled or slowed.
def getPosition(self, chan):
cmd = chr(0x10) + chr(chan)
lsb = ord(
msb = ord(
return (msb << 8) + lsb
# Test to see if a servo has reached the set target position. This only provides
# useful results if the Speed parameter is set slower than the maximum speed of
# the servo. Servo range must be defined first using setRange. See setRange comment.
# ***Note if target position goes outside of Maestro's allowable range for the
# channel, then the target can never be reached, so it will appear to always be
# moving to the target.
def isMoving(self, chan):
if self.Targets[chan] > 0:
if self.getPosition(chan) != self.Targets[chan]:
return True
return False
# Have all servo outputs reached their targets? This is useful only if Speed and/or
# Acceleration have been set on one or more of the channels. Returns True or False.
# Not available with Micro Maestro.
def getMovingState(self):
cmd = chr(0x13)
if == chr(0):
return False
return True
# Run a Maestro Script subroutine in the currently active script. Scripts can
# have multiple subroutines, which get numbered sequentially from 0 on up. Code your
# Maestro subroutine to either infinitely loop, or just end (return is not valid).
def runScriptSub(self, subNumber):
cmd = chr(0x27) + chr(subNumber)
# can pass a param with command 0x28
# cmd = chr(0x28) + chr(subNumber) + chr(lsb) + chr(msb)
# Stop the current Maestro Script
def stopScript(self):
cmd = chr(0x24)