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Solutions and exploitation snippets for SJTU CTF 2019
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README.md

README.md

SJTU CTF 2019 Write-up

Crypto

babyblock

It’s obvious that this encryption use the same key and a plaintext-dependent VI every time.

First of all, we may brute force sum of the flag plaintext string. Refer to brute_force_message.py to see how it works. This script generates a bash script to send request to server with strings of different sum. With the condition that ciphertext begins with 0ops{, if we observe any reply that has the same first five bytes with ciphertext of the encrypted flag, we can obtain the sum of the original plaintext. In this case it is 2740.

Then we may obtain characters in the flag one by one. Refer to decrypt.py for details. The program generates plaintext to be encrypted on server, then it asks for ciphertext. With the equation that cipher ^ plain = cipher_payload ^ plain_payload, we can obtain the flag in less than 30 steps.

babylcg

First of all we need to solve work of proof. This can be easily done with brute force. Refer to work.py for details.

Then we may solve the challenge one by one.

Challenge 0 is easy. Just copy-paste the LCG algorithm.

For challenge 1, with equation that m * x + c = next_x (mod p), we may obtain c with c = next_x - m * x (mod p).

For challenge 2,

a1 = m * a0 + c (mod p)
a2 = m * a1 + c
a3 = m * a2 + c 

Hence, a2 - a1 = m * (a1 - a0), we may obtain that m = (a2 - a1) * (a1 - a0)^-1

Therefore, c can be obtained with the method described in challenge 1.

For challenge 3, we should solve an equation. [THERE SHOULD BE A REFERENCE]. Refer to challenge_3.py for implementation.

babyrsa

For p and q in this RSA algorithm, we assume that

p = 10^256 * a + b
q = 10^256 * b + a

Therefore,

n = p * q = 10^512 * ab + 10^256 * (a + b) + ab

As both a, b < 10^256, we can obtain a*b, and then obtain a + b. As a, b are known, we may obtain p, q. Then we can decrypt the ciphertext with standard RSA methods.

CRC Forgery

As plaintext, CRC and CRC algorithm are known, we may backtrack the missing 64 bits.

Let cipher_msg = 00...00 + CRC, plain_msg = message + const

At the i-th iteration of CRC algorithm, the length - i bits haven’t been altered. Therefore, we may do the reverse algorithm. For current reverse iteration, if cipher_msg[(i+64) bit] != plain_msg[(i+64) bit], then this bit should be flipped at i-th iteration. XOR cipher message with poly until we obtain what the missing bits should be before calculating CRC of the remaining bits blank_after_bits.

Then we calculate CRC from beginning to the missing blanks. We obtain what the missing blanks look like after calculating previous bits. We assume that value to be blank_before_bits.

It’s obvious that blank_after_bits ^ blank_before_bits = blank_bits. Then we obtain the result.

Mixed Cipher

From the Python script we observe that this encryption does two things. First of all, mapping each character to other character, aka. CAESAR encryption. Then, it XOR each byte with a key stream, where key is a constant size.

Therefore, we may first guess key length. As key and message are visible characters, we can brute force different key length. We enumerate: 1. Stride 2. Every position of the key 3. Possible character of key in this position. The correct combination should render the plaintext in visible characters. After several trials, we found that key length is 29.

Then we just guess the key. Fortunately, the key is not a random string. After determining some characters, we may fill the blanks according to the generated mappings.txt, just like what we did in high school entrance examination. Then we obtain the key.

Now we’re left with a CAESAR-encrypted ciphertext. With some online tools we can easily obtain the result. [REFERENCE]

Reverse

snake

It is easily observed that this is a Python byte-code file. Just decompile it, we get a function with a lot of if statements. Follow logic of the conditions to construct the flag.

chaos

It seems that the ELF binary is corrupted, so we can’t decompile it with Ghidra. Attach gdb to the process, it seems that it’s running something like CAESAR cipher. Find where the input, ciphertext and encryption rule are on stack. Then write a simple program to decrypt it.

triblock

The encryption is hidden in 3 parts: INIT, FIN and main function. Decompile it with Ghidra. We obtain the flag in two steps.

First, reversing the encryption method in main. We can easily guess what do some of the functions do, such as generate_key_from_string, encrypt and reverse. Then analyze what the ciphertext is. From INIT function and ELF binary we may reverse what ciphertext is in memory. Then brute force the plaintext. It turned out to be this_is_not_flag.

Then we do the second part of the reversing in FIN. Indeed this part of code will never be executed. As encrypt is stateful, which means that what we’ve encrypted last time will affect what we obtain this time, we must run decrypt on phase 1 plaintext to preserve the original program flow. Then it’s easy brute force the plain text with the same method.

Web

basic_web

Just look at the source code.

ezxxe

XXE exploitation with Java. Note that flag is a directory.

Message board

Just a kind of XSS. Build a server, brute force the md5, and let the admin visit. Then you get the flag.

But there’s another problem. view.php explicitly cleared the cookie. Then XSS Audit came to help. [REFERENCE]. By constructing an URL to disable clearing flag scripts, we obtain the flag on our server.

Misc

anti-hack11

Never reinvent the wheel. Just download a Chrome extension to solve the captcha, and modify it to run on CTF server. You may refer to anti-hack11.diff. [REFERENCE]

anti-hack10

Use volidity to analyze the core dump. [REFERENCE] Flag is in memory region of mspaint.exe. Use GIMP to view the memory as raw image. Adjust the width and the flag will be shown. [REFERENCE]

sqlmap yibasuo

The sqlmap utility guess what’s inside the database one character by one. With Wireshark filter http.request_in, we can see all request sent by sqlmap. Then find != in HTTP POST form. In this way we obtain the flag.

weird logo

With pngcheck we find there’re hidden data at the end of the image. That’s a zip file in reverse byte order. Then we can get a QR code from the image by bit-and 1 lowest bit in pixels of each channel. Refer to weird_logo.py. [REFERENCE] Scanning the QR code we obtain the password of the zip file.

animal

Just pickle with latest protocol of Python pickle. Here I use a special way to construct the payload automatically.

dog

For the first layer of encryption, there’s no password indeed. Use ZipCenOp.jar to remove the password. For the second layer, there’re base32 encoded password at the end of the file. Then use cat * > all.jpg to get the image. Use binwalk to extract another zip. From EXIF data we obtain the password of the zip. Finally brute force the password with john. It turns out to be a 8-digit number.

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