Skip to content
Branch: master
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
terraform Implement TLS provisioning Apr 30, 2018
.gitignore Implement TLS provisioning Apr 30, 2018
README.md Update README.md Dec 3, 2018

README.md

Kubernetes The Hard Way - AWS

This page is based on Kubernetes The Hard Way guide. It compiles AWS CLI commands, mainly from revision 8185017 of the guide (right before AWS support has been removed), with small adjustments. Best is to follow the original guide side-by-side with this page as the former providers background and context and this page contains only the commands.

The intent of this page is similar to the original guide. My motivation to compile it has been to learn more about AWS and Kubernetes.

Labs

Prerequisites

Amazon Web Services

The commands below deploy Kubernetes cluster into Amazon Web Services. I was able to run them using AWS Free Tier, at no cost.

Amazon Web Services CLI

Install AWS CLI following instructions at https://aws.amazon.com/cli/.

Installing the Client Tools

Follow the guide instructions.

OS X: If you run into issues with cfssl install it using brew:

brew install cfssl

Provisioning Compute Resources

Guide

Networking

VPC

VPC_ID=$(aws ec2 create-vpc \
  --cidr-block 10.240.0.0/24 \
  --output text --query 'Vpc.VpcId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${VPC_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes-the-hard-way
aws ec2 modify-vpc-attribute \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --enable-dns-support '{"Value": true}'
aws ec2 modify-vpc-attribute \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --enable-dns-hostnames '{"Value": true}'

DHCP Option Sets

AWS_REGION=us-east-2
DHCP_OPTION_SET_ID=$(aws ec2 create-dhcp-options \
  --dhcp-configuration \
    "Key=domain-name,Values=$AWS_REGION.compute.internal" \
    "Key=domain-name-servers,Values=AmazonProvidedDNS" \
  --output text --query 'DhcpOptions.DhcpOptionsId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${DHCP_OPTION_SET_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes
aws ec2 associate-dhcp-options \
  --dhcp-options-id ${DHCP_OPTION_SET_ID} \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID}

Subnet

SUBNET_ID=$(aws ec2 create-subnet \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --cidr-block 10.240.0.0/24 \
  --output text --query 'Subnet.SubnetId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${SUBNET_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes

Internet Gateway

INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID=$(aws ec2 create-internet-gateway \
  --output text --query 'InternetGateway.InternetGatewayId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes
aws ec2 attach-internet-gateway \
  --internet-gateway-id ${INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID} \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID}

Route Tables

ROUTE_TABLE_ID=$(aws ec2 create-route-table \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --output text --query 'RouteTable.RouteTableId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${ROUTE_TABLE_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes
aws ec2 associate-route-table \
  --route-table-id ${ROUTE_TABLE_ID} \
  --subnet-id ${SUBNET_ID}
aws ec2 create-route \
  --route-table-id ${ROUTE_TABLE_ID} \
  --destination-cidr-block 0.0.0.0/0 \
  --gateway-id ${INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID}

Firewall Rules (aka Security Groups)

SECURITY_GROUP_ID=$(aws ec2 create-security-group \
  --group-name kubernetes \
  --description "Kubernetes security group" \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --output text --query 'GroupId')
aws ec2 create-tags \
  --resources ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --tags Key=Name,Value=kubernetes
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol all \
  --cidr 10.240.0.0/24
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol all \
  --cidr 10.200.0.0/16
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol tcp \
  --port 22 \
  --cidr 0.0.0.0/0
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol tcp \
  --port 6443 \
  --cidr 0.0.0.0/0
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol icmp \
  --port -1 \
  --cidr 0.0.0.0/0

Kubernetes Public Address

LOAD_BALANCER_ARN=$(aws elbv2 create-load-balancer \
  --name kubernetes \
  --subnets ${SUBNET_ID} \
  --scheme internet-facing \
  --type network \
  --output text --query 'LoadBalancers[].LoadBalancerArn')
TARGET_GROUP_ARN=$(aws elbv2 create-target-group \
  --name kubernetes \
  --protocol TCP \
  --port 6443 \
  --vpc-id ${VPC_ID} \
  --target-type ip \
  --output text --query 'TargetGroups[].TargetGroupArn')
aws elbv2 register-targets \
  --target-group-arn ${TARGET_GROUP_ARN} \
  --targets Id=10.240.0.1{0,1,2}
aws elbv2 create-listener \
  --load-balancer-arn ${LOAD_BALANCER_ARN} \
  --protocol TCP \
  --port 6443 \
  --default-actions Type=forward,TargetGroupArn=${TARGET_GROUP_ARN} \
  --output text --query 'Listeners[].ListenerArn'
KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$(aws elbv2 describe-load-balancers \
  --load-balancer-arns ${LOAD_BALANCER_ARN} \
  --output text --query 'LoadBalancers[].DNSName')

Compute Instances

Instance Image

IMAGE_ID=$(aws ec2 describe-images --owners 099720109477 \
  --filters \
  'Name=root-device-type,Values=ebs' \
  'Name=architecture,Values=x86_64' \
  'Name=name,Values=ubuntu/images/hvm-ssd/ubuntu-xenial-16.04-amd64-server-*' \
  | jq -r '.Images|sort_by(.Name)[-1]|.ImageId')

SSH Key Pair

mkdir -p ssh

aws ec2 create-key-pair \
  --key-name kubernetes \
  --output text --query 'KeyMaterial' \
  > ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa
chmod 600 ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa

Kubernetes Controllers

Using t2.micro instead of t2.small as t2.micro is covered by AWS free tier

for i in 0 1 2; do
  instance_id=$(aws ec2 run-instances \
    --associate-public-ip-address \
    --image-id ${IMAGE_ID} \
    --count 1 \
    --key-name kubernetes \
    --security-group-ids ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
    --instance-type t2.micro \
    --private-ip-address 10.240.0.1${i} \
    --user-data "name=controller-${i}" \
    --subnet-id ${SUBNET_ID} \
    --output text --query 'Instances[].InstanceId')
  aws ec2 modify-instance-attribute \
    --instance-id ${instance_id} \
    --no-source-dest-check
  aws ec2 create-tags \
    --resources ${instance_id} \
    --tags "Key=Name,Value=controller-${i}"
done

Kubernetes Workers

for i in 0 1 2; do
  instance_id=$(aws ec2 run-instances \
    --associate-public-ip-address \
    --image-id ${IMAGE_ID} \
    --count 1 \
    --key-name kubernetes \
    --security-group-ids ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
    --instance-type t2.micro \
    --private-ip-address 10.240.0.2${i} \
    --user-data "name=worker-${i}|pod-cidr=10.200.${i}.0/24" \
    --subnet-id ${SUBNET_ID} \
    --output text --query 'Instances[].InstanceId')
  aws ec2 modify-instance-attribute \
    --instance-id ${instance_id} \
    --no-source-dest-check
  aws ec2 create-tags \
    --resources ${instance_id} \
    --tags "Key=Name,Value=worker-${i}"
done

Provisioning a CA and Generating TLS Certificates

Guide

Certificate Authority

mkdir -p tls
cat > tls/ca-config.json <<EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "8760h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
        "usages": ["signing", "key encipherment", "server auth", "client auth"],
        "expiry": "8760h"
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > tls/ca-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "Kubernetes",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "US",
      "L": "Portland",
      "O": "Kubernetes",
      "OU": "CA",
      "ST": "Oregon"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -initca tls/ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare tls/ca

Client and Server Certificates

Admin Client Certificate

cat > tls/admin-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "admin",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "US",
      "L": "Portland",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "Kubernetes The Hard Way",
      "ST": "Oregon"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert \
  -ca=tls/ca.pem \
  -ca-key=tls/ca-key.pem \
  -config=tls/ca-config.json \
  -profile=kubernetes \
  tls/admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare tls/admin

Kubelet Client Certificates

for i in 0 1 2; do
  instance="worker-${i}"
  instance_hostname="ip-10-240-0-2${i}"
  cat > tls/${instance}-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "system:node:${instance_hostname}",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "US",
      "L": "Portland",
      "O": "system:nodes",
      "OU": "Kubernetes The Hard Way",
      "ST": "Oregon"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

  external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')

  internal_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PrivateIpAddress')

  cfssl gencert \
    -ca=tls/ca.pem \
    -ca-key=tls/ca-key.pem \
    -config=tls/ca-config.json \
    -hostname=${instance_hostname},${external_ip},${internal_ip} \
    -profile=kubernetes \
    tls/worker-${i}-csr.json | cfssljson -bare tls/worker-${i}
done

kube-proxy Client Certificate

cat > tls/kube-proxy-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "US",
      "L": "Portland",
      "O": "system:node-proxier",
      "OU": "Kubernetes The Hard Way",
      "ST": "Oregon"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert \
  -ca=tls/ca.pem \
  -ca-key=tls/ca-key.pem \
  -config=tls/ca-config.json \
  -profile=kubernetes \
  tls/kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare tls/kube-proxy

Kubernetes API Server Certificate

cat > tls/kubernetes-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "kubernetes",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "US",
      "L": "Portland",
      "O": "Kubernetes",
      "OU": "Kubernetes The Hard Way",
      "ST": "Oregon"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert \
  -ca=tls/ca.pem \
  -ca-key=tls/ca-key.pem \
  -config=tls/ca-config.json \
  -hostname=10.32.0.1,10.240.0.10,10.240.0.11,10.240.0.12,ip-10-240-0-10,ip-10-240-0-11,ip-10-240-0-12,${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS},127.0.0.1,kubernetes.default \
  -profile=kubernetes \
  tls/kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare tls/kubernetes

Distribute the Client and Server Certificates

for instance in worker-0 worker-1 worker-2; do
  external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
  scp -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa \
    tls/ca.pem tls/${instance}-key.pem tls/${instance}.pem \
    ubuntu@${external_ip}:~/
done
for instance in controller-0 controller-1 controller-2; do
  external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
  scp -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa \
    tls/ca.pem tls/ca-key.pem tls/kubernetes-key.pem tls/kubernetes.pem \
    ubuntu@${external_ip}:~/
done

Generating Kubernetes Authentication Files for Authentication

Guide

Client Authentication Configs

Kubernetes Public IP Address

KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS=$(aws elbv2 describe-load-balancers \
  --load-balancer-arns ${LOAD_BALANCER_ARN} \
  --output text --query 'LoadBalancers[0].DNSName')

The kubelet Kubernetes Configuration Files

mkdir -p cfg

for i in 0 1 2; do
  instance="worker-${i}"
  instance_hostname="ip-10-240-0-2${i}"
  bin/kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes-the-hard-way \
    --certificate-authority=tls/ca.pem \
    --embed-certs=true \
    --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
    --kubeconfig=cfg/${instance}.kubeconfig

  bin/kubectl config set-credentials system:node:${instance_hostname} \
    --client-certificate=tls/${instance}.pem \
    --client-key=tls/${instance}-key.pem \
    --embed-certs=true \
    --kubeconfig=cfg/${instance}.kubeconfig

  bin/kubectl config set-context default \
    --cluster=kubernetes-the-hard-way \
    --user=system:node:${instance_hostname} \
    --kubeconfig=cfg/${instance}.kubeconfig

  bin/kubectl config use-context default \
    --kubeconfig=cfg/${instance}.kubeconfig
done

The kube-proxy Kubernetes Configuration File

bin/kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes-the-hard-way \
  --certificate-authority=tls/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443 \
  --kubeconfig=cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
bin/kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=tls/kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=tls/kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
bin/kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes-the-hard-way \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
bin/kubectl config use-context default \
  --kubeconfig=cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig

Distribute the Kubernetes Configuration Files

for instance in worker-0 worker-1 worker-2; do
  external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
  scp -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa \
    cfg/${instance}.kubeconfig cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig \
    ubuntu@${external_ip}:~/
done

Generating the Data Encryption Config and Key

Guide

The Encryption Key

ENCRYPTION_KEY=$(head -c 32 /dev/urandom | base64)

The Encryption Config File

cat > cfg/encryption-config.yaml <<EOF
kind: EncryptionConfig
apiVersion: v1
resources:
  - resources:
      - secrets
    providers:
      - aescbc:
          keys:
            - name: key1
              secret: ${ENCRYPTION_KEY}
      - identity: {}
EOF
for instance in controller-0 controller-1 controller-2; do
  external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
  scp -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa cfg/encryption-config.yaml ubuntu@${external_ip}:~/
done

Bootstrapping the etcd Cluster

Guide

SSH to controller-0, controller-1, controller-2 (replace controller-N accordingly):

external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=controller-N" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
ssh -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa ubuntu@${external_ip}

Execute on each controller:

wget -q --show-progress --https-only --timestamping \
  "https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases/download/v3.2.11/etcd-v3.2.11-linux-amd64.tar.gz"
tar -xvf etcd-v3.2.11-linux-amd64.tar.gz
sudo mv etcd-v3.2.11-linux-amd64/etcd* /usr/local/bin/
sudo mkdir -p /etc/etcd /var/lib/etcd
sudo cp ca.pem kubernetes-key.pem kubernetes.pem /etc/etcd/
INTERNAL_IP=$(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/local-ipv4)
ETCD_NAME=$(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data/ \
  | tr "|" "\n" | grep "^name" | cut -d"=" -f2)
echo "${ETCD_NAME}"
cat > etcd.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=etcd
Documentation=https://github.com/coreos

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/etcd \\
  --name ${ETCD_NAME} \\
  --cert-file=/etc/etcd/kubernetes.pem \\
  --key-file=/etc/etcd/kubernetes-key.pem \\
  --peer-cert-file=/etc/etcd/kubernetes.pem \\
  --peer-key-file=/etc/etcd/kubernetes-key.pem \\
  --trusted-ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.pem \\
  --peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.pem \\
  --peer-client-cert-auth \\
  --client-cert-auth \\
  --initial-advertise-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\
  --listen-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\
  --listen-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379 \\
  --advertise-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379 \\
  --initial-cluster-token etcd-cluster-0 \\
  --initial-cluster controller-0=https://10.240.0.10:2380,controller-1=https://10.240.0.11:2380,controller-2=https://10.240.0.12:2380 \\
  --initial-cluster-state new \\
  --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

sudo mv etcd.service /etc/systemd/system/
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable etcd
sudo systemctl start etcd
ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl member list

Bootstrapping the Kubernetes Control Plane

Guide

SSH to controller-0, controller-1, controller-2 (replace controller-N accordingly):

external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=controller-N" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
ssh -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa ubuntu@${external_ip}

Execute on each controller:

wget -q --show-progress --https-only --timestamping \
  "https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kube-apiserver" \
  "https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kube-controller-manager" \
  "https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kube-scheduler" \
  "https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl"
chmod +x kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl
sudo mv kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl /usr/local/bin/
sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/kubernetes/
sudo mv ca.pem ca-key.pem kubernetes-key.pem kubernetes.pem encryption-config.yaml /var/lib/kubernetes/
INTERNAL_IP=$(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/local-ipv4)

cat > kube-apiserver.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-apiserver \\
  --admission-control=Initializers,NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota \\
  --advertise-address=${INTERNAL_IP} \\
  --allow-privileged=true \\
  --apiserver-count=3 \\
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \\
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
  --audit-log-path=/var/log/audit.log \\
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \\
  --bind-address=0.0.0.0 \\
  --client-ca-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \\
  --etcd-cafile=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --etcd-certfile=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \\
  --etcd-keyfile=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \\
  --etcd-servers=https://10.240.0.10:2379,https://10.240.0.11:2379,https://10.240.0.12:2379 \\
  --event-ttl=1h \\
  --experimental-encryption-provider-config=/var/lib/kubernetes/encryption-config.yaml \\
  --insecure-bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
  --kubelet-certificate-authority=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \\
  --kubelet-client-key=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \\
  --kubelet-https=true \\
  --runtime-config=api/all \\
  --service-account-key-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca-key.pem \\
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.32.0.0/24 \\
  --service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
  --tls-cert-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \\
  --tls-private-key-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

cat > kube-controller-manager.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-controller-manager \\
  --address=0.0.0.0 \\
  --cluster-cidr=10.200.0.0/16 \\
  --cluster-name=kubernetes \\
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca-key.pem \\
  --leader-elect=true \\
  --master=http://127.0.0.1:8080 \\
  --root-ca-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --service-account-private-key-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca-key.pem \\
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.32.0.0/24 \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

cat > kube-scheduler.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-scheduler \\
  --leader-elect=true \\
  --master=http://127.0.0.1:8080 \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

sudo mv kube-apiserver.service kube-scheduler.service kube-controller-manager.service /etc/systemd/system/
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler
sudo systemctl start kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler
kubectl get componentstatuses

RBAC for Kubelet Authorization

SSH to controller-0:

external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=controller-0" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
ssh -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa ubuntu@${external_ip}
cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/proxy
      - nodes/stats
      - nodes/log
      - nodes/spec
      - nodes/metrics
    verbs:
      - "*"
EOF

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: ""
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF

The Kubernetes Frontend Load Balancer

Nothing to do - already setup in previous section

Bootstrapping the Kubernetes Worker Nodes

Guide

SSH to worker-0, worker-1, worker-2 (replace worker-N accordingly):

external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=worker-N" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
ssh -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa ubuntu@${external_ip}

Execute on each worker:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get -y install socat
wget -q --show-progress --https-only --timestamping \
  https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v0.6.0/cni-plugins-amd64-v0.6.0.tgz \
  https://github.com/containerd/cri-containerd/releases/download/v1.0.0-beta.1/cri-containerd-1.0.0-beta.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kube-proxy \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.9.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubelet
sudo mkdir -p \
  /etc/cni/net.d \
  /opt/cni/bin \
  /var/lib/kubelet \
  /var/lib/kube-proxy \
  /var/lib/kubernetes \
  /var/run/kubernetes
sudo tar -xvf cni-plugins-amd64-v0.6.0.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin/
sudo tar -xvf cri-containerd-1.0.0-beta.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /
chmod +x kubectl kube-proxy kubelet
sudo mv kubectl kube-proxy kubelet /usr/local/bin/
POD_CIDR=$(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data/ \
  | tr "|" "\n" | grep "^pod-cidr" | cut -d"=" -f2)
echo "${POD_CIDR}"
cat > 10-bridge.conf <<EOF
{
    "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
    "name": "bridge",
    "type": "bridge",
    "bridge": "cnio0",
    "isGateway": true,
    "ipMasq": true,
    "ipam": {
        "type": "host-local",
        "ranges": [
          [{"subnet": "${POD_CIDR}"}]
        ],
        "routes": [{"dst": "0.0.0.0/0"}]
    }
}
EOF

cat > 99-loopback.conf <<EOF
{
    "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
    "type": "loopback"
}
EOF

sudo mv 10-bridge.conf 99-loopback.conf /etc/cni/net.d/
WORKER_NAME=$(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/user-data/ \
  | tr "|" "\n" | grep "^name" | cut -d"=" -f2)
echo "${WORKER_NAME}"
sudo mv ${WORKER_NAME}-key.pem ${WORKER_NAME}.pem /var/lib/kubelet/
sudo mv ${WORKER_NAME}.kubeconfig /var/lib/kubelet/kubeconfig
sudo mv ca.pem /var/lib/kubernetes/

cat > kubelet.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=cri-containerd.service
Requires=cri-containerd.service

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kubelet \\
  --allow-privileged=true \\
  --anonymous-auth=false \\
  --authorization-mode=Webhook \\
  --client-ca-file=/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem \\
  --cloud-provider= \\
  --cluster-dns=10.32.0.10 \\
  --cluster-domain=cluster.local \\
  --container-runtime=remote \\
  --container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///var/run/cri-containerd.sock \\
  --image-pull-progress-deadline=2m \\
  --kubeconfig=/var/lib/kubelet/kubeconfig \\
  --network-plugin=cni \\
  --pod-cidr=${POD_CIDR} \\
  --register-node=true \\
  --runtime-request-timeout=15m \\
  --tls-cert-file=/var/lib/kubelet/${WORKER_NAME}.pem \\
  --tls-private-key-file=/var/lib/kubelet/${WORKER_NAME}-key.pem \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

sudo mv kube-proxy.kubeconfig /var/lib/kube-proxy/kubeconfig

cat > kube-proxy.service <<EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube Proxy
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-proxy \\
  --cluster-cidr=10.200.0.0/16 \\
  --kubeconfig=/var/lib/kube-proxy/kubeconfig \\
  --proxy-mode=iptables \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

sudo mv kubelet.service kube-proxy.service /etc/systemd/system/
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable containerd cri-containerd kubelet kube-proxy
sudo systemctl start containerd cri-containerd kubelet kube-proxy

Configuring kubectl for Remote Access

Guide

The Admin Kubernetes Configuration File

bin/kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes-the-hard-way \
  --certificate-authority=tls/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=https://${KUBERNETES_PUBLIC_ADDRESS}:6443
bin/kubectl config set-credentials admin \
  --client-certificate=tls/admin.pem \
  --client-key=tls/admin-key.pem
bin/kubectl config set-context kubernetes-the-hard-way \
  --cluster=kubernetes-the-hard-way \
  --user=admin
bin/kubectl config use-context kubernetes-the-hard-way

Verification

kubectl get componentstatuses
kubectl get nodes

Provisioning Pod Network Routes

Guide

The Routing Table

for instance in worker-0 worker-1 worker-2; do
  instance_id_ip="$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
    --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=${instance}" \
    --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].[InstanceId,PrivateIpAddress]')"
  instance_id="$(echo "${instance_id_ip}" | cut -f1)"
  instance_ip="$(echo "${instance_id_ip}" | cut -f2)"
  pod_cidr="$(aws ec2 describe-instance-attribute \
    --instance-id "${instance_id}" \
    --attribute userData \
    --output text --query 'UserData.Value' \
    | base64 --decode | tr "|" "\n" | grep "^pod-cidr" | cut -d'=' -f2)"
  echo "${instance_ip} ${pod_cidr}"

  aws ec2 create-route \
    --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
    --destination-cidr-block "${pod_cidr}" \
    --instance-id "${instance_id}"
done

Routes

The last command above (i.e. aws ec2 create-route) creates the route for each worker.

aws ec2 describe-route-tables \
  --route-table-ids "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
  --query 'RouteTables[].Routes'

Deploying the DNS Cluster Add-on

The DNS Cluster Add-On

Run commands from The DNS Cluster Add-On section

Smoke Test

Data Encryption

Run commands from Data Encryption section

Print a hexdump of the kubernetes-the-hard-way secret stored in etcd:

external_ip=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=controller-0" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')
ssh -i ssh/kubernetes.id_rsa \
  ubuntu@${external_ip} \
  "ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get /registry/secrets/default/kubernetes-the-hard-way | hexdump -C"

Deployments

Run commands from Deployments section

Port Forwarding

Run commands from Port Forwarding section

Logs

Run commands from Logs section

Exec

Run commands from Exec section

Services

Run commands from Services section

To create a firewall rule that allows remote access to the nginx node port:

NODE_PORT=$(kubectl get svc nginx \
  --output=jsonpath='{range .spec.ports[0]}{.nodePort}')

aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress \
  --group-id ${SECURITY_GROUP_ID} \
  --protocol tcp \
  --port ${NODE_PORT} \
  --cidr 0.0.0.0/0

To retrieve the external IP address of a worker instance:

EXTERNAL_IP=$(aws ec2 describe-instances \
  --filters "Name=tag:Name,Values=worker-0" \
  --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].PublicIpAddress')

Cleaning Up

Guide

Compute Instances

aws ec2 terminate-instances \
  --instance-ids \
    $(aws ec2 describe-instances \
      --filter "Name=tag:Name,Values=controller-0,controller-1,controller-2,worker-0,worker-1,worker-2" \
      --output text --query 'Reservations[].Instances[].InstanceId')
aws ec2 delete-key-pair \
  --key-name kubernetes

Networking

aws elbv2 delete-load-balancer \
  --load-balancer-arn "${LOAD_BALANCER_ARN}"
aws elbv2 delete-target-group \
  --target-group-arn "${TARGET_GROUP_ARN}"
aws ec2 delete-security-group \
  --group-id "${SECURITY_GROUP_ID}"
ROUTE_TABLE_ASSOCIATION_ID="$(aws ec2 describe-route-tables \
  --route-table-ids "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
  --output text --query 'RouteTables[].Associations[].RouteTableAssociationId')"
aws ec2 disassociate-route-table \
  --association-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ASSOCIATION_ID}"
# aws ec2 delete-route \
#   --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
#   --destination-cidr-block 0.0.0.0/0
# aws ec2 delete-route \
#   --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
#   --destination-cidr-block 10.200.0.0/24
# aws ec2 delete-route \
#   --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
#   --destination-cidr-block 10.200.1.0/24
# aws ec2 delete-route \
#   --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}" \
#   --destination-cidr-block 10.200.2.0/24
aws ec2 delete-route-table \
  --route-table-id "${ROUTE_TABLE_ID}"
aws ec2 detach-internet-gateway \
  --internet-gateway-id "${INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID}" \
  --vpc-id "${VPC_ID}"
aws ec2 delete-internet-gateway \
  --internet-gateway-id "${INTERNET_GATEWAY_ID}"
aws ec2 delete-subnet \
  --subnet-id "${SUBNET_ID}"
aws ec2 delete-dhcp-options \
  --dhcp-options-id "${DHCP_OPTION_SET_ID}"
aws ec2 delete-vpc \
  --vpc-id "${VPC_ID}"
You can’t perform that action at this time.