Permalink
Find file
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
755 lines (755 sloc) 25.1 KB
Annex A (informative)
Grammar summary [gram]
1 This summary of C++ syntax is intended to be an aid to comprehension. It is not an exact statement of the language. In particular, the grammar described here accepts a superset of valid C++ constructs. Disambiguation rules (6.8, 7.1, 10.2) must be applied to distinguish expressions from declarations. Further, access control, ambiguity, and type rules must be used to weed out syntactically valid but meaningless constructs.
A.1 Keywords [gram.key]
1 New context-dependent keywords are introduced into a program by typedef (7.1.3), namespace (7.3.1), class (clause 9), enumeration (7.2), and template (clause 14) declarations.
typedef-name: identifier
namespace-name: original-namespace-name namespace-alias
original-namespace-name: identifier
namespace-alias: identifier
class-name: identifier
simple-template-id enum-name:
identifier
template-name: identifier
Note that a typedef-name naming a class is also a class-name (9.1).
A.2
Lexical conventions [gram.lex]
§ A.2
1176
hex-quad:
hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit
universal-character-name: \u hex-quad
\U hex-quad hex-quad
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012
§ A.2
1177
preprocessing-token: header-name
identifier
pp-number
character-literal
user-defined-character-literal
string-literal
user-defined-string-literal
preprocessing-op-or-punc
each non-white-space character that cannot be one of the above
token: identifier
keyword literal operator punctuator
header-name:
< h-char-sequence >
" q-char-sequence "
h-char-sequence: h-char
h-char-sequence h-char h-char:
any member of the source character set except new-line and >
q-char-sequence: q-char
q-char-sequence q-char q-char:
any member of the source character set except new-line and "
pp-number: digit
. digit
pp-number digit
pp-number identifier-nondigit pp-number e sign
pp-number E sign
pp-number .
identifier: identifier-nondigit
identifier identifier-nondigit identifier digit
identifier-nondigit: nondigit
universal-character-name
other implementation-defined characters
nondigit: one of abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ_
digit: one of 0123456789
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
§ A.2
1178
preprocessing-op-or-punc: one of
{ } [ ]
<::><%%>
new delete ? :: +-*/%ˆ&|
! = <
ˆ= &= |=
<= >= &&
and and_eq bitand or or_eq xor
literal: integer-literal
character-literal floating-literal string-literal boolean-literal pointer-literal user-defined-literal
> += -= *= /= << >> >>= <<= == || ++ -- , ->*
integer-literal:
decimal-literal integer-suffixopt octal-literal integer-suffixopt hexadecimal-literal integer-suffixopt
decimal-literal: nonzero-digit
decimal-literal digit
octal-literal:
0
octal-literal octal-digit
hexadecimal-literal:
0x hexadecimal-digit
0X hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-literal hexadecimal-digit
nonzero-digit: one of 123456789
octal-digit: one of 01234567
hexadecimal-digit: one of 0123456789
abcdef ABCDEF
integer-suffix:
unsigned-suffix long-suffixopt unsigned-suffix long-long-suffixopt long-suffix unsigned-suffixopt long-long-suffix unsigned-suffixopt
unsigned-suffix: one of uU
long-suffix: one of lL
long-long-suffix: one of ll LL
# ## ( ) %:%:%:;: ..*
...
~
%= != ->
bitor compl not xor_eq
not_eq
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012
§ A.2
1179
character-literal:
’ c-char-sequence ’
u’ c-char-sequence ’ U’ c-char-sequence ’ L’ c-char-sequence ’
c-char-sequence: c-char
c-char-sequence c-char
c-char:
any member of the source character set except
the single-quote ’, backslash \, or new-line character
escape-sequence universal-character-name
escape-sequence: simple-escape-sequence
octal-escape-sequence hexadecimal-escape-sequence
simple-escape-sequence: one of \’ \" \? \\
\a \b \f \n \r \t \v
octal-escape-sequence: \ octal-digit
\ octal-digit octal-digit
\ octal-digit octal-digit octal-digit
hexadecimal-escape-sequence: \x hexadecimal-digit
hexadecimal-escape-sequence hexadecimal-digit
floating-literal:
fractional-constant exponent-partopt floating-suffixopt digit-sequence exponent-part floating-suffixopt
fractional-constant:
digit-sequenceopt. digit-sequence digit-sequence .
exponent-part:
e signopt digit-sequence
E signopt digit-sequence sign: one of
+-
digit-sequence: digit
digit-sequence digit floating-suffix: one of
flFL
string-literal:
encoding-prefixopt " s-char-sequenceopt " encoding-prefixopt R raw-string
encoding-prefix:
u8 u U L
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012
§ A.2
1180
s-char-sequence: s-char
s-char-sequence s-char
s-char:
any member of the source character set except
the double-quote ", backslash \, or new-line character
escape-sequence universal-character-name
raw-string:
" d-char-sequenceopt ( r-char-sequenceopt ) d-char-sequenceopt "
r-char-sequence: r-char
r-char-sequence r-char
r-char:
any member of the source character set, except
a right parenthesis ) followed by the initial d-char-sequence (which may be empty) followed by a double quote ".
d-char-sequence: d-char
d-char-sequence d-char
d-char:
any member of the basic source character set except:
space, the left parenthesis (, the right parenthesis ), the backslash \, and the control characters representing horizontal tab,
vertical tab, form feed, and newline.
boolean-literal:
false true
pointer-literal:
nullptr
user-defined-literal: user-defined-integer-literal user-defined-floating-literal user-defined-string-literal user-defined-character-literal
user-defined-integer-literal: decimal-literal ud-suffix
octal-literal ud-suffix hexadecimal-literal ud-suffix
user-defined-floating-literal:
fractional-constant exponent-partopt ud-suffix digit-sequence exponent-part ud-suffix
user-defined-string-literal: string-literal ud-suffix
user-defined-character-literal: character-literal ud-suffix
ud-suffix: identifier
⃝c ISO/IEC
A.3 Basic concepts
translation-unit: declaration-seqopt
A.4 Expressions
N3242=11-0012
[gram.basic]
[gram.expr]
§ A.4
1181
primary-expression: literal
this
( expression ) id-expression lambda-expression
id-expression: unqualified-id
qualified-id
unqualified-id: identifier
operator-function-id conversion-function-id literal-operator-id
~ class-name
~ decltype-specifier template-id
qualified-id:
::opt nested-name-specifier templateopt unqualified-id :: identifier
:: operator-function-id
:: literal-operator-id
:: template-id
nested-name-specifier: type-name ::
namespace-name ::
decltype-specifier ::
nested-name-specifier identifier ::
nested-name-specifier templateopt simple-template-id ::
lambda-expression:
lambda-introducer lambda-declaratoropt compound-statement
lambda-introducer:
[ lambda-captureopt ]
lambda-capture: capture-default
capture-list
capture-default , capture-list
capture-default:
& =
capture-list:
capture ...opt
capture-list , capture ...opt
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012
§ A.4
1182
capture: identifier
& identifier this
lambda-declarator:
( parameter-declaration-clause ) mutableopt
exception-specificationopt attribute-specifier-seqopt trailing-return-typeopt
postfix-expression: primary-expression
postfix-expression [ expression ] postfix-expression [ braced-init-list ] postfix-expression ( expression-listopt ) simple-type-specifier ( expression-listopt ) typename-specifier ( expression-listopt ) simple-type-specifier braced-init-list typename-specifier braced-init-list postfix-expression . templateopt id-expression postfix-expression -> templateopt id-expression postfix-expression . pseudo-destructor-name postfix-expression -> pseudo-destructor-name postfix-expression ++
postfix-expression --
dynamic_cast < type-id > ( expression ) static_cast < type-id > ( expression ) reinterpret_cast < type-id > ( expression ) const_cast < type-id > ( expression ) typeid ( expression )
typeid ( type-id )
expression-list: initializer-list
pseudo-destructor-name:
::opt nested-name-specifieropt
::opt nested-name-specifier template simple-template-id :: ~ type-name ::opt nested-name-specifieropt ~ type-name
~ decltype-specifier
unary-expression: postfix-expression
++ cast-expression
-- cast-expression unary-operator cast-expression sizeof unary-expression sizeof ( type-id )
sizeof ... ( identifier ) alignof ( type-id ) noexcept-expression new-expression delete-expression
unary-operator: one of *&+-! ~
new-expression:
::opt new new-placementopt
::opt new new-placementopt ( type-id ) new-initializeropt
type-name :: ~ type-name
new-type-id new-initializeropt
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012 new-placement:
§ A.4
1183
( expression-list ) new-type-id:
type-specifier-seq new-declaratoropt
new-declarator:
ptr-operator new-declaratoropt noptr-new-declarator
noptr-new-declarator:
[ expression ] attribute-specifier-seqopt
noptr-new-declarator [ constant-expression ] attribute-specifier-seqopt
new-initializer:
( expression-listopt )
braced-init-list
delete-expression:
::opt delete cast-expression ::opt delete [ ] cast-expression
noexcept-expression:
noexcept ( expression )
cast-expression: unary-expression
( type-id ) cast-expression
pm-expression: cast-expression
pm-expression .* cast-expression pm-expression ->* cast-expression
multiplicative-expression: pm-expression
multiplicative-expression * pm-expression multiplicative-expression / pm-expression multiplicative-expression % pm-expression
additive-expression: multiplicative-expression
additive-expression additive-expression
shift-expression: additive-expression
shift-expression << shift-expression >>
relational-expression: shift-expression
relational-expression relational-expression relational-expression relational-expression
equality-expression: relational-expression
equality-expression == relational-expression equality-expression != relational-expression
and-expression: equality-expression
and-expression & equality-expression
+ multiplicative-expression - multiplicative-expression
additive-expression additive-expression
< shift-expression > shift-expression <= shift-expression >= shift-expression
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
exclusive-or-expression: and-expression
exclusive-or-expression ˆ and-expression
inclusive-or-expression: exclusive-or-expression
inclusive-or-expression | exclusive-or-expression
logical-and-expression: inclusive-or-expression
logical-and-expression && inclusive-or-expression
logical-or-expression: logical-and-expression
logical-or-expression || logical-and-expression
conditional-expression: logical-or-expression
logical-or-expression ? expression : assignment-expression
assignment-expression: conditional-expression
logical-or-expression assignment-operator initializer-clause throw-expression
assignment-operator: one of
= *= /= %= += -= >>= <<= &= ˆ= |=
expression: assignment-expression
expression , assignment-expression constant-expression:
conditional-expression
A.5 Statements
[gram.stmt]
§ A.5
1184
statement: labeled-statement
attribute-specifier-seqopt expression-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt compound-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt selection-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt iteration-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt jump-statement declaration-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt try-block
labeled-statement:
attribute-specifier-seqopt identifier : statement attribute-specifier-seqopt case constant-expression : statement attribute-specifier-seqoptdefault : statement
expression-statement: expressionopt ;
compound-statement:
{ statement-seqopt }
statement-seq: statement
statement-seq statement
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
selection-statement:
if ( condition ) statement
if ( condition ) statement else statement switch ( condition ) statement
condition: expression
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator = initializer-clause attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator braced-init-list
iteration-statement:
while ( condition ) statement
do statement while ( expression ) ;
for ( for-init-statement conditionopt ; expressionopt ) statement for ( for-range-declaration : for-range-initializer ) statement
for-init-statement: expression-statement
simple-declaration for-range-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier-seq declarator
for-range-initializer: expression
braced-init-list jump-statement:
break ;
continue ;
return expressionopt ; return braced-init-list ; goto identifier ;
declaration-statement: block-declaration
A.6 Declarations
[gram.dcl]
§ A.6
1185
declaration-seq: declaration
declaration-seq declaration
declaration: block-declaration
function-definition template-declaration explicit-instantiation explicit-specialization linkage-specification namespace-definition empty-declaration attribute-declaration
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
§ A.6
1186
block-declaration: simple-declaration
asm-definition namespace-alias-definition using-declaration using-directive static_assert-declaration alias-declaration opaque-enum-declaration
alias-declaration:
using identifier = type-id ;
simple-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seqopt
init-declarator-listopt ; static_assert ( constant-expression , string-literal ) ;
static_assert-declaration: empty-declaration:
;
attribute-declaration: attribute-specifier-seq ;
decl-specifier: storage-class-specifier
type-specifier function-specifier friend
typedef constexpr
decl-specifier-seq:
decl-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier decl-specifier-seq
storage-class-specifier:
register
static
thread_local
extern
mutable
function-specifier:
inline
virtual
explicit
typedef-name: identifier
type-specifier: trailing-type-specifier
class-specifier enum-specifier
trailing-type-specifier: simple-type-specifier
elaborated-type-specifier typename-specifier cv-qualifier
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
§ A.6
1187
type-specifier-seq:
type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier type-specifier-seq
trailing-type-specifier-seq:
trailing-type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt trailing-type-specifier trailing-type-specifier-seq
simple-type-specifier:
::opt nested-name-specifieropt type-name
::opt nested-name-specifier template simple-template-id char
char16_t
char32_t
wchar_t
bool
short
int
long
signed
unsigned
float
double
void
auto
decltype-specifier
type-name: class-name
enum-name typedef-name simple-template-id
decltype-specifier:
decltype ( expression )
elaborated-type-specifier:
class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt ::opt
class-key ::opt nested-name-specifieropt templateopt simple-template-id enum ::opt nested-name-specifieropt identifier
enum-name: identifier
enum-specifier:
enum-head { enumerator-listopt } enum-head { enumerator-list , }
enum-head:
enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt identifieropt enum-baseopt enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt nested-name-specifier identifier
enum-baseopt opaque-enum-declaration:
enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt
enum-key:
enum
enum class
enum struct
enum-base:
: type-specifier-seq
identifier enum-baseopt ;
nested-name-specifieropt
identifier
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
§ A.6
1188
enumerator-list: enumerator-definition
enumerator-list , enumerator-definition
enumerator-definition: enumerator
enumerator = constant-expression
enumerator: identifier
namespace-name: original-namespace-name namespace-alias
original-namespace-name: identifier
namespace-definition: named-namespace-definition unnamed-namespace-definition
named-namespace-definition: original-namespace-definition extension-namespace-definition
original-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace identifier { namespace-body }
extension-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace original-namespace-name { namespace-body }
unnamed-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace { namespace-body }
namespace-body: declaration-seqopt
namespace-alias: identifier
namespace-alias-definition:
namespace identifier = qualified-namespace-specifier ;
qualified-namespace-specifier:
::opt nested-name-specifieropt namespace-name
using-declaration:
using typenameopt ::opt nested-name-specifier unqualified-id ; using :: unqualified-id ;
using-directive:
attribute-specifier-seqopt using namespace ::opt nested-name-specifieropt namespace-name ;
asm-definition:
asm ( string-literal ) ;
linkage-specification:
extern string-literal { declaration-seqopt } extern string-literal declaration
attribute-specifier-seq:
attribute-specifier-seqopt attribute-specifier
attribute-specifier:
[ [ attribute-list ] ]
alignment-specifier
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
alignment-specifier:
alignas ( type-id ...opt )
alignas ( alignment-expression ...opt )
attribute-list: attributeopt
attribute-list , attributeopt attribute ...
attribute-list , attribute ...
attribute:
attribute-token attribute-argument-clauseopt
attribute-token: identifier
attribute-scoped-token attribute-scoped-token:
attribute-namespace :: identifier attribute-namespace:
identifier attribute-argument-clause:
( balanced-token-seq )
balanced-token-seq: balanced-token
balanced-token-seq balanced-token
balanced-token:
( balanced-token-seq )
[ balanced-token-seq ]
{ balanced-token-seq }
any token other than a parenthesis, a bracket, or a brace
A.7 Declarators
[gram.decl]
§ A.7
1189
init-declarator-list: init-declarator
init-declarator-list , init-declarator init-declarator:
declarator initializeropt
declarator: ptr-declarator
noptr-declarator parameters-and-qualifiers trailing-return-type
ptr-declarator: noptr-declarator
ptr-operator ptr-declarator
noptr-declarator:
declarator-id attribute-specifier-seqopt
noptr-declarator parameters-and-qualifiers
noptr-declarator [ constant-expressionopt ] attribute-specifier-seqopt ( ptr-declarator )
parameters-and-qualifiers:
( parameter-declaration-clause ) attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
ref-qualifieropt exception-specificationopt
trailing-return-type:
-> trailing-type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt
⃝c ISO/IEC N3242=11-0012
§ A.7
1190
ptr-operator:
* attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
& attribute-specifier-seqopt
&& attribute-specifier-seqopt
::opt nested-name-specifier * attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
cv-qualifier-seq:
cv-qualifier cv-qualifier-seqopt
cv-qualifier:
const
volatile
ref-qualifier:
& &&
declarator-id:
...opt id-expression
::opt nested-name-specifieropt class-name type-id:
type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt
abstract-declarator: ptr-abstract-declarator
noptr-abstract-declaratoropt parameters-and-qualifiers trailing-return-type ...
ptr-abstract-declarator: noptr-abstract-declarator
ptr-operator ptr-abstract-declaratoropt
noptr-abstract-declarator:
noptr-abstract-declaratoropt parameters-and-qualifiers noptr-abstract-declaratoropt [ constant-expression ] attribute-specifier-seqopt ( ptr-abstract-declarator )
parameter-declaration-clause: parameter-declaration-listopt ...opt parameter-declaration-list , ...
parameter-declaration-list: parameter-declaration
parameter-declaration-list , parameter-declaration
parameter-declaration: attribute-specifier-seqopt
attribute-specifier-seqopt attribute-specifier-seqopt attribute-specifier-seqopt
function-definition: attribute-specifier-seqopt
attribute-specifier-seqopt
attribute-specifier-seqopt function-body:
decl-specifier-seq declarator
decl-specifier-seq declarator = initializer-clause decl-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt
decl-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt = initializer-clause
decl-specifier-seqopt declarator function-body decl-specifier-seqopt declarator = default ; decl-specifier-seqopt declarator = delete ;
ctor-initializeropt compound-statement function-try-block
initializer: brace-or-equal-initializer
( expression-list )
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
brace-or-equal-initializer: = initializer-clause
braced-init-list
initializer-clause: assignment-expression
braced-init-list
initializer-list: initializer-clause ...opt
initializer-list , initializer-clause ...opt
braced-init-list:
{ initializer-list ,opt }
{}
A.8 Classes
[gram.class]
§ A.8
1191
class-name: identifier
simple-template-id class-specifier:
class-head { member-specificationopt }
class-head:
class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt class-head-name class-virt-specifier-seqopt base-clauseopt class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt base-clauseopt
class-head-name:
nested-name-specifieropt class-name
class-virt-specifier-seq: class-virt-specifier
class-virt-specifier-seq class-virt-specifier
class-virt-specifier:
final
explicit
class-key:
class
struct
union
member-specification:
member-declaration member-specificationopt access-specifier : member-specificationopt
member-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seqopt
member-declarator-listopt ; function-definition ;opt
using-declaration static_assert-declaration template-declaration alias-declaration
member-declarator-list: member-declarator
member-declarator-list , member-declarator
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
A.9
[gram.derived]
member-declarator:
declarator virt-specifier-seqopt pure-specifieropt
declarator virt-specifier-seqopt brace-or-equal-initializeropt
identifieropt attribute-specifier-seqopt
virt-specifier-seq: virt-specifier
virt-specifier-seq virt-specifier
virt-specifier:
override
final
new
pure-specifier:
=0
Derived classes
base-clause:
: base-specifier-list
base-specifier-list: base-specifier ...opt
virt-specifier-seqopt :
constant-expression
base-specifier-list , base-specifier ...opt
base-specifier:
attribute-specifier-seqopt base-type-specifier
attribute-specifier-seqopt virtual access-specifieropt attribute-specifier-seqopt access-specifier virtualopt base-type-specifier
class-or-decltype:
::opt nested-name-specifieropt class-name decltype-specifier
base-type-specifier: class-or-decltype
access-specifier:
private
protected
public
A.10 Special member functions
conversion-function-id:
operator conversion-type-id
conversion-type-id:
type-specifier-seq conversion-declaratoropt
conversion-declarator:
ptr-operator conversion-declaratoropt
ctor-initializer:
: mem-initializer-list
mem-initializer-list: mem-initializer ...opt
mem-initializer , mem-initializer-list ...opt
mem-initializer:
mem-initializer-id ( expression-listopt ) mem-initializer-id braced-init-list
§ A.10
[gram.special]
base-type-specifier
1192
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
mem-initializer-id: class-or-decltype
identifier
A.11 Overloading
operator-function-id: operator operator
[gram.over]
§ A.12
1193
operator: one of
new delete new[]
delete[] +-*/%ˆ&|∼
! = < > += -= *= /= %= ˆ= &= |= << >> >>= <<= == != <= >= && || ++ -- , ->* -> () []
literal-operator-id:
operator "" identifier
A.12 Templates
template-declaration:
template < template-parameter-list > declaration
template-parameter-list: template-parameter
template-parameter-list , template-parameter
template-parameter: type-parameter
parameter-declaration
type-parameter:
class ...opt identifieropt
class identifieropt = type-id
typename ...opt identifieropt
typename identifieropt = type-id
template < template-parameter-list > class ...opt identifieropt template < template-parameter-list > class identifieropt = id-expression
simple-template-id:
template-name < template-argument-listopt >
template-id: simple-template-id
operator-function-id < template-argument-listopt > literal-operator-id < template-argument-listopt >
template-name: identifier
template-argument-list:
template-argument ...opt
template-argument-list , template-argument ...opt
template-argument: constant-expression
[gram.temp]
type-id id-expression
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
typename-specifier:
typename ::opt nested-name-specifier identifier
typename ::opt nested-name-specifier templateopt simple-template-id
explicit-instantiation:
externopt template declaration
explicit-specialization:
template < > declaration
A.13 Exception handling
try-block:
try compound-statement handler-seq
function-try-block:
try ctor-initializeropt compound-statement handler-seq
handler-seq:
handler handler-seqopt
handler:
catch ( exception-declaration ) compound-statement
exception-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier-seq declarator attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt ...
throw-expression:
throw assignment-expressionopt
exception-specification: dynamic-exception-specification noexcept-specification
dynamic-exception-specification: throw ( type-id-listopt )
type-id-list:
type-id ...opt
type-id-list , type-id ...opt
noexcept-specification:
noexcept ( constant-expression ) noexcept
A.14 Preprocessing directives
preprocessing-file: groupopt
group: group-part
group group-part
group-part: if-section
control-line text-line
# non-directive
if-section:
if-group elif-groupsopt else-groupopt endif-line
§ A.14
[gram.except]
[gram.cpp]
1194
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3242=11-0012
§ A.14
1195
if-group:
# if
# ifdef
# ifndef
elif-groups: elif-group
constant-expression new-line groupopt identifier new-line groupopt
identifier new-line groupopt
elif-groups elif-group elif-group:
# elif
else-group:
# else
endif-line:
# endif
control-line:
# include
# define
# define
# define
# define
# undef
# line
# error
# pragma
# new-line
constant-expression new-line groupopt new-line groupopt
new-line
pp-tokens new-line
identifier replacement-list new-line
identifier lparen identifier-listopt ) replacement-list new-line identifier lparen ... ) replacement-list new-line
text-line:
pp-tokensopt new-line
non-directive:
pp-tokens new-line
lparen:
identifier lparen identifier-list, ... identifier new-line
pp-tokens new-line
pp-tokensopt new-line
pp-tokensopt new-line
) replacement-list new-line
a ( character not immediately preceded by white-space
identifier-list: identifier
identifier-list , identifier replacement-list:
pp-tokensopt
pp-tokens: preprocessing-token
pp-tokens preprocessing-token
new-line:
the new-line character