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Annex A (informative)
Grammar summary [gram]
1 This summary of C++ syntax is intended to be an aid to comprehension. It is not an exact statement of the language. In particular, the grammar described here accepts a superset of valid C++ constructs. Disambiguation rules (6.8, 7.1, 10.2) must be applied to distinguish expressions from declarations. Further, access control, ambiguity, and type rules must be used to weed out syntactically valid but meaningless constructs.
A.1 Keywords [gram.key]
1 New context-dependent keywords are introduced into a program by typedef (7.1.3), namespace (7.3.1),
class (clause 9), enumeration (7.2), and template (clause 14) declarations. typedef-name:
identifier namespace-name:
original-namespace-name namespace-alias
original-namespace-name: identifier
namespace-alias:
identifier class-name:
identifier
simple-template-id enum-name:
identifier template-name:
identifier
Note that a typedef-name naming a class is also a class-name (9.1).
A.2
Lexical conventions [gram.lex]
§ A.2
1161
hex-quad:
hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-digit
universal-character-name: \u hex-quad
\U hex-quad hex-quad preprocessing-token:
header-name
identifier
pp-number
character-literal
user-defined-character-literal
string-literal
user-defined-string-literal
preprocessing-op-or-punc
each non-white-space character that cannot be one of the above
⃝c ISO/IEC token:
N3337
§ A.2
1162
identifier keyword literal operator punctuator
header-name:
< h-char-sequence >
" q-char-sequence " h-char-sequence:
h-char
h-char-sequence h-char h-char:
any member of the source character set except new-line and > q-char-sequence:
q-char
q-char-sequence q-char q-char:
any member of the source character set except new-line and " pp-number:
digit
. digit
pp-number digit
pp-number identifier-nondigit pp-number e sign
pp-number E sign
pp-number .
identifier: identifier-nondigit
identifier identifier-nondigit
identifier digit identifier-nondigit:
nondigit
universal-character-name
other implementation-defined characters
nondigit: one of abcdefghijklm nopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ_
digit: one of 0123456789
preprocessing-op-or-punc: one of
{ } [ ] # ## ( ) <: :> <% %> %: %:%: ; : new delete ? :: . .* +-*/%ˆ&|
...
~
%= != ->
! = <
ˆ= &= |=
<= >= &&
and and_eq bitand or or_eq xor
> += -= *= /= << >> >>= <<= == || ++ -- , ->*
bitor xor_eq
compl not
not_eq
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.2
1163
literal: integer-literal
character-literal floating-literal string-literal boolean-literal pointer-literal user-defined-literal
integer-literal:
decimal-literal integer-suffixopt octal-literal integer-suffixopt hexadecimal-literal integer-suffixopt
decimal-literal: nonzero-digit
decimal-literal digit octal-literal:
0
octal-literal octal-digit hexadecimal-literal:
0x hexadecimal-digit
0X hexadecimal-digit hexadecimal-literal hexadecimal-digit
nonzero-digit: one of 123456789
octal-digit: one of 01234567
hexadecimal-digit: one of 0123456789
abcdef
ABCDEF
integer-suffix:
unsigned-suffix long-suffixopt unsigned-suffix long-long-suffixopt long-suffix unsigned-suffixopt long-long-suffix unsigned-suffixopt
unsigned-suffix: one of uU
long-suffix: one of lL
long-long-suffix: one of ll LL
character-literal:
’ c-char-sequence ’
u’ c-char-sequence ’ U’ c-char-sequence ’ L’ c-char-sequence ’
c-char-sequence: c-char
c-char-sequence c-char c-char:
any member of the source character set except
the single-quote ’, backslash \, or new-line character
escape-sequence universal-character-name
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.2
1164
escape-sequence: simple-escape-sequence
octal-escape-sequence
hexadecimal-escape-sequence simple-escape-sequence: one of
\’ \" \? \\
\a \b \f \n \r \t \v
octal-escape-sequence: \ octal-digit
\ octal-digit octal-digit
\ octal-digit octal-digit octal-digit hexadecimal-escape-sequence:
\x hexadecimal-digit
hexadecimal-escape-sequence hexadecimal-digit floating-literal:
fractional-constant exponent-partopt floating-suffixopt digit-sequence exponent-part floating-suffixopt
fractional-constant:
digit-sequenceopt. digit-sequence digit-sequence .
exponent-part:
e signopt digit-sequence
E signopt digit-sequence
sign: one of +-
digit-sequence: digit
digit-sequence digit floating-suffix: one of
flFL
string-literal:
encoding-prefixopt" s-char-sequenceopt" encoding-prefixoptR raw-string
encoding-prefix:
u8 u U L
s-char-sequence: s-char
s-char-sequence s-char s-char:
any member of the source character set except
the double-quote ", backslash \, or new-line character
escape-sequence universal-character-name
raw-string:
" d-char-sequenceopt( r-char-sequenceopt) d-char-sequenceopt"
r-char-sequence: r-char
r-char-sequence r-char
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
A.3
r-char:
any member of the source character set, except
a right parenthesis ) followed by the initial d-char-sequence (which may be empty) followed by a double quote ".
d-char-sequence: d-char
d-char-sequence d-char d-char:
any member of the basic source character set except:
space, the left parenthesis (, the right parenthesis ), the backslash \, and the control characters representing horizontal tab,
vertical tab, form feed, and newline.
boolean-literal:
false
true
pointer-literal:
nullptr
user-defined-literal: user-defined-integer-literal user-defined-floating-literal user-defined-string-literal user-defined-character-literal
user-defined-integer-literal: decimal-literal ud-suffix
octal-literal ud-suffix
hexadecimal-literal ud-suffix user-defined-floating-literal:
fractional-constant exponent-partopt ud-suffix
digit-sequence exponent-part ud-suffix user-defined-string-literal:
string-literal ud-suffix user-defined-character-literal:
character-literal ud-suffix ud-suffix:
identifier
Basic concepts
translation-unit: declaration-seqopt
[gram.basic]
[gram.expr]
A.4 Expressions
§ A.4
1165
primary-expression: literal
this
( expression ) id-expression lambda-expression
id-expression: unqualified-id
qualified-id
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.4
1166
unqualified-id: identifier
operator-function-id conversion-function-id literal-operator-id
~ class-name
~ decltype-specifier
template-id qualified-id:
nested-name-specifier templateopt unqualified-id :: identifier
:: operator-function-id
:: literal-operator-id
:: template-id nested-name-specifier:
::opt type-name ::
::opt namespace-name ::
decltype-specifier ::
nested-name-specifier identifier ::
nested-name-specifier templateopt simple-template-id ::
lambda-expression:
lambda-introducer lambda-declaratoropt compound-statement
lambda-introducer:
[ lambda-captureopt]
lambda-capture: capture-default
capture-list
capture-default , capture-list capture-default:
&
=
capture-list:
capture ...opt
capture-list , capture ...opt capture:
identifier
& identifier this
lambda-declarator:
( parameter-declaration-clause ) mutableopt
exception-specificationopt attribute-specifier-seqopt trailing-return-typeopt
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.4
1167
postfix-expression: primary-expression
postfix-expression [ expression ] postfix-expression [ braced-init-list ] postfix-expression ( expression-listopt) simple-type-specifier ( expression-listopt) typename-specifier ( expression-listopt) simple-type-specifier braced-init-list typename-specifier braced-init-list postfix-expression . templateopt id-expression postfix-expression -> templateopt id-expression postfix-expression . pseudo-destructor-name postfix-expression -> pseudo-destructor-name postfix-expression ++
postfix-expression --
dynamic_cast < type-id > ( expression ) static_cast < type-id > ( expression ) reinterpret_cast < type-id > ( expression ) const_cast < type-id > ( expression ) typeid ( expression )
typeid ( type-id )
expression-list: initializer-list
pseudo-destructor-name:
nested-name-specifieropt type-name::~type-name nested-name-specifier template simple-template-id :: ~ type-name nested-name-specifieropt~ type-name
~ decltype-specifier
unary-expression: postfix-expression
++ cast-expression
-- cast-expression unary-operator cast-expression sizeof unary-expression sizeof ( type-id )
sizeof ... ( identifier ) alignof ( type-id ) noexcept-expression new-expression delete-expression
unary-operator: one of *&+-! ~
new-expression:
::optnew new-placementopt new-type-id new-initializeropt ::optnew new-placementopt( type-id ) new-initializeropt
new-placement:
( expression-list )
new-type-id:
type-specifier-seq new-declaratoropt
new-declarator:
ptr-operator new-declaratoropt noptr-new-declarator
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.4
1168
noptr-new-declarator:
[ expression ] attribute-specifier-seqopt
noptr-new-declarator [ constant-expression ] attribute-specifier-seqopt
new-initializer:
( expression-listopt)
braced-init-list delete-expression:
::optdelete cast-expression
::optdelete [ ] cast-expression noexcept-expression:
noexcept ( expression ) cast-expression:
unary-expression
( type-id ) cast-expression pm-expression:
cast-expression
pm-expression .* cast-expression pm-expression ->* cast-expression
multiplicative-expression: pm-expression
multiplicative-expression * pm-expression multiplicative-expression / pm-expression multiplicative-expression % pm-expression
additive-expression: multiplicative-expression
additive-expression
additive-expression shift-expression:
additive-expression shift-expression << shift-expression >>
relational-expression: shift-expression
relational-expression relational-expression relational-expression relational-expression
equality-expression: relational-expression
+ multiplicative-expression - multiplicative-expression
additive-expression additive-expression
equality-expression == relational-expression
equality-expression != relational-expression and-expression:
equality-expression
and-expression & equality-expression exclusive-or-expression:
and-expression
exclusive-or-expression ˆ and-expression inclusive-or-expression:
exclusive-or-expression
inclusive-or-expression | exclusive-or-expression logical-and-expression:
inclusive-or-expression
logical-and-expression && inclusive-or-expression
< shift-expression > shift-expression <= shift-expression >= shift-expression
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
logical-or-expression: logical-and-expression
logical-or-expression || logical-and-expression
conditional-expression: logical-or-expression
logical-or-expression ? expression : assignment-expression assignment-expression:
conditional-expression
logical-or-expression assignment-operator initializer-clause throw-expression
assignment-operator: one of
= *= /= %= += -= >>= <<= &= ˆ= |=
expression: assignment-expression
expression , assignment-expression constant-expression:
conditional-expression
A.5 Statements
[gram.stmt]
§ A.5
1169
statement: labeled-statement
attribute-specifier-seqopt expression-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt compound-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt selection-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt iteration-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt jump-statement declaration-statement attribute-specifier-seqopt try-block
labeled-statement:
attribute-specifier-seqopt identifier : statement attribute-specifier-seqoptcase constant-expression : statement attribute-specifier-seqoptdefault : statement
expression-statement: expressionopt ;
compound-statement:
{ statement-seqopt}
statement-seq: statement
statement-seq statement selection-statement:
if ( condition ) statement
if ( condition ) statement else statement switch ( condition ) statement
condition: expression
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator = initializer-clause
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator braced-init-list iteration-statement:
while ( condition ) statement
do statement while ( expression ) ;
for ( for-init-statement conditionopt; expressionopt) statement for ( for-range-declaration : for-range-initializer ) statement
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
for-init-statement: expression-statement
simple-declaration for-range-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator
for-range-initializer: expression
braced-init-list jump-statement:
break ;
continue ;
return expressionopt; return braced-init-list ; goto identifier ;
declaration-statement: block-declaration
A.6 Declarations
[gram.dcl]
§ A.6
1170
declaration-seq: declaration
declaration-seq declaration declaration:
block-declaration function-definition template-declaration explicit-instantiation explicit-specialization linkage-specification namespace-definition empty-declaration attribute-declaration
block-declaration: simple-declaration
asm-definition namespace-alias-definition using-declaration using-directive static_assert-declaration alias-declaration opaque-enum-declaration
alias-declaration:
using identifier attribute-specifier-seqopt = type-id ;
simple-declaration:
decl-specifier-seqopt init-declarator-listopt; attribute-specifier-seq decl-specifier-seqopt init-declarator-list ;
static_assert-declaration:
static_assert ( constant-expression , string-literal ) ;
empty-declaration:
;
attribute-declaration: attribute-specifier-seq ;
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.6
1171
decl-specifier: storage-class-specifier
type-specifier function-specifier friend
typedef constexpr
decl-specifier-seq:
decl-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier decl-specifier-seq
storage-class-specifier:
register
static
thread_local
extern
mutable
function-specifier:
inline
virtual
explicit
typedef-name: identifier
type-specifier: trailing-type-specifier
class-specifier
enum-specifier trailing-type-specifier:
simple-type-specifier elaborated-type-specifier typename-specifier cv-qualifier
type-specifier-seq:
type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier type-specifier-seq
trailing-type-specifier-seq:
trailing-type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt trailing-type-specifier trailing-type-specifier-seq
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.6
1172
simple-type-specifier:
nested-name-specifieropt type-name nested-name-specifier template simple-template-id char
char16_t
char32_t
wchar_t
bool
short
int
long
signed
unsigned
float
double
void
auto
decltype-specifier
type-name: class-name
enum-name typedef-name simple-template-id
decltype-specifier:
decltype ( expression )
elaborated-type-specifier:
class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt nested-name-specifieropt identifier class-key nested-name-specifieropttemplateopt simple-template-id enum nested-name-specifieropt identifier
enum-name: identifier
enum-specifier:
enum-head { enumerator-listopt} enum-head { enumerator-list , }
enum-head:
enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt identifieropt enum-baseopt enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt nested-name-specifier identifier
enum-baseopt opaque-enum-declaration:
enum-key attribute-specifier-seqopt identifier enum-baseopt;
enum-key:
enum
enum class
enum struct
enum-base:
: type-specifier-seq
enumerator-list: enumerator-definition
enumerator-list , enumerator-definition enumerator-definition:
enumerator
enumerator = constant-expression
enumerator: identifier
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.6
1173
namespace-name: original-namespace-name namespace-alias
original-namespace-name: identifier
namespace-definition: named-namespace-definition unnamed-namespace-definition
named-namespace-definition: original-namespace-definition extension-namespace-definition
original-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace identifier { namespace-body }
extension-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace original-namespace-name { namespace-body }
unnamed-namespace-definition:
inlineopt namespace { namespace-body }
namespace-body: declaration-seqopt
namespace-alias: identifier
namespace-alias-definition:
namespace identifier = qualified-namespace-specifier ;
qualified-namespace-specifier: nested-name-specifieropt namespace-name
using-declaration:
using typenameopt nested-name-specifier unqualified-id ; using :: unqualified-id ;
using-directive:
attribute-specifier-seqoptusing namespace nested-name-specifieropt namespace-name ;
asm-definition:
asm ( string-literal ) ;
linkage-specification:
extern string-literal { declaration-seqopt} extern string-literal declaration
attribute-specifier-seq:
attribute-specifier-seqopt attribute-specifier
attribute-specifier:
[ [ attribute-list ] ]
alignment-specifier alignment-specifier:
alignas ( type-id ...opt)
alignas ( alignment-expression ...opt)
attribute-list: attributeopt
attribute-list , attributeopt attribute ...
attribute-list , attribute ...
attribute:
attribute-token attribute-argument-clauseopt
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
attribute-token: identifier
attribute-scoped-token attribute-scoped-token:
attribute-namespace :: identifier attribute-namespace:
identifier attribute-argument-clause:
( balanced-token-seq ) balanced-token-seq:
balanced-tokenopt
balanced-token-seq balanced-token balanced-token:
( balanced-token-seq )
[ balanced-token-seq ]
{ balanced-token-seq }
any token other than a parenthesis, a bracket, or a brace
A.7 Declarators
[gram.decl]
§ A.7
1174
init-declarator-list: init-declarator
init-declarator-list , init-declarator init-declarator:
declarator initializeropt
declarator: ptr-declarator
noptr-declarator parameters-and-qualifiers trailing-return-type ptr-declarator:
noptr-declarator
ptr-operator ptr-declarator noptr-declarator:
declarator-id attribute-specifier-seqopt
noptr-declarator parameters-and-qualifiers
noptr-declarator [ constant-expressionopt] attribute-specifier-seqopt ( ptr-declarator )
parameters-and-qualifiers:
( parameter-declaration-clause ) attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
ref-qualifieropt exception-specificationopt
trailing-return-type:
-> trailing-type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt
ptr-operator:
* attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
& attribute-specifier-seqopt
&& attribute-specifier-seqopt
nested-name-specifier * attribute-specifier-seqopt cv-qualifier-seqopt
cv-qualifier-seq:
cv-qualifier cv-qualifier-seqopt
cv-qualifier:
const
volatile
ref-qualifier:
& &&
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.7
1175
declarator-id:
...opt id-expression
nested-name-specifieropt class-name type-id:
type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt
abstract-declarator: ptr-abstract-declarator
noptr-abstract-declaratoropt parameters-and-qualifiers trailing-return-type
abstract-pack-declarator ptr-abstract-declarator:
noptr-abstract-declarator
ptr-operator ptr-abstract-declaratoropt
noptr-abstract-declarator:
noptr-abstract-declaratoropt parameters-and-qualifiers noptr-abstract-declaratoropt[ constant-expressionopt ] attribute-specifier-seqopt ( ptr-abstract-declarator )
abstract-pack-declarator: noptr-abstract-pack-declarator ptr-operator abstract-pack-declarator
noptr-abstract-pack-declarator:
noptr-abstract-pack-declarator parameters-and-qualifiers noptr-abstract-pack-declarator [ constant-expressionopt ] attribute-specifier-seqopt ...
parameter-declaration-clause: parameter-declaration-listopt ...opt parameter-declaration-list , ...
parameter-declaration-list: parameter-declaration
parameter-declaration-list , parameter-declaration parameter-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq declarator = initializer-clause attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt= initializer-clause
function-definition:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seqopt declarator virt-specifier-seqopt function-body
function-body:
ctor-initializeropt compound-statement function-try-block
= default ;
= delete ;
initializer: brace-or-equal-initializer
( expression-list ) brace-or-equal-initializer: = initializer-clause
braced-init-list initializer-clause:
assignment-expression braced-init-list
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
initializer-list: initializer-clause ...opt
initializer-list , initializer-clause ...opt
braced-init-list:
{ initializer-list ,opt }
{}
A.8 Classes
[gram.class]
A.9
§ A.9
class-head:
class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt class-head-name class-virt-specifieropt base-clauseopt class-key attribute-specifier-seqopt base-clauseopt
class-head-name:
nested-name-specifieropt class-name
class-virt-specifier:
final
class-key:
class
struct
union
member-specification:
member-declaration member-specificationopt access-specifier : member-specificationopt
member-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt decl-specifier-seqopt member-declarator-listopt; function-definition ;opt
using-declaration
static_assert-declaration
template-declaration
alias-declaration
member-declarator-list: member-declarator
member-declarator-list , member-declarator member-declarator:
declarator virt-specifier-seqopt pure-specifieropt
declarator brace-or-equal-initializeropt
identifieropt attribute-specifier-seqopt: constant-expression
virt-specifier-seq: virt-specifier
virt-specifier-seq virt-specifier virt-specifier:
override
final
pure-specifier:
=0
Derived classes [gram.derived]
class-name: identifier
simple-template-id class-specifier:
class-head { member-specificationopt}
base-clause:
: base-specifier-list
1176
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
base-specifier-list: base-specifier ...opt
base-specifier-list , base-specifier ...opt
base-specifier:
attribute-specifier-seqopt base-type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqoptvirtual access-specifieropt base-type-specifier attribute-specifier-seqopt access-specifier virtualopt base-type-specifier
class-or-decltype:
nested-name-specifieropt class-name decltype-specifier
base-type-specifier: class-or-decltype
access-specifier:
private
protected
public
A.10 Special member functions
conversion-function-id:
operator conversion-type-id
conversion-type-id:
type-specifier-seq conversion-declaratoropt
conversion-declarator:
ptr-operator conversion-declaratoropt
ctor-initializer:
: mem-initializer-list
mem-initializer-list: mem-initializer ...opt
mem-initializer , mem-initializer-list ...opt
mem-initializer:
mem-initializer-id ( expression-listopt) mem-initializer-id braced-init-list
mem-initializer-id: class-or-decltype
identifier
A.11 Overloading
operator-function-id: operator operator
operator: one of new delete
literal-operator-id:
operator "" identifier
[gram.special]
new[] +-*/%ˆ&|∼ ! = < > += -= *= /= %= ˆ= &= |= << >> >>= <<= == != <= >= && || ++ -- , ->* -> () []
delete[]
A.12 Templates [gram.temp]
template-declaration:
template < template-parameter-list > declaration
§ A.12
1177
[gram.over]
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
template-parameter-list: template-parameter
template-parameter-list , template-parameter template-parameter:
type-parameter
parameter-declaration type-parameter:
class ...opt identifieropt
class identifieropt= type-id
typename ...opt identifieropt
typename identifieropt= type-id
template < template-parameter-list > class ...opt identifieropt template < template-parameter-list > class identifieropt= id-expression
simple-template-id:
template-name < template-argument-listopt>
template-id: simple-template-id
operator-function-id < template-argument-listopt> literal-operator-id < template-argument-listopt>
template-name: identifier
template-argument-list:
template-argument ...opt
template-argument-list , template-argument ...opt
template-argument: constant-expression
type-id
id-expression typename-specifier:
typename nested-name-specifier identifier
typename nested-name-specifier templateopt simple-template-id
explicit-instantiation:
externopt template declaration
explicit-specialization:
template < > declaration
A.13 Exception handling
try-block:
try compound-statement handler-seq
[gram.except]
§ A.13
1178
function-try-block:
try ctor-initializeropt compound-statement handler-seq
handler-seq:
handler handler-seqopt
handler:
catch ( exception-declaration ) compound-statement
exception-declaration:
attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier-seq declarator attribute-specifier-seqopt type-specifier-seq abstract-declaratoropt ...
throw-expression:
throw assignment-expressionopt
⃝c ISO/IEC
N3337
exception-specification: dynamic-exception-specification noexcept-specification
dynamic-exception-specification: throw ( type-id-listopt)
type-id-list:
type-id ...opt
type-id-list , type-id ...opt
noexcept-specification:
noexcept ( constant-expression ) noexcept
A.14 Preprocessing directives
preprocessing-file: groupopt
[gram.cpp]
§ A.14
1179
group: group-part
group group-part group-part:
if-section control-line text-line
# non-directive
if-section:
if-group elif-groupsopt else-groupopt endif-line
if-group:
# if
# ifdef
# ifndef
elif-groups: elif-group
constant-expression new-line groupopt identifier new-line groupopt
identifier new-line groupopt
elif-groups elif-group elif-group:
# elif
else-group:
# else
endif-line:
# endif
control-line:
# include
# define
# define
# define
# define
# undef
# line
# error
# pragma
# new-line
constant-expression new-line groupopt new-line groupopt
new-line
pp-tokens new-line
identifier replacement-list new-line
identifier lparen identifier-listopt ) replacement-list new-line identifier lparen ... ) replacement-list new-line
text-line:
pp-tokensopt new-line
non-directive:
pp-tokens new-line
identifier lparen identifier-list, ... identifier new-line
pp-tokens new-line
pp-tokensopt new-line
pp-tokensopt new-line
) replacement-list new-line
⃝c ISO/IEC N3337
§ A.14
1180
lparen:
a ( character not immediately preceded by white-space identifier-list:
identifier
identifier-list , identifier replacement-list:
pp-tokensopt
pp-tokens: preprocessing-token
pp-tokens preprocessing-token
new-line:
the new-line character