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<TITLE>Appendix D: The grammar of CSS2</TITLE>
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<H1 align="center">Appendix D: The grammar of CSS2</H1>
<div class="subtoc"><p><strong>Contents</strong>
</div>
<P><em>This appendix is normative.</em>
<P>The grammar below defines the syntax of CSS2. It is in some sense,
however, a superset of CSS2 as this specification imposes additional
semantic constraints not expressed in this grammar. A conforming UA
must also adhere to the <a href="./syndata.html#syntax">
forward-compatible parsing rules</a>, the <a
href="./convent.html#property-defs">property and value notation</a>,
and the <a href="syndata.html#data-types">unit notation </a>. In
addition, the document language may impose restrictions, e.g. HTML
imposes restrictions on the possible values of the "class" attribute.
<P> The grammar below is LL(1) (but note that most UA's should not use
it directly, since it doesn't express the parsing conventions, only
the CSS2 syntax). The format of the productions is optimized for
human consumption and some shorthand notation beyond
<a rel="biblioentry" href="./refs.html#ref-YACC">[YACC]</a> is used:
<PRE> * : 0 or more + : 1 or more ? :
0 or 1 | : separates alternatives [] : grouping
</PRE>
<P>The productions are:
<PRE>
stylesheet
: [CDO|CDC]* [ import [CDO|CDC]* ]* [ [ ruleset | media ] [CDO|CDC]* ]*
;
import
: IMPORT_SYM [STRING|URL] medium* ';' /* E.g., @import url(fun.css); */
;
media
: MEDIA_SYM medium+ '{' ruleset* '}'
;
medium /* e.g., SPEECH */
: IDENT
;
unary_operator
: '-' | '+'
;
operator
: '/' | ',' | /* empty */
;
property
: IDENT
;
ruleset
: selector [ ',' selector ]*
'{' declaration [ ';' declaration ]* '}'
;
selector
: sequential_selector [ '~'? sequential_selector ]*
[ pseudo_element | solitary_pseudo_element ]?
| solitary_pseudo_element
;
sequential_selector
: simple_selector
| '/' simple_selector '~'? simple_selector '/'
| '//' simple_selector '/'
;
/* An "id" is an ID that is attached to an element type
** on its left, as in: P#p007
** A "solitary_id" is an ID that is not so attached,
** as in: #p007
** Analogously for classes and pseudo-classes.
*/
simple_selector
: element_name [ id | class | attrib | pseudo_class ]*
| solitary_id [ class | attrib | pseudo_class ]* /* eg: #xyz33 */
| solitary_class [ id | class | attrib | pseudo_class ]* /* eg: .author */
| solitary_pseudo_class [ id | class | attrib | pseudo_class ]* /* eg: :link */
| solitary_attrib [ id | class | attrib | pseudo_class ]* /* eg: [ALIGN] */
;
element_name
: IDENT
;
attrib /* as in: [lang=fr] */
: LBRACK_AFTER_IDENT IDENT [ [ EQ | INCLUDES ] [ IDENT | STRING ] ]? ']'
;
solitary_attrib
: '[' IDENT [ [ EQ | INCLUDES ] [ IDENT | STRING ] ]? ']'
;
pseudo_class /* as in: A:link */
: LINK_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT
| VISITED_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT
| ACTIVE_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT
;
solitary_pseudo_class /* as in: :link */
: LINK_PSCLASS
| VISITED_PSCLASS
| ACTIVE_PSCLASS
;
class /* as in: P.note */
: CLASS_AFTER_IDENT
;
solitary_class /* as in: .note */
: CLASS
;
pseudo_element /* as in: P:first-line */
: FIRST_LETTER_AFTER_IDENT
| FIRST_LINE_AFTER_IDENT
;
solitary_pseudo_element /* as in: :first-line */
: FIRST_LETTER
| FIRST_LINE
;
/* There is a constraint on the id and solitary_id that the
** part after the "#" must be a valid HTML ID value;
** e.g., "#x77" is OK, but "#77" is not.
*/
id
: HASH_AFTER_IDENT
;
solitary_id
: HASH
;
declaration
: property ':' expr prio?
| /* empty */ /* Prevents syntax errors... */
;
prio
: IMPORTANT_SYM /* !important */
;
expr
: term [ operator term ]*
;
term
: unary_operator?
[ NUMBER | STRING | PERCENTAGE | LENGTH | EMS | EXS
| IDENT | hexcolor | URL | RGB | UNICODERANGE
| ANGLE | TIME | FREQ ]
;
/* There is a constraint on the color that it must
** have either 3 or 6 hex-digits (i.e., [0-9a-fA-F])
** after the "#"; e.g., "#000" is OK, but "#abcd" is not.
*/
hexcolor
: HASH | HASH_AFTER_IDENT
;
</PRE>
<!-- Allow any number of simple selectors between / / ? -->
<P> The following is the tokenizer, written in flex <a
rel="biblioentry" href="./refs.html#ref-FLEX">[FLEX]</a>
notation. Note that this assumes an 8-bit implementation of flex. The
tokenizer is case-insensitive (flex command line option -i).
<PRE>
unicode \\[0-9a-f]{1,4}
latin1 [&#161;-&yuml;]
escape {unicode}|\\[ -~&#161;-&yuml;]
stringchar {escape}|{latin1}|[ !#$%&amp;(-~]
nmstrt [a-z]|{latin1}|{escape}
nmchar [-a-z0-9]|{latin1}|{escape}
ident {nmstrt}{nmchar}*
name {nmchar}+
d [0-9]
notnm [^-a-z0-9\\]|{latin1}
w [ \t\n]*
num {d}+|{d}*\.{d}+
string \"({stringchar}|\')*\"|\'({stringchar}|\")*\'
%x COMMENT
%s AFTER_IDENT
%%
"/*" {BEGIN(COMMENT);}
&lt;COMMENT&gt;"*/" {BEGIN(0);}
&lt;COMMENT&gt;\n {/* ignore */}
&lt;COMMENT&gt;. {/* ignore */}
@import {BEGIN(0); return IMPORT_SYM;}
@media {BEGIN(0); return MEDIA_SYM;}
"!"{w}important {BEGIN(0); return IMPORTANT_SYM;}
{ident} {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return IDENT;}
{string} {BEGIN(0); return STRING;}
{num} {BEGIN(0); return NUMBER;}
{num}"%" {BEGIN(0); return PERCENTAGE;}
{num}pt/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}mm/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}cm/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}pc/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}in/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}px/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return LENGTH;}
{num}em/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return EMS;}
{num}ex/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return EXS;}
{num}deg/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return ANGLE;}
{num}grad/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return ANGLE;}
{num}rad/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return ANGLE;}
{num}ms/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return TIME;}
{num}s/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return TIME;}
{num}Hz/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return FREQ;}
{num}kHz/{notnm} {BEGIN(0); return FREQ;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;":"link {return LINK_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;":"visited {return VISITED_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;":"active {return ACTIVE_PSCLASS_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;":"first-line {return FIRST_LINE_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;":"first-letter {return FIRST_LETTER_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;"#"{name} {return HASH_AFTER_IDENT;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;"."{name} {return CLASS_AFTER_IDENT;}
":"link {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return LINK_PSCLASS;}
":"visited {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return VISITED_PSCLASS;}
":"active {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return ACTIVE_PSCLASS;}
":"first-line {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return FIRST_LINE;}
":"first-letter {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return FIRST_LETTER;}
"#"{name} {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return HASH;}
"."{name} {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return CLASS;}
&lt;AFTER_IDENT&gt;'[' {BEGIN(0); return LBRACK_AFTER_IDENT;}
'[' {return LBRACK_AFTER_IDENT;}
']' {BEGIN(AFTER_IDENT); return ']';}
'=' {return EQ;}
'~=' {return INCLUDES;}
url\({w}{string}{w}\) |
url\({w}([^ \n\'\")]|\\\ |\\\'|\\\"|\\\))+{w}\) {BEGIN(0); return URL;}
rgb\({w}{num}%?{w}\,{w}{num}%?{w}\,{w}{num}%?{w}\) {BEGIN(0); return RGB;}
U\+[0-9a-f?]{1,6}(-{h}{1,6})? {BEGIN(0); return UNICODERANGE;}
[-/+{};,#:] {BEGIN(0); return *yytext;}
[ \t]+ {BEGIN(0); /* ignore whitespace */}
\n {BEGIN(0); /* ignore whitespace */}
\&lt;\!\-\- {BEGIN(0); return CDO;}
\-\-\&gt; {BEGIN(0); return CDC;}
. {fprintf(stderr, "%d: Illegal character (%d)\n",
lineno, *yytext);}
</PRE>
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