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<TITLE>Cascading Style Sheets, Level 2</TITLE>
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<p align="right"><a href="http://www.w3.org/"><img
src="./images/w3c_home.gif" alt="W3C" align="left" border="0"
hspace="0"></a> PR-CSS2-19980324<br clear="all"></p>
<h1 align=center>Cascading Style Sheets, level 2</h1>
<center><strong>W3C Proposed Recommendation <i>24-Mar-1998</i></strong></center>
<dl>
<dt>This version:
<dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324</a>
<dt>Latest version:
<dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/PR-CSS2">http://www.w3.org/TR/PR-CSS2</a>
<dt>Previous version:
<dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/WD-css2-19980128">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/WD-css2-19980128</a>
<dt>Editors:
<dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Bos/">Bert Bos</a>
&lt;<a href="mailto:bbos@w3.org">bbos@w3.org</a>&gt;<BR>
<A HREF="http://www.w3.org/People/howcome/">H&aring;kon Wium Lie</A>
&lt;<a href="mailto:howcome@w3.org">howcome@w3.org</a>&gt;<BR>
<A HREF="http://www.w3.org/People/chris/">Chris Lilley</A>
&lt;<a href="mailto:chris@w3.org">chris@w3.org</a>&gt;<BR>
<A HREF="http://www.w3.org/People/Jacobs/">Ian Jacobs</A>
&lt;<a href="mailto:ij@w3.org">ij@w3.org</a>&gt;
</dl>
<h2>Abstract</h2>
<p>This specification defines Cascading Style Sheets, level 2
(CSS2). CSS2 is a style sheet language that allows authors and users
to attach style (e.g., fonts, spacing, and aural cues) to structured
documents (e.g., HTML documents and XML applications). By separating
the presentation style of documents from the content of documents,
CSS2 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance.
<P>CSS2 builds on CSS1 (see <a href="refs.html#ref-CSS1" rel="biblioentry" class="noxref"><span class="normref">[CSS1]</span></a>) and all valid CSS1 style sheets
are valid CSS2 style sheets. CSS2 supports media-specific style sheets
so that authors may tailor the presentation of their documents to
visual browsers, aural devices, printers, braille devices, handheld
devices, etc. This specification also supports content positioning,
downloadable fonts, table layout, features for internationalization,
automatic counters and numbering, and some properties related to user
interface.
<h2>Status of this document</h2>
<P>This document is currently undergoing review by the members of
the World Wide Web Consortium. It is a stable document derived from a
series of working drafts produced over the last year as deliverables
of the <A HREF='http://www.w3.org/Style/Activity'>Style Sheets
activity</A>. Details of this review have been distributed to
Member's representatives. Comments by non-Members should be sent to <a
href="mailto:www-style@w3.org">www-style@w3.org</a>.
<P>The review period will end on 21 April, 1998 at 24:00 GMT. Within
14 days from that time, the document's disposition will be announced:
it may become a W3C Recommendation (possibly with minor changes), or
it may revert to Working Draft status, or it may be dropped as a W3C
work item.
<P>As a Proposed Recommendation, this document does not imply any
endorsement by the Consortium's staff or Member organizations.
<h2>Available formats</h2>
<p>The CSS2 specification is available in the following formats:
<dl>
<dt>HTML:
<dd><a href="Overview.html">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324</a>
<dt>a plain text file:
<dd><a href="css2.txt">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/css2.txt</a>,
<dt>HTML as a gzip'ed tar file:
<dd><a href="css2.tgz">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/css2.tgz</a>,
<dt>HTML as a zip file (this is a '.zip' file not an '.exe'):
<dd><a href="css2.zip">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/css2.zip</a>,
<dt>as well as a gzip'ed PostScript file:
<dd><a href="css2.ps.gz">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/css2.ps.gz</a>,
<dt>and a PDF file:
<dd><a href="css2.pdf">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/css2.pdf</a>.
</dl>
<P>In case of a discrepancy between the various forms
of the specification, the HTML version is considered the
definitive version.
<h3>Available languages</h3>
<P>The English version of this specification is the only normative
version. However, for translations in other languages see <a
href="translations.html">http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/PR-CSS2-19980324/translations.html</a>.</p>
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<!--NewPage--><!-- this is for html2ps -->
<div class="toc">
<h2><a name="minitoc">Quick Table of Contents</a></h2>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline1"><a href="about.html" class="toc-link">1 About the CSS2 Specification</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="intro.html" class="toc-link">2 Introduction to CSS2</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="conform.html" class="toc-link">3 Conformance: Requirements and Recommendations</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="syndata.html" class="toc-link">4 CSS2 syntax and basic data types</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="selector.html" class="toc-link">5 Selectors</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="cascade.html" class="toc-link">6 Assigning property values, Cascading, and Inheritance</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="media.html" class="toc-link">7 Media types</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="box.html" class="toc-link">8 Box model</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visuren.html" class="toc-link">9 Visual rendering model</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visudet.html" class="toc-link">10 Visual rendering model details</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visufx.html" class="toc-link">11 Visual effects</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="generate.html" class="toc-link">12 Generated <span class="index-def" title="generated content">content</span> and automatic <span class="index-def" title="automatic numbering">numbering</span></a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="page.html" class="toc-link">13 Paged media</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="colors.html" class="toc-link">14 Colors and Backgrounds</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="fonts.html" class="toc-link">15 Fonts</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="text.html" class="toc-link">16 Text</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="lists.html" class="toc-link">17 Lists</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="tables.html" class="toc-link">18 Tables</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="ui.html" class="toc-link">19 User interface</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="aural.html" class="toc-link">20 Aural style sheets</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="sample.html" class="toc-link">Appendix A. A sample style sheet for HTML 4.0</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="changes.html" class="toc-link">Appendix B. Changes from CSS1</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="notes.html" class="toc-link">Appendix C. Implementation and performance notes</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="grammar.html" class="toc-link">Appendix D. The grammar of CSS2</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="refs.html" class="toc-link">Appendix E. References</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="propidx.html" class="toc-link">Appendix F. Property index</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="descidx.html" class="toc-link">Appendix G. Descriptor index</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="indexlist.html" class="toc-link">Appendix H. Index</a>
</ul>
</div>
<!--NewPage--><!-- this is for html2ps -->
<div class="toc">
<h2><a name="toc">Full Table of Contents</a></h2>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline1"><a href="about.html" class="toc-link">1 About the CSS2 Specification</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="about.html#q1" class="toc-link">1.1 Reading the specification</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="about.html#q2" class="toc-link">1.2 How the specification is organized</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="about.html#q3" class="toc-link">1.3 Conventions</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="about.html#q4" class="toc-link">1.3.1 Document language elements and attributes</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="about.html#property-defs" class="toc-link">1.3.2 CSS property definitions</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q6" class="toc-link"> Value</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q7" class="toc-link"> Initial</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q8" class="toc-link"> Applies to</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q9" class="toc-link"> Inherited</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q10" class="toc-link"> Percentage values</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="about.html#q11" class="toc-link"> Media groups</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="about.html#shorthand" class="toc-link">1.3.3 Shorthand properties</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="about.html#q13" class="toc-link">1.3.4 Notes and examples</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="about.html#q14" class="toc-link">1.4 Acknowledgments</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="about.html#copyright" class="toc-link">1.5 Copyright Notice</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="intro.html" class="toc-link">2 Introduction to CSS2</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#q1" class="toc-link">2.1 A brief CSS2 tutorial for HTML</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#q2" class="toc-link">2.2 A brief CSS2 tutorial for XML</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#processing-model" class="toc-link">2.3 The CSS2 processing model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="intro.html#q4" class="toc-link">2.3.1 The canvas</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="intro.html#q5" class="toc-link">2.3.2 CSS2 addressing model</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="intro.html#q6" class="toc-link">2.4 CSS design principles</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="conform.html" class="toc-link">3 Conformance: Requirements and Recommendations</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="conform.html#q1" class="toc-link">3.1 Definitions</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="conform.html#conformance" class="toc-link">3.2 Conformance</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="conform.html#q3" class="toc-link">3.3 Error conditions</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="conform.html#text-css" class="toc-link">3.4 <span class="index-def" title="text/css">The text/css content type</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="syndata.html" class="toc-link">4 CSS2 syntax and basic data types</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="syndata.html#syntax" class="toc-link">4.1 Syntax</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#tokenization" class="toc-link">4.1.1 Tokenization</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#keywords" class="toc-link">4.1.2 Keywords</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q4" class="toc-link">4.1.3 Characters and case</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q5" class="toc-link">4.1.4 Statements</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#at-rules" class="toc-link">4.1.5 At-rules</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#block" class="toc-link">4.1.6 Blocks</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q8" class="toc-link">4.1.7 Rule sets, declaration blocks, and selectors</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#declaration" class="toc-link">4.1.8 Declarations and properties</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#comments" class="toc-link">4.1.9 Comments</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="syndata.html#parsing-errors" class="toc-link">4.2 Rules for handling parsing errors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="syndata.html#values" class="toc-link">4.3 Values</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q13" class="toc-link">4.3.1 Integers and real numbers</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#length-units" class="toc-link">4.3.2 Lengths</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#percentage-units" class="toc-link">4.3.3 Percentages</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#uri" class="toc-link">4.3.4 URL + URN = URI</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#counter" class="toc-link">4.3.5 Counters</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#color-units" class="toc-link">4.3.6 Colors</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q19" class="toc-link">4.3.7 Angles</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q20" class="toc-link">4.3.8 Times</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q21" class="toc-link">4.3.9 Frequencies</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#strings" class="toc-link">4.3.10 Strings</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="syndata.html#q23" class="toc-link">4.4 CSS document representation</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="syndata.html#q24" class="toc-link">4.4.1 Referring to characters not represented in a character encoding</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="selector.html" class="toc-link">5 Selectors</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#q1" class="toc-link">5.1 Pattern matching</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#q2" class="toc-link">5.2 Selector syntax</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#grouping" class="toc-link">5.2.1 Grouping</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#universal-selector" class="toc-link">5.3 Universal selector</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#type-selectors" class="toc-link">5.4 Type selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#descendant-selectors" class="toc-link">5.5 Descendant selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#child-selectors" class="toc-link">5.6 Child selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#adjacent-selectors" class="toc-link">5.7 Adjacent selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#attribute-selectors" class="toc-link">5.8 Attribute selectors</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#q10" class="toc-link">5.8.1 Matching attributes and attribute values</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#q11" class="toc-link">5.8.2 Default attribute values in DTDs</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#class-html" class="toc-link">5.8.3 Class selectors</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#id-selectors" class="toc-link">5.9 ID selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#pseudo-elements" class="toc-link">5.10 Pseudo-elements and pseudo-classes</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#q15" class="toc-link">5.11 Pseudo-classes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#first-child" class="toc-link">5.11.1 :first-child pseudo-class</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#link-pseudo-classes" class="toc-link">5.11.2 The link pseudo-classes: <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::link|:link|link (pseudo-class)">:link</span> and <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::visited|:visited|visited (pseudo-class)">:visited</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#dynamic-pseudo-classes" class="toc-link">5.11.3 The dynamic pseudo-classes: <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::hover|:hover|hover (pseudo-class)">:hover</span>, <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::active|:active|active (pseudo-class)">:active</span>, and <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::focus|:focus|focus (pseudo-class)">:focus</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#lang" class="toc-link">5.11.4 The language pseudo-class: <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-classes:::lang|:lang|lang (pseudo-class)">:lang</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="selector.html#q20" class="toc-link">5.12 Pseudo-elements</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#first-line-pseudo" class="toc-link">5.12.1 The <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-elements:::first-line|:first-line|first-line">:first-line</span> pseudo-element</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#first-letter" class="toc-link">5.12.2 The <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-elements:::first-letter|:first-letter|first-letter">:first-letter</span> pseudo-element</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="selector.html#before-and-after" class="toc-link">5.12.3 The <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-elements:::before|:before">:before</span> and <span class="index-def" title="pseudo-elements:::after|:after">:after</span> pseudo-elements</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="cascade.html" class="toc-link">6 Assigning property values, Cascading, and Inheritance</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="cascade.html#q1" class="toc-link">6.1 Specified, computed, and actual values</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#specified-value" class="toc-link">6.1.1 <span class="index-def" title="specified value"> Specified values</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#computed-value" class="toc-link">6.1.2 <span class="index-def" title="computed value"> Computed values </span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#actual-value" class="toc-link">6.1.3 <span class="index-def" title="actual value"> Actual values</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="cascade.html#inheritance" class="toc-link">6.2 Inheritance</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#value-def-inherit" class="toc-link">6.2.1 The <span class="index-def" title="inherit, definition of">'inherit'</span> value</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="cascade.html#at-import" class="toc-link">6.3 The @import rule</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="cascade.html#cascade" class="toc-link">6.4 The cascade</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#cascading-order" class="toc-link">6.4.1 Cascading order</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#important-rules" class="toc-link">6.4.2 !important rules</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#specificity" class="toc-link">6.4.3 Calculating a selector's specificity</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="cascade.html#q12" class="toc-link">6.4.4 Precedence of non-CSS presentational hints</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="media.html" class="toc-link">7 Media types</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="media.html#q1" class="toc-link">7.1 Introduction to media types</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="media.html#q2" class="toc-link">7.2 Specifying media-dependent style sheets</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="media.html#at-media-rule" class="toc-link">7.2.1 The @media rule</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="media.html#media-types" class="toc-link">7.3 Recognized media types</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="media.html#media-groups" class="toc-link">7.3.1 Media groups</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="box.html" class="toc-link">8 Box model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="box.html#box-dimensions" class="toc-link">8.1 Box dimensions</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="box.html#mpb-examples" class="toc-link">8.2 Example of margins, padding, and borders</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="box.html#margin-properties" class="toc-link">8.3 Margin properties: <span class="propinst-margin-top">'margin-top'</span>, <span class="propinst-margin-right">'margin-right'</span>, <span class="propinst-margin-bottom">'margin-bottom'</span>, <span class="propinst-margin-left">'margin-left'</span>, and <span class="propinst-margin">'margin'</span></a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="box.html#collapsing-margins" class="toc-link">8.3.1 Collapsing margins</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="box.html#padding-properties" class="toc-link">8.4 Padding properties: <span class="propinst-padding-top">'padding-top'</span>, <span class="propinst-padding-right">'padding-right'</span>, <span class="propinst-padding-bottom">'padding-bottom'</span>, <span class="propinst-padding-left">'padding-left'</span>, and <span class="propinst-padding">'padding'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="box.html#border-properties" class="toc-link">8.5 Border properties</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="box.html#border-width-properties" class="toc-link">8.5.1 Border width: <span class="propinst-border-top-width">'border-top-width'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-right-width">'border-right-width'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-bottom-width">'border-bottom-width'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-left-width">'border-left-width'</span>, and <span class="propinst-border-width">'border-width'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="box.html#border-color-properties" class="toc-link">8.5.2 Border color: <span class="propinst-border-top-color">'border-top-color'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-right-color">'border-right-color'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-bottom-color">'border-bottom-color'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-left-color">'border-left-color'</span>, and <span class="propinst-border-color">'border-color'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="box.html#border-style-properties" class="toc-link">8.5.3 Border style: <span class="propinst-border-top-style">'border-top-style'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-right-style">'border-right-style'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-bottom-style">'border-bottom-style'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-left-style">'border-left-style'</span>, and <span class="propinst-border-style">'border-style'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="box.html#border-shorthand-properties" class="toc-link">8.5.4 Border shorthand properties: <span class="propinst-border-top">'border-top'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-bottom">'border-bottom'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-right">'border-right'</span>, <span class="propinst-border-left">'border-left'</span>, and <span class="propinst-border">'border'</span></a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visuren.html" class="toc-link">9 Visual rendering model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#q1" class="toc-link">9.1 Introduction to the visual rendering model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q2" class="toc-link">9.1.1 The viewport</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#containing-block" class="toc-link">9.1.2 <span class="index-def" title="containing block"> Containing blocks</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#box-gen" class="toc-link">9.2 Controlling box generation</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q5" class="toc-link">9.2.1 Block-level elements and block boxes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="visuren.html#anonymous-block-level" class="toc-link"> Anonymous block boxes</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q7" class="toc-link">9.2.2 Inline-level elements and inline boxes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="visuren.html#anonymous" class="toc-link"> Anonymous inline boxes</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#compact" class="toc-link">9.2.3 Compact boxes</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#run-in" class="toc-link">9.2.4 Run-in boxes</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#display-prop" class="toc-link">9.2.5 The <span class="propinst-display">'display'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#positioning-scheme" class="toc-link">9.3 Positioning schemes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#choose-position" class="toc-link">9.3.1 Choosing a positioning scheme: <span class="propinst-position">'position'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#position-props" class="toc-link">9.3.2 Box offsets: <span class="propinst-top">'top'</span>, <span class="propinst-right">'right'</span>, <span class="propinst-bottom">'bottom'</span>, <span class="propinst-left">'left'</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#normal-flow" class="toc-link">9.4 Normal flow</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#block-formatting" class="toc-link">9.4.1 Block formatting context</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#inline-formatting" class="toc-link">9.4.2 Inline formatting context</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#relative-positioning" class="toc-link">9.4.3 Relative positioning</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#floats" class="toc-link">9.5 Floats</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#float-position" class="toc-link">9.5.1 Positioning the float: the <span class="propinst-float">'float'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#flow-control" class="toc-link">9.5.2 Controlling flow next to floats: the <span class="propinst-clear">'clear'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#absolute-positioning" class="toc-link">9.6 Absolute positioning</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#fixed-positioning" class="toc-link">9.6.1 Fixed positioning</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#q24" class="toc-link">9.7 Relationships between 'display', 'position', and 'float'</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#comparison" class="toc-link">9.8 Comparison of normal flow, floats, and absolute positioning</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q26" class="toc-link">9.8.1 Normal flow</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q27" class="toc-link">9.8.2 Relative positioning</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q28" class="toc-link">9.8.3 Floating a box</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q29" class="toc-link">9.8.4 Absolute positioning</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#q30" class="toc-link">9.9 Layered presentation</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#z-index" class="toc-link">9.9.1 Specifying the stack level: the <span class="propinst-z-index">'z-index'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visuren.html#direction" class="toc-link">9.10 Text direction: the <span class="propinst-direction">'direction'</span> and <span class="propinst-unicode-bidi">'unicode-bidi'</span> properties</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#q33" class="toc-link">9.10.1 Interaction between inline flow and text direction</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visuren.html#html40-bidi" class="toc-link">9.10.2 Bidirectionality in HTML 4.0</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visudet.html" class="toc-link">10 Visual rendering model details</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visudet.html#containing-block-details" class="toc-link">10.1 Details of containing block calculation</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visudet.html#q2" class="toc-link">10.2 Calculation of box and line box widths</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visudet.html#box-width" class="toc-link">10.3 Box width calculations</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#the-width-property" class="toc-link">10.3.1 Content width: the <span class="propinst-width">'width'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#normal-floated" class="toc-link">10.3.2 Width of boxes in the normal flow and floated boxes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="visudet.html#q6" class="toc-link"> Determining the content width</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="visudet.html#comp-margin-widths" class="toc-link"> Computing margin widths</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#abs-width" class="toc-link">10.3.3 Width of absolutely positioned boxes</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#min-max-widths" class="toc-link">10.3.4 Minimum and maximum widths: <span class="propinst-min-width">'min-width'</span> and <span class="propinst-max-width">'max-width'</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visudet.html#box-height" class="toc-link">10.4 Box height calculations</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#the-height-property" class="toc-link">10.4.1 Content height: the <span class="propinst-height">'height'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#normal-height" class="toc-link">10.4.2 Determining the content height</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#q13" class="toc-link">10.4.3 Height of absolutely positioned boxes</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#min-max-heights" class="toc-link">10.4.4 Minimum and maximum heights: <span class="propinst-min-height">'min-height'</span> and <span class="propinst-max-height">'max-height'</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visudet.html#line-height" class="toc-link">10.5 Line height calculations: the <span class="propinst-line-height">'line-height'</span> and <span class="propinst-vertical-align">'vertical-align'</span> properties</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visudet.html#q16" class="toc-link">10.5.1 Leading and half-leading</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="visufx.html" class="toc-link">11 Visual effects</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visufx.html#overflow-clipping" class="toc-link">11.1 Overflow and clipping</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visufx.html#overflow" class="toc-link">11.1.1 Overflow: the <span class="propinst-overflow">'overflow'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="visufx.html#clipping" class="toc-link">11.1.2 Clipping: the <span class="propinst-clip">'clip'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="visufx.html#visibility" class="toc-link">11.2 Visibility: the <span class="propinst-visibility">'visibility'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="generate.html" class="toc-link">12 Generated <span class="index-def" title="generated content">content</span> and automatic <span class="index-def" title="automatic numbering">numbering</span></a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#before-after-content" class="toc-link">12.1 The <span class="index-def" title=":before|pseudo-elements:::before|before">:before</span> and <span class="index-def" title=":after|pseudo-elements:::after|after">:after</span> pseudo-elements</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#content" class="toc-link">12.2 The <span class="propinst-content">'content'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#compact-run-in-gen" class="toc-link">12.3 Interaction of :before and :after with <span class="index-inst" title="compact"><span class="value-inst-compact">'compact'</span></span> and <span class="index-inst" title="run-in"><span class="value-inst-run-in">'run-in'</span></span> elements</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#quotes" class="toc-link">12.4 Quotation marks</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="generate.html#quotes-specify" class="toc-link">12.4.1 Specifying quotes with the <span class="propinst-quotes">'quotes'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="generate.html#quotes-insert" class="toc-link">12.4.2 Inserting quotes with the <span class="propinst-content">'content'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#counters" class="toc-link">12.5 Automatic <span class="index-def" title="counters">counters</span> and numbering</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="generate.html#scope" class="toc-link">12.5.1 Nested counters and scope</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="generate.html#counter-styles" class="toc-link">12.5.2 Counter styles</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="generate.html#q10" class="toc-link">12.5.3 Counters in elements with 'display: none'</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="generate.html#markers" class="toc-link">12.6 Markers</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="page.html" class="toc-link">13 Paged media</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="page.html#q1" class="toc-link">13.1 Introduction to paged media</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="page.html#page-box" class="toc-link">13.2 Page boxes: the @page rule</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#page-margins" class="toc-link">13.2.1 Page margins</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#page-size-prop" class="toc-link">13.2.2 Page size: the <span class="propinst-size">'size'</span> property</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="page.html#q5" class="toc-link"> Rendering page boxes that do not fit a target sheet</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="page.html#q6" class="toc-link"> Positioning the page box on the sheet</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#crop-mark-prop" class="toc-link">13.2.3 Crop marks: the <span class="propinst-marks">'marks'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#q8" class="toc-link">13.2.4 Left, right, and first pages</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#q9" class="toc-link">13.2.5 Content outside the page box</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="page.html#page-breaks" class="toc-link">13.3 Page breaks</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#page-break-props" class="toc-link">13.3.1 Break before/after elements: <span class="propinst-page-break-before">'page-break-before'</span>, <span class="propinst-page-break-after">'page-break-after'</span>, <span class="propinst-page-break-inside">'page-break-inside'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#named-pages" class="toc-link">13.3.2 Using named pages: <span class="propinst-page">'page'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#break-inside" class="toc-link">13.3.3 Breaks inside elements: <span class="propinst-orphans">'orphans'</span>, <span class="propinst-widows">'widows'</span>, and <span class="propinst-page-break-inside">'page-break-inside'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#allowed-page-breaks" class="toc-link">13.3.4 Allowed page breaks</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#forced" class="toc-link">13.3.5 Forced page breaks</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="page.html#q16" class="toc-link">13.3.6 "Best" page breaks</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="page.html#q17" class="toc-link">13.4 Cascading in the page context</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="colors.html" class="toc-link">14 Colors and Backgrounds</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="colors.html#colors" class="toc-link">14.1 Foreground color: the <span class="propinst-color">'color'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="colors.html#q2" class="toc-link">14.2 The background</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="colors.html#background-properties" class="toc-link">14.2.1 Background properties: <span class="propinst-background-color">'background-color'</span>, <span class="propinst-background-image">'background-image'</span>, <span class="propinst-background-repeat">'background-repeat'</span>, <span class="propinst-background-attachment">'background-attachment'</span>, <span class="propinst-background-position">'background-position'</span>, and <span class="propinst-background">'background'</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="colors.html#gamma-correction" class="toc-link">14.3 Gamma correction</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="fonts.html" class="toc-link">15 Fonts</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="fonts.html#q1" class="toc-link">15.1 Introduction</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="fonts.html#font-specification" class="toc-link">15.2 Font specification</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-properties" class="toc-link">15.2.1 Font specification properties</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-family" class="toc-link">15.2.2 Font family: the <span class="propinst-font-family">'font-family'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-styling" class="toc-link">15.2.3 Font styling: the <span class="propinst-font-style">'font-style'</span>, <span class="propinst-font-variant">'font-variant'</span>, <span class="propinst-font-weight">'font-weight'</span> and <span class="propinst-font-stretch">'font-stretch'</span> properties</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-size" class="toc-link">15.2.4 Font size: the <span class="propinst-font-size">'font-size'</span> and <span class="propinst-font-size-adjust">'font-size-adjust'</span> properties</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-shorthand" class="toc-link">15.2.5 Shorthand font property: the <span class="propinst-font">'font'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#generic-font-families" class="toc-link">15.2.6 Generic font families</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="fonts.html#serif-def" class="toc-link"> <span class="index-def" title="serif, definition of"><dfn>serif</dfn></span></a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="fonts.html#sans-serif-def" class="toc-link"> <span class="index-def" title="sans-serif, definition of"> <dfn>sans-serif</dfn></span></a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="fonts.html#cursive-def" class="toc-link"> <span class="index-def" title="cursive, definition of"> <dfn>cursive</dfn></span></a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="fonts.html#fantasy-def" class="toc-link"> <span class="index-def" title="fantasy, definition of"> <dfn>fantasy</dfn></span></a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="fonts.html#monospace-def" class="toc-link"> <span class="index-def" title="monospace, definition of"> <dfn>monospace</dfn></span></a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="fonts.html#font-selection" class="toc-link">15.3 Font selection</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#font-descriptions" class="toc-link">15.3.1 <span class="index-inst" title="font description"> Font Descriptions</span> and @font-face</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#select" class="toc-link">15.3.2 Descriptors for Selecting a Font: <span class="descinst-font-family">'font-family'</span>, <span class="descinst-font-style">'font-style'</span>, <span class="descinst-font-variant">'font-variant'</span>, <span class="descinst-font-weight">'font-weight'</span>, <span class="descinst-font-stretch">'font-stretch'</span> and <span class="descinst-font-size">'font-size'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#dataqual" class="toc-link">15.3.3 Descriptors for Font Data Qualification: <span class="descinst-unicode-range">'unicode-range'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#unitsperem" class="toc-link">15.3.4 Descriptor for Numeric Values: <span class="descinst-units-per-em">'units-per-em'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#referencing" class="toc-link">15.3.5 Descriptor for Referencing: <span class="descinst-src">'src'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#matching" class="toc-link">15.3.6 Descriptors for Matching: <span class="descinst-panose-1">'panose-1'</span>, <span class="descinst-stemv">'stemv'</span>, <span class="descinst-stemh">'stemh'</span>, <span class="descinst-slope">'slope'</span>, <span class="descinst-cap-height">'cap-height'</span>, <span class="descinst-x-height">'x-height'</span>, <span class="descinst-ascent">'ascent'</span>, and <span class="descinst-descent">'descent'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#synthesizing" class="toc-link">15.3.7 Descriptors for Synthesis: <span class="descinst-widths">'widths'</span>, <span class="descinst-bbox">'bbox'</span> and <span class="descinst-definition-src">'definition-src'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#alignment" class="toc-link">15.3.8 Descriptors for Alignment: <span class="descinst-baseline">'baseline'</span>, <span class="descinst-centerline">'centerline'</span>, <span class="descinst-mathline">'mathline'</span>, and <span class="descinst-topline">'topline'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#q23" class="toc-link">15.3.9 Examples</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="fonts.html#font-descriptors" class="toc-link">15.4 Font Characteristics</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#universal" class="toc-link">15.4.1 Introducing Font Characteristics</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#aname" class="toc-link">15.4.2 Full font name</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#emsq" class="toc-link">15.4.3 Coordinate units on the em square</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#cline" class="toc-link">15.4.4 Central Baseline</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#encoding" class="toc-link">15.4.5 Font Encoding</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#family" class="toc-link">15.4.6 Font family name</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#lrwidth" class="toc-link">15.4.7 Glyph widths</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#stemh" class="toc-link">15.4.8 Horizontal stem width</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#cap" class="toc-link">15.4.9 Height of uppercase glyphs</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#xht" class="toc-link">15.4.10 Height of lowercase glyphs</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#bline" class="toc-link">15.4.11 Lower Baseline</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#mline" class="toc-link">15.4.12 Mathematical Baseline</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#bbox" class="toc-link">15.4.13 Maximal bounding box</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#ascent" class="toc-link">15.4.14 Maximum unaccented height</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#descent" class="toc-link">15.4.15 Maximum unaccented depth</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#pan1" class="toc-link">15.4.16 Panose-1 number</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#ucode" class="toc-link">15.4.17 Range of ISO 10646 characters</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#tline" class="toc-link">15.4.18 Top Baseline</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#stemv" class="toc-link">15.4.19 Vertical stem width</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#slope" class="toc-link">15.4.20 Vertical stroke angle</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="fonts.html#algorithm" class="toc-link">15.5 Font matching algorithm</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#q46" class="toc-link">15.5.1 Mapping font weight values to font names</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="fonts.html#q47" class="toc-link">15.5.2 Examples of font matching</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="text.html" class="toc-link">16 Text</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#indentation-prop" class="toc-link">16.1 Indentation: the <span class="propinst-text-indent">'text-indent'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#alignment-prop" class="toc-link">16.2 Alignment: the <span class="propinst-text-align">'text-align'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#q3" class="toc-link">16.3 Decoration</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="text.html#lining-striking-props" class="toc-link">16.3.1 Underlining, overlining, striking, and blinking: the <span class="propinst-text-decoration">'text-decoration'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="text.html#text-shadow-props" class="toc-link">16.3.2 Text shadows: the <span class="propinst-text-shadow">'text-shadow'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#spacing-props" class="toc-link">16.4 Letter and word spacing: the <span class="propinst-letter-spacing">'letter-spacing'</span> and <span class="propinst-word-spacing">'word-spacing'</span> properties</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#q7" class="toc-link">16.5 Case</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="text.html#caps-prop" class="toc-link">16.5.1 Capitalization: the <span class="propinst-text-transform">'text-transform'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="text.html#q9" class="toc-link">16.5.2 Special first letter/first line</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="text.html#white-space-prop" class="toc-link">16.6 White space: the <span class="propinst-white-space">'white-space'</span> property</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="text.html#q11" class="toc-link">16.6.1 Line breaks</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="lists.html" class="toc-link">17 Lists</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="lists.html#q1" class="toc-link">17.1 Visual formatting of lists</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="lists.html#list-props" class="toc-link">17.1.1 List properties: <span class="propinst-list-style-type">'list-style-type'</span>, <span class="propinst-list-style-image">'list-style-image'</span>, <span class="propinst-list-style-position">'list-style-position'</span>, and <span class="propinst-list-style">'list-style'</span></a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="tables.html" class="toc-link">18 Tables</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q1" class="toc-link">18.1 Introduction to tables</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q2" class="toc-link">18.2 The CSS table model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#anonymous-boxes" class="toc-link">18.2.1 Anonymous table boxes</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q4" class="toc-link">18.3 Column selectors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q5" class="toc-link">18.4 Tables in the visual rendering model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#q6" class="toc-link">18.4.1 Caption position and alignment</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q7" class="toc-link">18.5 Visual layout of table contents</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#spanning-props" class="toc-link">18.5.1 Row and column spans: <span class="propinst-column-span">'column-span'</span>, and <span class="propinst-row-span">'row-span'</span></a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#table-layers" class="toc-link">18.5.2 Table layers and transparency</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#layout-algos" class="toc-link">18.5.3 Table size algorithms: the <span class="propinst-table-layout">'table-layout'</span> property</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#fixed-table-layout" class="toc-link"> Fixed table layout</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#auto-table-layout" class="toc-link"> Automatic table layout</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#alignment" class="toc-link">18.5.4 Alignment of cell boxes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#vertical-align" class="toc-link"> Vertical alignment in a row</a>
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#column-alignment" class="toc-link"> Horizontal alignment in a column</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#dynamic-effects" class="toc-link">18.5.5 Dynamic row and column effects</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#borders" class="toc-link">18.6 Borders</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#2D" class="toc-link">18.6.1 The separated borders model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#empty-cells" class="toc-link"> Borders around empty cells: the <span class="propinst-empty-cells">'empty-cells'</span> property</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#collapsing-borders" class="toc-link">18.6.2 The collapsing border model</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline4"><a href="tables.html#border-conflict-resolution" class="toc-link"> Border conflict resolution</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#q22" class="toc-link">18.6.3 Border styles</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="tables.html#q23" class="toc-link">18.7 Audio rendering of tables</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="tables.html#speak-headers" class="toc-link">18.7.1 Speaking headers: the <span class="propinst-speak-header">'speak-header'</span> property</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="ui.html" class="toc-link">19 User interface</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="ui.html#cursor-props" class="toc-link">19.1 Cursors: the <span class="propinst-cursor">'cursor'</span> property</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="ui.html#system-colors" class="toc-link">19.2 User preferences for colors</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="ui.html#system-fonts" class="toc-link">19.3 User preferences for fonts</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="ui.html#dynamic-outlines" class="toc-link">19.4 Dynamic outlines: the <span class="index-def" title="outline">'outline'</span> property</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="ui.html#q5" class="toc-link">19.4.1 Outlines and the focus</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="ui.html#q6" class="toc-link">19.5 Magnification</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="aural.html" class="toc-link">20 Aural style sheets</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#q1" class="toc-link">20.1 Introduction to aural style sheets</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#volume-props" class="toc-link">20.2 Volume properties: <span class="propinst-volume">'volume'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#speaking-props" class="toc-link">20.3 Speaking properties: <span class="propinst-speak">'speak'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#pause-props" class="toc-link">20.4 Pause properties: <span class="propinst-pause-before">'pause-before'</span>, <span class="propinst-pause-after">'pause-after'</span>, and <span class="propinst-pause">'pause'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#cue-props" class="toc-link">20.5 Cue properties: <span class="propinst-cue-before">'cue-before'</span>, <span class="propinst-cue-after">'cue-after'</span>, and <span class="propinst-cue">'cue'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#mixing-props" class="toc-link">20.6 Mixing properties: <span class="propinst-play-during">'play-during'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#spatial-props" class="toc-link">20.7 Spatial properties: <span class="propinst-azimuth">'azimuth'</span> and <span class="propinst-elevation">'elevation'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#voice-char-props" class="toc-link">20.8 Voice characteristic properties: <span class="propinst-speech-rate">'speech-rate'</span>, <span class="propinst-voice-family">'voice-family'</span>, <span class="propinst-pitch">'pitch'</span>, <span class="propinst-pitch-range">'pitch-range'</span>, <span class="propinst-stress">'stress'</span>, and <span class="propinst-richness">'richness'</span></a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="aural.html#speech-props" class="toc-link">20.9 Speech properties: <span class="propinst-speak-punctuation">'speak-punctuation'</span> and <span class="propinst-speak-numeral">'speak-numeral'</span></a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="sample.html" class="toc-link">Appendix A. A sample style sheet for HTML 4.0</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="changes.html" class="toc-link">Appendix B. Changes from CSS1</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="changes.html#q1" class="toc-link">B.1 New functionality</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="changes.html#q2" class="toc-link">B.2 Updated descriptions</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="changes.html#changes-from-css1" class="toc-link">B.3 Semantic changes from CSS1</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="notes.html" class="toc-link">Appendix C. Implementation and performance notes</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="notes.html#q1" class="toc-link">C.1 Fonts</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline3"><a href="notes.html#q2" class="toc-link">C.1.1 Glossary of font terms</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="notes.html#coneg" class="toc-link">C.1.2 Font retrieval</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="notes.html#panose" class="toc-link">C.1.3 Meaning of the Panose Digits</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="notes.html#truetype-unicode" class="toc-link">C.1.4 Deducing Unicode Ranges for TrueType</a>
<li class="tocline3"><a href="notes.html#autodescgen" class="toc-link">C.1.5 Automatic descriptor generation</a>
</ul>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="grammar.html" class="toc-link">Appendix D. The grammar of CSS2</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="grammar.html#q1" class="toc-link">D.1 Grammar</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="grammar.html#q2" class="toc-link">D.2 Lexical scanner</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="grammar.html#tokenizer-diffs" class="toc-link">D.3 Comparison of tokenization in CSS2 and CSS1</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="refs.html" class="toc-link">Appendix E. References</a>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="tocline2"><a href="refs.html#q1" class="toc-link">E.1 Normative references</a>
<li class="tocline2"><a href="refs.html#q2" class="toc-link">E.2 Informative references</a>
</ul>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="propidx.html" class="toc-link">Appendix F. Property index</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="descidx.html" class="toc-link">Appendix G. Descriptor index</a>
<li class="tocline1"><a href="indexlist.html" class="toc-link">Appendix H. Index</a>
</ul>
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