Identity Service for OpenStack
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Keystone: OpenStack Identity Service

Keystone is a proposed independent authentication service for OpenStack.

This initial proof of concept aims to address the current use cases in Swift and Nova which are:

  • REST-based, token auth for Swift
  • many-to-many relationship between identity and tenant for Nova.

For Users

User Guide & Concepts

The Developer Guide documents the APIs to call and how to use them.

Core Concepts:

UserAn identity stored in the Keystone identity store used by a client to authenticate to Keystone.
TenantA container which houses multiple resources.
For example, a tenant might represent an 'account' or 'company' which contains an arbitrary number of compute resources. One or more users may be assiciated and have rights to a tenant.
RoleA responsibility which is linked to a given user (and optionally scoped to a particular tenant).
GroupA group of users. Group use cases are not yet defined in Keystone.
TokenA 'token' describes a temporary object obtained by clients from Keystone and used to identify themselves to an OpenStack service.

Running Keystone


$ sudo pip install -r tools/pip-requires
$ sudo python install

Starting services

Starting both Admin and Service API endpoints:

$ cd bin
$ ./keystone

For Keystone Contributors



  • Keystone - identity store and authentication service
  • Auth_Token - WSGI middleware that can be used to handle token auth protocol (WSGI or remote proxy)
  • Echo - A sample service that responds by returning call details

Also included:

  • Keystone - Service and Admin API are available separately. Admin API allows management of tenants, roles, and users as well.
  • Auth_Basic - Stub for WSGI middleware that will be used to handle basic auth
  • Auth_OpenID - Stub for WSGI middleware that will be used to handle openid auth protocol (to be implemented)
  • RemoteAuth - WSGI middleware that can be used in services (like Swift, Nova, and Glance) when Auth middleware is running remotely

Built-In commands:

  • bin/keystone - Provides HTTP API for users and administrators
  • bin/keystone-admin - Provides HTTP API for administrators
  • bin/keystone-service - Provides HTTP API for users
  • bin/keystone-manage - Provides command-line interface for managing all aspects of Keystone

By default, configuration parameters are parsed from etc/keystone.conf.


You may need to prefix your pip install commands with sudo, depending on your environment.

# Show dependencies
$ cat tools/pip-requires

# Install dependencies
$ pip install -r tools/pip-requires

# Install unit/functional test dependencies
$ pip install -r tools/pip-requires-testing

Running Keystone

Starting both Admin and Service API endpoints:

$ cd bin
$ ./keystone

Starting the auth server only (exposes the Service API):

$ cd bin
$ ./keystone-auth

Starting the admin server only (exposes the Admin API):

$ cd bin
$ ./keystone-admin

By default, configuration parameters (such as the IP and port binding for each service) are parsed from etc/keystone.conf.

Running Tests

Before running tests, ensure you have installed the testing dependencies as described in the Dependencies section above.

Test data

A set of sample data can be added by running a shell script:

$ cd bin
$ ./

The script calls keystone-manage to create the sample data.

After starting keystone or running keystone-manage a keystone.db sqlite database should be created in the keystone folder.


To run client demo (with all auth middleware running locally on sample service):

$ ./examples/echo/bin/echod
$ python examples/echo/


Unit Tests

Prepare to run unit tests by changing to the unit test directory:

$ cd keystone/test/unit

There are 10 groups of tests. They can be run individually or as an entire colection. To run the entire test suite run:

$ python

A test can also be run individually, e.g.:

$ python

For more on unit testing please refer to:

$ python --help

API Validation

To perform contract validation and load testing, use SoapUI (for now).


  1. First, download SOAPUI:

  2. To Test Keystone Service:

  • File->Import Project
  • Select tests/IdentitySOAPUI.xml
  • Double click on "Keystone Tests" and press the green play (>) button

Editing and Compiling the Developer Guide

Users of the Keystone API are often developers making ReSTfull calls to Keystone. The guide to provide them information is therefore called a Developer Guide. Developer in this case is not to be confused with developers working on the Keystone source code itself.

The dev guide is automatically generated from XML and other artifacts in the keystone/docs/src folder.

To build the API dev guide from source, you need Maven. To build the docs, run the following from the Keystone/docs folder:

$ mvn clean generate-sources

The output will go into the keystone/docs/target folder (the source is in keystone/docs/src). Output generated is PDF and webhelp.

Additional Information:


Keystone gets its configuration from command-line parameters or a .conf file. The file can be provided explicitely on the command line otherwise the following logic applies (the conf file in use will be output to help in troubleshooting:

  1. takes the config file from /etc/keystone.conf
  2. If the keystone package is also intalled on the system, /etc/keystone.conf or /etc/keystone/keystone.conf have higher priority than /etc/keystone.conf.

CURL commands

    # Get an unscoped token
    $ curl -d '{"passwordCredentials": {"username": "joeuser", "password": "secrete"}}' -H "Content-type: application/json" http://localhost:8081/v2.0/tokens

    # Get a token for a tenant

    $ curl -d '{"passwordCredentials": {"username": "joeuser", "password": "secrete", "tenantId": "1234"}}' -H "Content-type: application/json" http://localhost:8081/v2.0/tokens

Load Testing

   # Create post data

   $ echo '{"passwordCredentials": {"username": "joeuser", "password": "secrete", "tenantId": "1234"}}' > post_data

   # Call Apache Bench

   $ ab -c 30 -n 1000 -T "application/json" -p post_data

NOVA Integration

Initial support for using keystone as nova's identity component has been started.

# clone projects
bzr clone lp:nova
git clone git://

# link keystone into the nova root dir
ln -s keystone/keystone nova/keystone

# run nova-api based on the paste config in keystone
nova/bin/nova-api --api_paste_config=keystone/docs/nova-api-paste.ini

Assuming you added the test data using bin/, you can then use joeuser/secrete

Swift Integration - Quick Start

  1. Install Swift, either from trunk or version 1.4.1 (once it's released) or higher. Do the standard SAIO install with the included TempAuth to be sure you have a working system to start with. This step is beyond the scope of this quick start; see for a Swift development set up guide. Once you have a working Swift install, go ahead and shut it down for now (the default Swift install uses the same ports Keystone wants):

    $ swift-init all stop
  2. Obtain and install a source copy of Keystone:

    $ git clone ~/keystone
    $ cd ~/keystone && sudo python develop
  3. Start up the Keystone service:

    $ cd ~/keystone/bin && ./keystone
    Starting the Legacy Authentication component
    Service API listening on
    Admin API listening on
  4. In another window, edit the ~/keystone/bin/ file, find the text and replace it with the URL to your Swift cluster using the following format (note that we're going to change Swift to run on port 8888 later):

  5. Create the sample data entries:

    $ cd ~/keystone/bin && ./
  6. Reconfigure Swift's proxy server to use Keystone instead of TempAuth. Here's an example /etc/swift/proxy-server.conf:

    bind_port = 8888
    user = <user>
    pipeline = catch_errors cache keystone proxy-server
    use = egg:swift#proxy
    account_autocreate = true
    use = egg:keystone#tokenauth
    auth_protocol = http
    auth_host =
    auth_port = 8081
    admin_token = 999888777666
    delay_auth_decision = 0
    service_protocol = http
    service_host =
    service_port = 8100
    service_pass = dTpw
    use = egg:swift#memcache
    set log_name = cache
    use = egg:swift#catch_errors
  7. Start Swift back up with the new configuration:

    $ swift-init main start
  8. Use st to check everything works (note: you currently have to create a container or upload something as your first action to have the account created; there's a Swift bug to be fixed soon):

    $ st -A -U joeuser -K secrete post container
    $ st -A -U joeuser -K secrete stat -v
    Auth Token: 74ce1b05-e839-43b7-bd76-85ef178726c3
       Account: AUTH_1234
    Containers: 1
       Objects: 0
         Bytes: 0
    Accept-Ranges: bytes
    X-Trans-Id: tx25c1a6969d8f4372b63912f411de3c3b

Note: Keystone currently allows any valid token to do anything with any account.

But, it works as a demo!

I want OpenStack (all of it)

To get an opinionated install of nova, keystone, dashboard and glance using openstack apis:

# create a maverick cloud server
curl -O
chmod 755
export USE_GIT=1         # checkout source using github mirror
export ENABLE_VOLUMES=0  # disable volumes
export ENABLE_DASH=1     # install & configure dashboard
export ENABLE_GLANCE=1   # install & configure glance image service
export ENABLE_KEYSTONE=1 # install & configure keystone (unified auth)
./ branch
./ install
# nova's patched libvirt ppa doesn't work on cloud servers, revert to old libvirt
apt-get install -y --force-yes libvirt0=0.8.3-1ubuntu14.1 libvirt-bin=0.8.3-1ubuntu14.1 python-libvirt=0.8.3-1ubuntu14.1
./ run

Relevant Technologies, Standards, and Links


We could potentially integrate with those:

WebID - See also: (

OpenID and/or OpenIDConnect