Git training run by Ambient Ideas, good course for anyone looking to level up on git.
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Git Training

Notes from my git training put on by Matthew McCullough of Ambient Ideas



Free Git Books:

Shell Enhancements:

Hour 1

Setting up git

git config --global "Your Name"
git config --global your@email
git config --global color.ui auto           #Syntax Highlighting
git config --global autocrlf input          #Default linefeed settings

Hour 2

Changing your preferred editor

git config --global core.editor "emacs"   #EWWWWWW


git diff
git diff --staged
git diff HEAD

git add -p  .           #Walk through diff and selectivly add changes

git status -s -u        #Short output, show untracked files

git diff -w             #Suppress the display of whitespace only changes

git diff --color-words  #Highlight changed words using only colors

Hour 3


git log                   #Lists commits in reverse chronological order
git log --stat            #Log with diffstat
git log -p                #Generate patch
git log --diff-filter=A   #Select only files that were added.  Could also be M,C,....
git log --pretty=raw      #
git log -3                #Show last 3 commit
git log --author=User     #Show commits by User

Ignoring Files

>vim .gitignore
#Glob patterns,  one per line
*.log         #Wildcard matching
*.tmp         #Wildcard matching
!special.log  #DO NOT ignore this file

git config --global core.excludefiles "~/.gitignore"   #Global excludes.  

Be careful what you put in global excludes. It is not portable, does not propagate with your code. Things you should put in here are ide/os type crud files.

Empty Directories

mkdir emptydir              #Git won't track this
touch emptydir/.gitignore   #Now it will

Preconfigured .gitignore

Removing Files

git rm FILENAME         #Directly remove and stage
rm FILENAME             #Deletes, but does not stage
git add -u .            #Picks up on deleted files,  -u == update
git reset --hard        #Restores *tracked* files to their last commited state, cleans the staging area
git checkout HEAD -- FILENAME  #Restores FILENAME to last commited state

Moving/Renaming Files

git mv OLD NEW          #Composite command

Equivalent command:

git add -A .            #All,  added/removed/modified

How to track moves/renames in your history

git log --stat          #This will show files added/deleted.  Not renamed/moved
git log --stat -M       #Show renames
git log --stat -C       #Show copies/renames
git log --stat -M90     #Set threshold of 90% on similarity index, for detecting moved/renamed files
git log -2 --stat -C --find-copies-harder  #Looks through history looking for copies

Discussion on similarity index

Hour 4

Cloning repositories

git clone http://user@server/path/to.git
git clone git://server/path/to.git             #Typically read-only
git clone file://repository
git clone


git branch BRANCHNAME                           #Create BRANCHNAME
git checkout REMOTE/BRANCHNAME                         #Switch to BRANCHNAME

**Make your changes**

git push -u origin BRANCHNAME:BRANCHANME        #Push BRANCHNAME to BRANCHNAME at remote repsitory, -u means track

Hour 5

Downloading objects from upstream (freshens your cache)

git fetch             

Sharing your code

git commit
git push <remote>     #Send code to an upstream server
git pull <remote>     #Combination command, fetches and merges to a local branch.  

git branch -a         #List all branches, local and remote
git merge BRANCHNAME  #Merges with the currently checked out branch
git push              #Send your changes upstream


Vocabulary: (Ghetto simple)

Local: Your copy of the repository. Exists on your machine Remote: Cached copy of upstream repository. Exists on your machine Upstream: Repository from external source. Could exist on your machine, if you cloned using file://, but probably exists on a server somewhere

Default name is origin Remote branches are locally immutable (conceptually) Remotes can be thought of as bookmarks Use as public/private repositories Same repo/different protocol

git remote -v                             #Shows all inbound/outboud address for each repository
git remote add REMOTENAME GITREMOTEURL    #Add an alias for GITREMOTEURL called REMOTENAME

git checkout BRANCHAME                    #Make a **local** branch of remote branch
                                          #If a branch exists in more than one remote, or is otherwise ambiguous, it will fail. 
                                          #You *must* be explicit in this case
git checkout -b BRANCHNAME --track REMOTE/BRANCHNAME    #This will check out the branch you want

Purge 'remote' branches that have been removed from an 'upstream' repository

git prune

Reversing your commits

If you haven't pushed upstream

git reset --soft HEAD~1                   #Rewind the history 1 step. --soft preserves changes to files and keeps them staged
git reset --hard HEAD~1                   #Rewind the history 1 step. --hard DISCARDS changes

If you have pushed upstream

You can do the same, but the graph of the commits as your other commiters know it has changed. What if you destroyed a commit they were basing changes on?

git revert COMMITNUMBER                   #Make a commit that negates a previous commit

Hour 6

Merge conflicts

git merge BRANCHNAME              #Merge BRANCHNAME with currently checked out branch
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in FILENAME
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
git status                        #Will show you what the problems are

To fix, edit the file and make it look as you want it to appear. OR there are a number of tools to fix it.

git mergetool -t opendiff

NVIE Git workflow


git checkout BRANCHNAME
git rebase master
git rebase --continue       #If there are merge conflicts,  fix them then run this

 ** Make your changes **

git checkout master
git merge BRANCHNAME        #Merge the branch back into the master

Another way to use it

git checkout BRANCHNAME
git rebase -i HEAD~5        #Interactive rebase of the last 5 commits to HEAD
git rebase -i COMMITID      #Interactive rebase starting with COMMITID -> HEAD

Inside the interactive rebase: pick COMMITID