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Benchmark for implementation of servers that support 1m connections

inspired by handling 1M websockets connections in Go


  1. 1_simple_tcp_server: a 1m-connections server implemented based on goroutines per connection
  2. 2_epoll_server: a 1m-connections server implemented based on epoll
  3. 3_epoll_server_throughputs: add throughputs and latency test for 2_epoll_server
  4. 4_epoll_client: implement the client based on epoll
  5. 5_multiple_client: use multiple epoll to manage connections in client
  6. 6_multiple_server: use multiple epoll to manage connections in server
  7. 7_server_prefork: use prefork style of apache to implement server
  8. 8_server_workerpool: use Reactor pattern to implement multiple event loops
  9. 9_few_clients_high_throughputs: a simple goroutines per connection server for test throughtputs and latency
  10. 10_io_intensive_epoll_server: an io-bound multiple epoll server
  11. 11_io_intensive_goroutine: an io-bound goroutines per connection server
  12. 12_cpu_intensive_epoll_server: a cpu-bound multiple epoll server
  13. 13_cpu_intensive_goroutine: an cpu-bound goroutines per connection server

Test Environment

  • two E5-2630 V4 cpus, total 20 cores, 40 logicial cores.
  • 32G memory

tune the linux:

sysctl -w fs.file-max=2000500
sysctl -w fs.nr_open=2000500
sysctl -w net.nf_conntrack_max=2000500
ulimit -n 2000500

sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle=1
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse=1

client sends the next request only when it has received the response. it has not used the pipeline style to test.


1m connections

throughputs (tps) latency
goroutine-per-conn 202830 4.9s
single epoll(both server and client) 42495 23s
single epoll server 42402 0.8s
multiple epoll server 197814 0.9s
prefork 444415 1.5s
workerpool 190022 0.3s


  1. 百万 Go TCP 连接的思考: epoll方式减少资源占用
  2. 百万 Go TCP 连接的思考2: 百万连接的服务器的性能
  3. 百万 Go TCP 连接的思考3: 低连接场景下的服务器的吞吐和延迟


benchmarks for implementation of servers which support 1 million connections




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