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Sources for "Object-Oriented Programming with ANSI-C" (rerelease 02-01-04)
Copyright (c) 1993 Axel T. Schreiner, University of Osnabrueck, Germany

contact ----------------------------------------------------------------
mail: Axel T. Schreiner, Department of Computer Science,
Rochester Institute of Technology, room 10-1188, 102 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester NY 14623-5608 USA
http://www.cs.rit.edu/~ats/, phone +1.585.475.4902, fax +1.585.475.7100
mailto: ats@cs.rit.edu

legalese ---------------------------------------------------------------
While you may use this software package, neither I nor my employers can
be made responsible for whatever problems you might cause or encounter.

While you may give away this package and/or software derived with
it, you should not charge for it, you should not claim that ooc is
your work, and I have published my own book about ooc before you did.

The same restrictions apply to whoever might get this package from

executive summary ------------------------------------------------------
ooc is a technique to do object-oriented programming (classes,
methods, dynamic linkage, simple inheritance, polymorphisms,
persistent objects, method existence testing, message forwarding,
exception handling, etc.) using ANSI-C.

ooc is a preprocessor to simplify the coding task by converting
class descriptions and method implementations into ANSI-C as required
by the technique. You implement the algorithms inside the methods
and the ooc preprocessor produces the boilerplate.

ooc consists of a shell script driving a modular awk script (with
provisions for debugging), a set of reports -- code generation
templates -- interpreted by the script, and the source of a root
class to provide basic functionality.  Everything is designed to
be changed if desired. There are manual pages, lots of examples,
among them a calculator based on curses and X11, and you can ask
me about the book.

ooc as a technique requires an ANSI-C system -- classic C would
necessitate substantial changes. The preprocessor needs a healthy
Bourne-Shell and "new" awk as described in Aho, Weinberger, and
Kernighan's book.

ooc was developed primarily to teach about object-oriented programming
without having to learn a new language. If you see how it is done
in a familiar setting, it is much easier to grasp the concepts and
to know what miracles to expect from the technique and what not.
Conceivably, the preprocessor can be used for production programming
but this was not the original intent. Being able to roll your own
object-oriented coding techniques has its possibilities, however...

technical details ------------------------------------------------------
Most sources should be viewed with tab stops set at 4 characters.

The original system ran on NeXTSTEP 3.2 and older, ESIX (System
V) 4.0.4, and Linux 0.99.pl4-49. This rerelease was tested on MacOS X
version 10.1.2 and Solaris version 5.8. You need to review paths in the
script 'ooc/ooc' before running anything. Make sure the first line
of this script points to a Bourne-style shell. Also make sure that
the first line of '09/munch' points to a (new) awk.

The rereleased 'ooc' awk-programs have been tested with GNU awk versions
3.0.1 and 3.0.3. Previous versions did not support AWKPATH properly
(but this is not essential).

The makefiles could be smarter but they are naive enough for all
systems.  This is a heterogeneous system -- set the environment
variable $OSTYPE to an architecture-specific name. 'make' in the current
directory will create everything by calling 'make' in the various
subdirectories. Each 'makefile' includes 'make/Makefile.$OSTYPE', review
your 'make/Makefile.$OSTYPE' before you start.

The following make calls are supported throughout:

  make [all]	create examples
  make test	[make and] run examples
  make clean	remove all but sources
  make depend	make dependencies (if makefile.$OSTYPE supports it)

Make dependencies can be built with the -MM option of the GNU C
compiler.  They are stored in a file 'depend' in each subdirectory.
They should apply to all systems. 'makefile.$OSTYPE' may include a target
'depend' to recreate 'depend' -- check 'makefile.darwin1.4' for an

contents ---------------------------------------------------------------
The following is a walk through the file hierarchy in the order of
the book:

makefile	dispatch standard make calls to known directories

    Makefile.*	boilerplate code for */makefile

*/  depend	make dependencies
    makefile	create and test

01/*		chapter 1: abstract data types
    sets	Set demo
    bags	Bag demo: Set with reference count

02/*		chapter 2: dynamic linkage
    strings	String demo
    atoms	Atom demo: unique String

03/*		chapter 3: manipulating expressions with dyn. linkage
    postfix	postfix output of expression
    value	expression evaluation
    infix	infix output of expression

04/*		chapter 4: inheritance
    points	Point demo
    circles	Circle demo: Circle: Point with radius

05/*		chapter 5: symbol table with inheritance
    value	expression evaluation with vars, consts, functions

06/*		chapter 6: class hierarchy and meta classes
    any		objects that do not differ from any object

ooc/*		ooc preprocessor
    ooc		command script; review 'home' 'OOCPATH' 'AWKPATH'
    awk/*.awk	modules
    awk/*.dbg	debugging modules
    rep/*.rep	reports
    rep-*/*.rep	reports for early chapters

man/ooc.1	manual page (for final version)

07/*		chapter 7: ooc preprocessor; use ooc -7
    points	Point demo: PointClass is a new metaclass
    circles	Circle demo: Circle is a new class
    queue	Queue demo: List is an abstract base class
    stack	Stack demo: another subclass of List

08/*		chapter 8: dynamic type checking; use ooc -8
    circles	Circle demo: nothing changed
    list	List demo: traps insertion of numbers or strings

09/*		chapter 9: automatic initialization; use ooc -9
    munch	awk program to collect class list from nm -p output
    circles	Circle demo: no more init calls
    list	List demo: no more init calls

man/munch.1	manual page

10/*		chapter 10: respondsTo method; use ooc -10
    cmd		Filter demo: how flags and options are handled
    wc		word count filter
    sort	sorting filter, adds sort method to List

11/*		chapter 11: class methods
    value	expression evaluator, based on class hierarchy
    value x	memory reclamation enabled

man/retrieve.2	manual page

c.12/*		chapter 12: persistent objects
    value	expression evaluator, with save and load

13/*		chapter 13: exception handling
    value	expression evaluator with exception handler
    except	Exception demo

14/*		chapter 14: message forwarding
    makefile.etc (naive) generated rules for the library
    Xapp	resources for X11-based programs
    hello	LineOut demo: hello, world
    button	Button demo
    run		terminal-oriented calculator
    cbutton	Crt demo: hello, world changes into a
    crun	curses-based caluclator
    xhello	XLineOut demo: hello, world
    xbutton	XButton demo with XawBox and XawForm
    xrun	X11-based calculator with callbacks

man/*		manual pages
    *.1		tools
    *.2		functions
    *.3		some classes
    *.4		classes in chapter 14

hp700 hp/ux ------------------------------------------------------------
c.07    Object.dc
extern ...
static ...

        draws a warning, but uses static.

        does not trap type checking
        use _SIGBUS rather than SIGBUS

        munch botched -- nm does not output static data symbols.
	it looks like we have to generate fake things with ooc or
	we have to produce classes.c on another architecture.  GNU
	nm does not compile, it seems.

sunos 4 ----------------------------------------------------------------
must use gcc, not cc

	strerror() does not exist -- replace call simply by "bad
	number" (could make it from sys_nerr, etc.).  strtod() must
	be declared by including math.h.

        need to include stddef.h to define size_t.

        strerror() does not exist.

        memmove must be replaced by bcopy (arguments reversed).

        strerror() does not exist.

        stdlib.h declares char * bsearch(), rather than void *.

        fprintf knows %p, but fscanf does not. use %x.

        ex // comments...

        does not have atexit().