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#!perl -w
=head1 NAME
dkim: validate DomainKeys and (DKIM) Domain Keys Indentified Messages
=head1 SYNOPSIS
Validate the DKIM and Domainkeys signatures of a message, enforce DKIM
sending policies, and DKIM sign outgoing messages.
=head1 CONFIGURATION
=head2 reject [ 0 | 1 | naughty ]
dkim [ reject 0 ]
0 - do not reject
1 - reject messages that fail DKIM policy
naughty - defer rejection to the B<naughty> plugin
Default: 1
=head2 reject_type
dkim reject_type [ temp | perm ]
Default: perm
=head1 HOW TO SIGN
=head2 generate DKIM keys
=head3 the easy way
cd ~smtpd/config/dkim; ./dkim_key_gen.sh example.org
=head3 the manual way
mkdir -p ~smtpd/config/dkim/example.org
cd ~smtpd/config/dkim/example.org
echo 'may2013' > selector
openssl genrsa -out private 2048
chmod 400 private
openssl rsa -in private -out public -pubout
chown -R smtpd:smtpd ../example.org
After generating the keys, there will be three files in the example.org directory: selector, private, and public.
=head3 selector
The selector can be any value that is a valid DNS label.
=head3 key length
The minimum recommended key length for short duration keys (ones that will be replaced within a few months) is 1024. If you are unlikely to rotate your keys frequently, choose 2048, at the expense of a bit more CPU.
=head2 publish public key in DNS
If the DKIM keys were generated the easy way, there will be a fourth file named I<dns>. The contents contain the DNS formatted record of the public key, as well as suggestions for DKIM, SPF, and DMARC policy records. The records are ready to be copy/pasted into a BIND zone file, or better yet, NicTool. If you created your keys manually, look in the dkim_key_gen.sh script to see the commands used to format the DKIM public key.
The combination of the three example DKIM, SPF, and DMARC policy records in the I<dns> file tell other mail servers that if a sender claims to be from example.org, but the message is not DKIM nor SPF aligned, then the message should be rejected. Many email servers, including the largest email providers (Gmail, Yahoo, Outlook/Live/Hotmail) will refuse to accept such messages, greatly reducing the harm caused by miscreants who forge your domain(s) in the From header of their spam.
The DKIM record will look like this:
may2013._domainkey TXT "v=DKIM1;p=[public key stripped of whitespace];"
And the values in the address have the following meaning:
hash: h=[ sha1 | sha256 ]
test; t=[ s | s:y ]
granularity: g=[ ]
notes: n=[ ]
services: s=[email]
keytypes: [ rsa ]
=head2 testing
After confirming that the DKIM public key can be fetched with DNS (dig TXT may2013._domainkey.example.org. @ns1.example.org.), send test messages. You can testing DKIM by sending an email to:
* a Gmail address and inspect the Authentication-Results header.
* mailtest@unlocktheinbox.com
* check-auth@verifier.port25.com
* checkmyauth@auth.returnpath.net
The three email reflectors provide nice email reports with additional debugging information.
=head2 publish DKIM policy in DNS
_domainkey TXT "o=~; t=y; r=postmaster@example.org"
o=- - all are signed
o=~ - some are signed
t=y - test mode
r=[email] - responsible email address
n=[notes]
After DKIM and SPF are tested and working, update the policy, changing o=~ to o=-, so that other mail servers reject unsigned messages claiming to be from your domain.
As of this writing, most mail servers do not reject messages that fail DKIM policy, unless they also fail SPF, and no DMARC policy is published. The same holds true for SPF. There are technical reasons for this. See DMARC for more information, how you can control change that behavior, as well as receiving feedback from remote servers about messages they have accepted and rejected from senders claiming the identity of your domain(s).
=head2 Sign for others
Following the directions above will configure QP to DKIM sign messages from authenticated senders of example.org. Suppose you host client.com and would like to DKIM sign their messages too? Do that as follows:
cd ~smtpd/config/dkim
ln -s example.org client.com
QP will follow the symlink target and sign client.com emails with the example.org DKIM key and set d=example.org.
This is B<not> necessary for hosts or subdomains. If the DKIM key for host.example.com does not exist, and a key for example.com does exist, the parent DKIM key will be used to sign the message. So long as your DKIM and DMARC policies are set to relaxed alignment, these signed messages for subdomains will pass.
CAUTION: just because you can sign for other domains, doesn't mean you should. Even with a relaxed DKIM policy, signing client.com's email with d=example.org causes an alignment error, and they may encounter deliverability problems. It is better to have keys generated and published for each domain, or at least to make a copy of config/dkim/example.org rather than linking to it.
=head1 SEE ALSO
http://www.dkim.org/
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6376 - DKIM Signatures
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5863 - DKIM Development, Deployment, & Operations
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5617 - DKIM ADSP (Author Domain Signing Practices)
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5585 - DKIM Service Overview
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5016 - DKIM Signing Practices Protocol
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4871 - DKIM Signatures
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4870 - DomainKeys
http://dkimcore.org/tools/
http://www.protodave.com/tools/dkim-key-checker/
=head1 AUTHORS
2013 - Matt Simerson - added DKIM signing and key creation script
2012 - Matt Simerson - initial plugin
=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
David Summers - http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.qpsmtpd/2010/08/msg9417.html
Matthew Harrell - http://alecto.bittwiddlers.com/files/qpsmtpd/dkimcheck
I first attempted to fix the dkimcheck plugin, but soon scrapped that effort and wrote this one. Why?
=over 4
The use of $dkim->fetch_author_policy, which is deprecated by Mail::DKIM.
The paradim of a single policy, when DKIM supports 0 or many.
The OBF programming style, which is nigh impossible to test.
The nine 'if' brackets with 19 conditionals, and my inability to easily determine which of the 15 possible permutations (5 signature validation results x 3 possible policy results) were covered.
=back
=cut
use strict;
use warnings;
use Qpsmtpd::Constants;
# use Mail::DKIM::Verifier; # eval'ed in register()
# use Mail::DKIM::Signer;
use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
sub init {
my ($self, $qp) = (shift, shift);
$self->{_args} = {@_};
$self->{_args}{reject} = 1 if !defined $self->{_args}{reject};
$self->{_args}{reject_type} ||= 'perm';
}
sub register {
my $self = shift;
# Mail::DKIM::TextWrap - nice idea, clients get mangled headers though
foreach my $mod (qw/ Mail::DKIM::Verifier Mail::DKIM::Signer /) {
eval "use $mod";
if ($@) {
warn "error, plugin disabled, could not load $mod\n";
$self->log(LOGERROR,
"skip, plugin disabled, is Mail::DKIM installed?");
return;
}
}
$self->register_hook('data_post_headers', 'data_post_handler');
}
sub data_post_handler {
my ($self, $transaction) = @_;
if ($self->qp->connection->relay_client()) {
# this is an authenticated user sending a message.
return $self->sign_it($transaction);
}
return DECLINED if $self->is_immune();
return $self->validate_it($transaction);
}
sub validate_it {
my ($self, $transaction) = @_;
# Incoming message, perform DKIM validation
my $dkim = Mail::DKIM::Verifier->new() or do {
$self->log(LOGERROR,
"error, could not instantiate a new Mail::DKIM::Verifier");
return DECLINED;
};
$self->send_message_to_dkim($dkim, $transaction);
my $result = $dkim->result;
my $mess = $self->get_details($dkim);
$self->connection->notes('dkim_result', $result);
$self->connection->notes('dkim_verifier', $dkim);
my $auth_str = "dkim=" .$dkim->result_detail;
if ( $dkim->signature && $dkim->signature->domain ) {
$auth_str .= " header.i=@" . $dkim->signature->domain;
};
$self->store_auth_results( $auth_str );
foreach my $t (qw/ pass fail invalid temperror none /) {
next if $t ne $result;
my $handler = 'handle_sig_' . $t;
$self->log(LOGDEBUG, "dispatching $result to $handler");
return $self->$handler($dkim, $mess);
}
$self->log(LOGERROR, "error, unknown result: $result, $mess");
return DECLINED;
}
sub sign_it {
my ($self, $transaction) = @_;
my ($domain, $keydir) = $self->get_keydir($transaction) or return DECLINED;
my $selector = $self->get_selector($keydir);
my $dkim = Mail::DKIM::Signer->new(
Algorithm => "rsa-sha256",
Method => "relaxed",
Domain => $domain,
Selector => $selector,
KeyFile => "$keydir/private",
);
$self->send_message_to_dkim($dkim, $transaction);
my $signature = $dkim->signature; # what is the signature result?
$self->qp->transaction->header->add('DKIM-Signature',
$signature->as_string, 0);
$self->log(LOGINFO, "pass, we signed the message");
return DECLINED;
}
sub get_details {
my ($self, $dkim) = @_;
my @data;
my $string;
push @data, "domain: " . $dkim->signature->domain if $dkim->signature;
push @data, "selector: " . $dkim->signature->selector if $dkim->signature;
push @data, "result: " . $dkim->result_detail if $dkim->result_detail;
my @policies = eval { $dkim->policies };
foreach my $policy (@policies) {
next if !$policy;
push @data, "policy: " . $policy->as_string;
push @data, "name: " . $policy->name;
push @data, "policy_location: " . $policy->location
if $policy->location;
my $policy_result;
$policy_result = $policy->apply($dkim);
$policy_result or next;
push @data, "policy_result: " . $policy_result if $policy_result;
}
return join(', ', @data);
}
sub handle_sig_fail {
my ($self, $dkim, $mess) = @_;
$self->adjust_karma(-1);
return $self->get_reject("signature invalid: " . $dkim->result_detail,
$mess);
}
sub handle_sig_temperror {
my ($self, $dkim, $mess) = @_;
$self->log(LOGINFO, "error, $mess");
return DENYSOFT, "Please try again later - $dkim->result_detail";
}
sub handle_sig_invalid {
my ($self, $dkim, $mess) = @_;
my ($prs, $policies) = $self->get_policy_results($dkim);
foreach my $policy (@$policies) {
if ($policy->signall && !$policy->is_implied_default_policy) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
return
$self->get_reject("invalid DKIM signature with sign-all policy",
"invalid signature, sign-all policy");
}
}
$self->adjust_karma(-1);
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
if ($prs->{accept}) {
$self->log(LOGERROR, "error, invalid signature but accept policy!?");
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{neutral}) {
$self->log(LOGERROR, "error, invalid signature but neutral policy?!");
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{reject}) {
return
$self->get_reject("invalid DKIM signature: " . $dkim->result_detail,
"fail, invalid signature, reject policy");
}
# this should never happen
$self->log(LOGINFO, "error, invalid signature, unhandled");
return DECLINED;
}
sub handle_sig_pass {
my ($self, $dkim, $mess) = @_;
$self->save_signatures_to_note($dkim);
my ($prs) = $self->get_policy_results($dkim);
if ($prs->{accept}) {
$self->add_header($mess);
$self->log(LOGINFO, "pass, valid signature, accept policy");
$self->adjust_karma(1);
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{neutral}) {
$self->add_header($mess);
$self->log(LOGINFO, "pass, valid signature, neutral policy");
$self->log(LOGDEBUG, $mess);
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{reject}) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
$self->adjust_karma(-1);
return
$self->get_reject("DKIM signature valid but fails policy, $mess",
"fail, valid sig, reject policy");
}
# this should never happen,
$self->add_header($mess);
$self->log(LOGERROR, "pass, valid sig, no policy results");
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
return DECLINED;
}
sub handle_sig_none {
my ($self, $dkim, $mess) = @_;
my ($prs, $policies) = $self->get_policy_results($dkim);
foreach my $policy (@$policies) {
if ($policy->signall && !$policy->is_implied_default_policy) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
return
$self->get_reject("no DKIM signature with sign-all policy",
"no signature, sign-all policy");
}
}
if ($prs->{accept}) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, "pass, no signature, accept policy");
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{neutral}) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, "pass, no signature, neutral policy");
return DECLINED;
}
elsif ($prs->{reject}) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
$self->get_reject(
"no DKIM signature, policy says reject: " . $dkim->result_detail,
"no signature, reject policy");
}
# should never happen
$self->log(LOGINFO, "error, no signature, no policy");
$self->log(LOGINFO, $mess);
return DECLINED;
}
sub get_keydir {
my ($self, $transaction) = @_;
my $domain = $transaction->sender->host;
my $dir = "config/dkim/$domain";
if (!-e $dir) { # the dkim key dir doesn't exist
my @labels = split /\./, $domain; # split the domain into labels
while (@labels > 1) {
shift @labels; # remove the first label (ie: www)
my $zone = join '.', @labels; # reassemble the labels
if (-e "config/dkim/$zone") { # if the directory exists
$domain = $zone; # the DKIM signing domain
$dir = "config/dkim/$zone"; # use the parent domain's key
$self->log(LOGINFO, "info, using $zone key for $domain");
}
}
}
if (-l $dir) {
$dir = readlink($dir);
$dir = "config/dkim/$dir" if $dir !~ /\//; # no /, relative path
($domain) = (split /\//, $dir)[-1];
}
if (!-d $dir) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, "skip, DKIM not configured for $domain");
return;
}
if (!-r $dir) {
$self->log(LOGINFO, "error, unable to read key from $dir");
return;
}
if (!-r "$dir/private") {
$self->log(LOGINFO, "error, unable to read dkim key from $dir/private");
return;
}
return $domain, $dir;
}
sub save_signatures_to_note {
my ($self, $dkim) = @_;
my %domains;
foreach my $sig ($dkim->signatures) {
next if $sig->result ne 'pass';
$domains{$sig->domain} = 1;
}
return if 0 == scalar keys %domains;
my $doms = $self->connection->notes('dkim_pass_domains') || [];
push @$doms, keys %domains;
$self->log(LOGDEBUG, "info, signed by: ". join(',', keys %domains) );
$self->connection->notes('dkim_pass_domains', $doms);
}
sub send_message_to_dkim {
my ($self, $dkim, $transaction) = @_;
foreach (split(/\n/s, $transaction->header->as_string)) {
$_ =~ s/\r?$//s;
eval { $dkim->PRINT($_ . CRLF); };
$self->log(LOGERROR, $@) if $@;
}
$transaction->body_resetpos;
while (my $line = $transaction->body_getline) {
chomp $line;
$line =~ s/\015$//;
eval { $dkim->PRINT($line . CRLF); };
$self->log(LOGERROR, $@) if $@;
}
eval { $dkim->CLOSE; };
$self->log(LOGERROR, $@) if $@;
}
sub get_policies {
my ($self, $dkim) = @_;
my @policies;
eval { @policies = $dkim->policies };
$self->log(LOGERROR, $@) if $@;
return @policies;
}
sub get_policy_results {
my ($self, $dkim) = @_;
my %prs;
my @policies = $self->get_policies($dkim);
foreach my $policy (@policies) {
my $policy_result;
eval { $policy_result = $policy->apply($dkim); }; # accept, reject, neutral
if ($@) {
$self->log(LOGERROR, $@);
}
$prs{$policy_result}++ if $policy_result;
}
return \%prs, \@policies;
}
sub get_selector {
my ($self, $keydir) = @_;
open my $SFH, '<', "$keydir/selector" or do {
$self->log(LOGINFO,
"error, unable to read selector from $keydir/selector");
return DECLINED;
};
my $selector = <$SFH>;
chomp $selector;
close $SFH;
$self->log(LOGDEBUG, "info, selector: $selector");
return $selector;
}
sub add_header {
my $self = shift;
my $header = shift or return;
$self->qp->transaction->header->add('X-DKIM-Authentication', $header, 0);
}