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"""Error classes for CherryPy."""
from cgi import escape as _escape
from sys import exc_info as _exc_info
from traceback import format_exception as _format_exception
from urlparse import urljoin as _urljoin
from cherrypy.lib import http as _http
class CherryPyException(Exception):
pass
class TimeoutError(CherryPyException):
"""Exception raised when Response.timed_out is detected."""
pass
class InternalRedirect(CherryPyException):
"""Exception raised to switch to the handler for a different URL.
Any request.params must be supplied in a query string.
"""
def __init__(self, path):
import cherrypy
request = cherrypy.request
self.query_string = ""
if "?" in path:
# Separate any params included in the path
path, self.query_string = path.split("?", 1)
# Note that urljoin will "do the right thing" whether url is:
# 1. a URL relative to root (e.g. "/dummy")
# 2. a URL relative to the current path
# Note that any query string will be discarded.
path = _urljoin(request.path_info, path)
# Set a 'path' member attribute so that code which traps this
# error can have access to it.
self.path = path
CherryPyException.__init__(self, path, self.query_string)
class HTTPRedirect(CherryPyException):
"""Exception raised when the request should be redirected.
The new URL must be passed as the first argument to the Exception,
e.g., HTTPRedirect(newUrl). Multiple URLs are allowed. If a URL is
absolute, it will be used as-is. If it is relative, it is assumed
to be relative to the current cherrypy.request.path_info.
"""
def __init__(self, urls, status=None):
import cherrypy
request = cherrypy.request
if isinstance(urls, basestring):
urls = [urls]
abs_urls = []
for url in urls:
# Note that urljoin will "do the right thing" whether url is:
# 1. a complete URL with host (e.g. "http://www.example.com/test")
# 2. a URL relative to root (e.g. "/dummy")
# 3. a URL relative to the current path
# Note that any query string in cherrypy.request is discarded.
url = _urljoin(cherrypy.url(), url)
abs_urls.append(url)
self.urls = abs_urls
# RFC 2616 indicates a 301 response code fits our goal; however,
# browser support for 301 is quite messy. Do 302/303 instead. See
# http://ppewww.ph.gla.ac.uk/~flavell/www/post-redirect.html
if status is None:
if request.protocol >= (1, 1):
status = 303
else:
status = 302
else:
status = int(status)
if status < 300 or status > 399:
raise ValueError("status must be between 300 and 399.")
self.status = status
CherryPyException.__init__(self, abs_urls, status)
def set_response(self):
"""Modify cherrypy.response status, headers, and body to represent self.
CherryPy uses this internally, but you can also use it to create an
HTTPRedirect object and set its output without *raising* the exception.
"""
import cherrypy
response = cherrypy.response
response.status = status = self.status
if status in (300, 301, 302, 303, 307):
response.headers['Content-Type'] = "text/html"
# "The ... URI SHOULD be given by the Location field
# in the response."
response.headers['Location'] = self.urls[0]
# "Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response
# SHOULD contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the
# new URI(s)."
msg = {300: "This resource can be found at <a href='%s'>%s</a>.",
301: "This resource has permanently moved to <a href='%s'>%s</a>.",
302: "This resource resides temporarily at <a href='%s'>%s</a>.",
303: "This resource can be found at <a href='%s'>%s</a>.",
307: "This resource has moved temporarily to <a href='%s'>%s</a>.",
}[status]
response.body = "<br />\n".join([msg % (u, u) for u in self.urls])
# Previous code may have set C-L, so we have to reset it
# (allow finalize to set it).
response.headers.pop('Content-Length', None)
elif status == 304:
# Not Modified.
# "The response MUST include the following header fields:
# Date, unless its omission is required by section 14.18.1"
# The "Date" header should have been set in Response.__init__
# "...the response SHOULD NOT include other entity-headers."
for key in ('Allow', 'Content-Encoding', 'Content-Language',
'Content-Length', 'Content-Location', 'Content-MD5',
'Content-Range', 'Content-Type', 'Expires',
'Last-Modified'):
if key in response.headers:
del response.headers[key]
# "The 304 response MUST NOT contain a message-body."
response.body = None
# Previous code may have set C-L, so we have to reset it.
response.headers.pop('Content-Length', None)
elif status == 305:
# Use Proxy.
# self.urls[0] should be the URI of the proxy.
response.headers['Location'] = self.urls[0]
response.body = None
# Previous code may have set C-L, so we have to reset it.
response.headers.pop('Content-Length', None)
else:
raise ValueError("The %s status code is unknown." % status)
def __call__(self):
"""Use this exception as a request.handler (raise self)."""
raise self
def clean_headers(status):
"""Remove any headers which should not apply to an error response."""
import cherrypy
response = cherrypy.response
# Remove headers which applied to the original content,
# but do not apply to the error page.
respheaders = response.headers
for key in ["Accept-Ranges", "Age", "ETag", "Location", "Retry-After",
"Vary", "Content-Encoding", "Content-Length", "Expires",
"Content-Location", "Content-MD5", "Last-Modified"]:
if respheaders.has_key(key):
del respheaders[key]
if status != 416:
# A server sending a response with status code 416 (Requested
# range not satisfiable) SHOULD include a Content-Range field
# with a byte-range-resp-spec of "*". The instance-length
# specifies the current length of the selected resource.
# A response with status code 206 (Partial Content) MUST NOT
# include a Content-Range field with a byte-range- resp-spec of "*".
if respheaders.has_key("Content-Range"):
del respheaders["Content-Range"]
class HTTPError(CherryPyException):
""" Exception used to return an HTTP error code (4xx-5xx) to the client.
This exception will automatically set the response status and body.
A custom message (a long description to display in the browser)
can be provided in place of the default.
"""
def __init__(self, status=500, message=None):
self.status = status = int(status)
if status < 400 or status > 599:
raise ValueError("status must be between 400 and 599.")
# See http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0352/
# self.message = message
self._message = message
CherryPyException.__init__(self, status, message)
def set_response(self):
"""Modify cherrypy.response status, headers, and body to represent self.
CherryPy uses this internally, but you can also use it to create an
HTTPError object and set its output without *raising* the exception.
"""
import cherrypy
response = cherrypy.response
clean_headers(self.status)
# In all cases, finalize will be called after this method,
# so don't bother cleaning up response values here.
response.status = self.status
tb = None
if cherrypy.request.show_tracebacks:
tb = format_exc()
response.headers['Content-Type'] = "text/html"
content = self.get_error_page(self.status, traceback=tb,
message=self._message)
response.body = content
response.headers['Content-Length'] = len(content)
_be_ie_unfriendly(self.status)
def get_error_page(self, *args, **kwargs):
return get_error_page(*args, **kwargs)
def __call__(self):
"""Use this exception as a request.handler (raise self)."""
raise self
class NotFound(HTTPError):
"""Exception raised when a URL could not be mapped to any handler (404)."""
def __init__(self, path=None):
if path is None:
import cherrypy
path = cherrypy.request.script_name + cherrypy.request.path_info
self.args = (path,)
HTTPError.__init__(self, 404, "The path %r was not found." % path)
_HTTPErrorTemplate = '''<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"></meta>
<title>%(status)s</title>
<style type="text/css">
#powered_by {
margin-top: 20px;
border-top: 2px solid black;
font-style: italic;
}
#traceback {
color: red;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h2>%(status)s</h2>
<p>%(message)s</p>
<pre id="traceback">%(traceback)s</pre>
<div id="powered_by">
<span>Powered by <a href="http://www.cherrypy.org">CherryPy %(version)s</a></span>
</div>
</body>
</html>
'''
def get_error_page(status, **kwargs):
"""Return an HTML page, containing a pretty error response.
status should be an int or a str.
kwargs will be interpolated into the page template.
"""
import cherrypy
try:
code, reason, message = _http.valid_status(status)
except ValueError, x:
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(500, x.args[0])
# We can't use setdefault here, because some
# callers send None for kwarg values.
if kwargs.get('status') is None:
kwargs['status'] = "%s %s" % (code, reason)
if kwargs.get('message') is None:
kwargs['message'] = message
if kwargs.get('traceback') is None:
kwargs['traceback'] = ''
if kwargs.get('version') is None:
kwargs['version'] = cherrypy.__version__
for k, v in kwargs.iteritems():
if v is None:
kwargs[k] = ""
else:
kwargs[k] = _escape(kwargs[k])
# Use a custom template or callable for the error page?
pages = cherrypy.request.error_page
error_page = pages.get(code) or pages.get('default')
if error_page:
try:
if callable(error_page):
return error_page(**kwargs)
else:
return file(error_page, 'rb').read() % kwargs
except:
e = _format_exception(*_exc_info())[-1]
m = kwargs['message']
if m:
m += "<br />"
m += "In addition, the custom error page failed:\n<br />%s" % e
kwargs['message'] = m
return _HTTPErrorTemplate % kwargs
_ie_friendly_error_sizes = {
400: 512, 403: 256, 404: 512, 405: 256,
406: 512, 408: 512, 409: 512, 410: 256,
500: 512, 501: 512, 505: 512,
}
def _be_ie_unfriendly(status):
import cherrypy
response = cherrypy.response
# For some statuses, Internet Explorer 5+ shows "friendly error
# messages" instead of our response.body if the body is smaller
# than a given size. Fix this by returning a body over that size
# (by adding whitespace).
# See http://support.microsoft.com/kb/q218155/
s = _ie_friendly_error_sizes.get(status, 0)
if s:
s += 1
# Since we are issuing an HTTP error status, we assume that
# the entity is short, and we should just collapse it.
content = response.collapse_body()
l = len(content)
if l and l < s:
# IN ADDITION: the response must be written to IE
# in one chunk or it will still get replaced! Bah.
content = content + (" " * (s - l))
response.body = content
response.headers['Content-Length'] = len(content)
def format_exc(exc=None):
"""Return exc (or sys.exc_info if None), formatted."""
if exc is None:
exc = _exc_info()
if exc == (None, None, None):
return ""
import traceback
return "".join(traceback.format_exception(*exc))
def bare_error(extrabody=None):
"""Produce status, headers, body for a critical error.
Returns a triple without calling any other questionable functions,
so it should be as error-free as possible. Call it from an HTTP server
if you get errors outside of the request.
If extrabody is None, a friendly but rather unhelpful error message
is set in the body. If extrabody is a string, it will be appended
as-is to the body.
"""
# The whole point of this function is to be a last line-of-defense
# in handling errors. That is, it must not raise any errors itself;
# it cannot be allowed to fail. Therefore, don't add to it!
# In particular, don't call any other CP functions.
body = "Unrecoverable error in the server."
if extrabody is not None:
body += "\n" + extrabody
return ("500 Internal Server Error",
[('Content-Type', 'text/plain'),
('Content-Length', str(len(body)))],
[body])