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import Cookie
import os
import sys
import time
import types
import cherrypy
from cherrypy import _cpcgifs, _cpconfig
from cherrypy._cperror import format_exc, bare_error
from cherrypy.lib import http, file_generator
class Hook(object):
"""A callback and its metadata: failsafe, priority, and kwargs."""
__metaclass__ = cherrypy._AttributeDocstrings
callback = None
callback__doc = """
The bare callable that this Hook object is wrapping, which will
be called when the Hook is called."""
failsafe = False
failsafe__doc = """
If True, the callback is guaranteed to run even if other callbacks
from the same call point raise exceptions."""
priority = 50
priority__doc = """
Defines the order of execution for a list of Hooks. Priority numbers
should be limited to the closed interval [0, 100], but values outside
this range are acceptable, as are fractional values."""
kwargs = {}
kwargs__doc = """
A set of keyword arguments that will be passed to the
callable on each call."""
def __init__(self, callback, failsafe=None, priority=None, **kwargs):
self.callback = callback
if failsafe is None:
failsafe = getattr(callback, "failsafe", False)
self.failsafe = failsafe
if priority is None:
priority = getattr(callback, "priority", 50)
self.priority = priority
self.kwargs = kwargs
def __cmp__(self, other):
return cmp(self.priority, other.priority)
def __call__(self):
"""Run self.callback(**self.kwargs)."""
return self.callback(**self.kwargs)
def __repr__(self):
cls = self.__class__
return ("%s.%s(callback=%r, failsafe=%r, priority=%r, %s)"
% (cls.__module__, cls.__name__, self.callback,
self.failsafe, self.priority,
", ".join(['%s=%r' % (k, v)
for k, v in self.kwargs.iteritems()])))
class HookMap(dict):
"""A map of call points to lists of callbacks (Hook objects)."""
def __new__(cls, points=None):
d = dict.__new__(cls)
for p in points or []:
d[p] = []
return d
def __init__(self, *a, **kw):
def attach(self, point, callback, failsafe=None, priority=None, **kwargs):
"""Append a new Hook made from the supplied arguments."""
self[point].append(Hook(callback, failsafe, priority, **kwargs))
def run(self, point):
"""Execute all registered Hooks (callbacks) for the given point."""
exc = None
hooks = self[point]
for hook in hooks:
# Some hooks are guaranteed to run even if others at
# the same hookpoint fail. We will still log the failure,
# but proceed on to the next hook. The only way
# to stop all processing from one of these hooks is
# to raise SystemExit and stop the whole server.
if exc is None or hook.failsafe:
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit):
except (cherrypy.HTTPError, cherrypy.HTTPRedirect,
exc = sys.exc_info()[1]
exc = sys.exc_info()[1]
cherrypy.log(traceback=True, severity=40)
if exc:
def __copy__(self):
newmap = self.__class__()
# We can't just use 'update' because we want copies of the
# mutable values (each is a list) as well.
for k, v in self.iteritems():
newmap[k] = v[:]
return newmap
copy = __copy__
def __repr__(self):
cls = self.__class__
return "%s.%s(points=%r)" % (cls.__module__, cls.__name__, self.keys())
# Config namespace handlers
def hooks_namespace(k, v):
"""Attach bare hooks declared in config."""
# Use split again to allow multiple hooks for a single
# hookpoint per path (e.g. "hooks.before_handler.1").
# Little-known fact you only get from reading source ;)
hookpoint = k.split(".", 1)[0]
if isinstance(v, basestring):
v = cherrypy.lib.attributes(v)
if not isinstance(v, Hook):
v = Hook(v)
def request_namespace(k, v):
"""Attach request attributes declared in config."""
setattr(cherrypy.request, k, v)
def response_namespace(k, v):
"""Attach response attributes declared in config."""
setattr(cherrypy.response, k, v)
def error_page_namespace(k, v):
"""Attach error pages declared in config."""
if k != 'default':
k = int(k)
cherrypy.request.error_page[k] = v
hookpoints = ['on_start_resource', 'before_request_body',
'before_handler', 'before_finalize',
'on_end_resource', 'on_end_request',
'before_error_response', 'after_error_response']
class Request(object):
"""An HTTP request.
This object represents the metadata of an HTTP request message;
that is, it contains attributes which describe the environment
in which the request URL, headers, and body were sent (if you
want tools to interpret the headers and body, those are elsewhere,
mostly in Tools). This 'metadata' consists of socket data,
transport characteristics, and the Request-Line. This object
also contains data regarding the configuration in effect for
the given URL, and the execution plan for generating a response.
__metaclass__ = cherrypy._AttributeDocstrings
prev = None
prev__doc = """
The previous Request object (if any). This should be None
unless we are processing an InternalRedirect."""
# Conversation/connection attributes
local = http.Host("", 80)
local__doc = \
"An http.Host(ip, port, hostname) object for the server socket."
remote = http.Host("", 1111)
remote__doc = \
"An http.Host(ip, port, hostname) object for the client socket."
scheme = "http"
scheme__doc = """
The protocol used between client and server. In most cases,
this will be either 'http' or 'https'."""
server_protocol = "HTTP/1.1"
server_protocol__doc = """
The HTTP version for which the HTTP server is at least
conditionally compliant."""
base = ""
base__doc = """The (scheme://host) portion of the requested URL."""
# Request-Line attributes
request_line = ""
request_line__doc = """
The complete Request-Line received from the client. This is a
single string consisting of the request method, URI, and protocol
version (joined by spaces). Any final CRLF is removed."""
method = "GET"
method__doc = """
Indicates the HTTP method to be performed on the resource identified
by the Request-URI. Common methods include GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, and
DELETE. CherryPy allows any extension method; however, various HTTP
servers and gateways may restrict the set of allowable methods.
CherryPy applications SHOULD restrict the set (on a per-URI basis)."""
query_string = ""
query_string__doc = """
The query component of the Request-URI, a string of information to be
interpreted by the resource. The query portion of a URI follows the
path component, and is separated by a '?'. For example, the URI
'' has the query component,
protocol = (1, 1)
protocol__doc = """The HTTP protocol version corresponding to the set
of features which should be allowed in the response. If BOTH
the client's request message AND the server's level of HTTP
compliance is HTTP/1.1, this attribute will be the tuple (1, 1).
If either is 1.0, this attribute will be the tuple (1, 0).
Lower HTTP protocol versions are not explicitly supported."""
params = {}
params__doc = """
A dict which combines query string (GET) and request entity (POST)
variables. This is populated in two stages: GET params are added
before the 'on_start_resource' hook, and POST params are added
between the 'before_request_body' and 'before_handler' hooks."""
# Message attributes
header_list = []
header_list__doc = """
A list of the HTTP request headers as (name, value) tuples.
In general, you should use request.headers (a dict) instead."""
headers = http.HeaderMap()
headers__doc = """
A dict-like object containing the request headers. Keys are header
names (in Title-Case format); however, you may get and set them in
a case-insensitive manner. That is, headers['Content-Type'] and
headers['content-type'] refer to the same value. Values are header
values (decoded according to RFC 2047 if necessary). See also:
http.HeaderMap, http.HeaderElement."""
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
cookie__doc = """See help(Cookie)."""
rfile = None
rfile__doc = """
If the request included an entity (body), it will be available
as a stream in this attribute. However, the rfile will normally
be read for you between the 'before_request_body' hook and the
'before_handler' hook, and the resulting string is placed into
either request.params or the request.body attribute.
You may disable the automatic consumption of the rfile by setting
request.process_request_body to False, either in config for the desired
path, or in an 'on_start_resource' or 'before_request_body' hook.
WARNING: In almost every case, you should not attempt to read from the
rfile stream after CherryPy's automatic mechanism has read it. If you
turn off the automatic parsing of rfile, you should read exactly the
number of bytes specified in request.headers['Content-Length'].
Ignoring either of these warnings may result in a hung request thread
or in corruption of the next (pipelined) request.
process_request_body = True
process_request_body__doc = """
If True, the rfile (if any) is automatically read and parsed,
and the result placed into request.params or request.body."""
methods_with_bodies = ("POST", "PUT")
methods_with_bodies__doc = """
A sequence of HTTP methods for which CherryPy will automatically
attempt to read a body from the rfile."""
body = None
body__doc = """
If the request Content-Type is 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
or multipart, this will be None. Otherwise, this will contain the
request entity body as a string; this value is set between the
'before_request_body' and 'before_handler' hooks (assuming that
process_request_body is True)."""
body_params = None
body_params__doc = """
If the request Content-Type is 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' or
multipart, this will be a dict of the params pulled from the entity
body; that is, it will be the portion of request.params that come
from the message body (sometimes called "POST params", although they
can be sent with various HTTP method verbs). This value is set between
the 'before_request_body' and 'before_handler' hooks (assuming that
process_request_body is True)."""
# Dispatch attributes
dispatch = cherrypy.dispatch.Dispatcher()
dispatch__doc = """
The object which looks up the 'page handler' callable and collects
config for the current request based on the path_info, other
request attributes, and the application architecture. The core
calls the dispatcher as early as possible, passing it a 'path_info'
The default dispatcher discovers the page handler by matching path_info
to a hierarchical arrangement of objects, starting at
See help(cherrypy.dispatch) for more information."""
script_name = ""
script_name__doc = """
The 'mount point' of the application which is handling this request.
This attribute MUST NOT end in a slash. If the script_name refers to
the root of the URI, it MUST be an empty string (not "/").
path_info = "/"
path_info__doc = """
The 'relative path' portion of the Request-URI. This is relative
to the script_name ('mount point') of the application which is
handling this request."""
login = None
login__doc = """
When authentication is used during the request processing this is
set to 'False' if it failed and to the 'username' value if it succeeded.
The default 'None' implies that no authentication happened."""
# Note that cherrypy.url uses "if" to determine whether
# the call is during a real HTTP request or not. So leave this None.
app = None
app__doc = \
"""The cherrypy.Application object which is handling this request."""
handler = None
handler__doc = """
The function, method, or other callable which CherryPy will call to
produce the response. The discovery of the handler and the arguments
it will receive are determined by the request.dispatch object.
By default, the handler is discovered by walking a tree of objects
starting at, and is then passed all HTTP params
(from the query string and POST body) as keyword arguments."""
toolmaps = {}
toolmaps__doc = """
A nested dict of all Toolboxes and Tools in effect for this request,
of the form: {Toolbox.namespace: { config dict}}."""
config = None
config__doc = """
A flat dict of all configuration entries which apply to the
current request. These entries are collected from global config,
application config (based on request.path_info), and from handler
config (exactly how is governed by the request.dispatch object in
effect for this request; by default, handler config can be attached
anywhere in the tree between and the final handler,
and inherits downward)."""
is_index = None
is_index__doc = """
This will be True if the current request is mapped to an 'index'
resource handler (also, a 'default' handler if path_info ends with
a slash). The value may be used to automatically redirect the
user-agent to a 'more canonical' URL which either adds or removes
the trailing slash. See"""
hooks = HookMap(hookpoints)
hooks__doc = """
A HookMap (dict-like object) of the form: {hookpoint: [hook, ...]}.
Each key is a str naming the hook point, and each value is a list
of hooks which will be called at that hook point during this request.
The list of hooks is generally populated as early as possible (mostly
from Tools specified in config), but may be extended at any time.
See also: _cprequest.Hook, _cprequest.HookMap, and"""
error_response = cherrypy.HTTPError(500).set_response
error_response__doc = """
The no-arg callable which will handle unexpected, untrapped errors
during request processing. This is not used for expected exceptions
(like NotFound, HTTPError, or HTTPRedirect) which are raised in
response to expected conditions (those should be customized either
via request.error_page or by overriding HTTPError.set_response).
By default, error_response uses HTTPError(500) to return a generic
error response to the user-agent."""
error_page = {}
error_page__doc = """
A dict of {error code: response filename or callable} pairs.
The error code must be an int representing a given HTTP error code,
or the string 'default', which will be used if no matching entry
is found for a given numeric code.
If a filename is provided, the file should contain a Python string-
formatting template, and can expect by default to receive format
values with the mapping keys %(status)s, %(message)s, %(traceback)s,
and %(version)s. The set of format mappings can be extended by
overriding HTTPError.set_response.
If a callable is provided, it will be called by default with keyword
arguments 'status', 'message', 'traceback', and 'version', as for a
string-formatting template. The callable must return a string which
will be set to response.body. It may also override headers or perform
any other processing.
If no entry is given for an error code, and no 'default' entry exists,
a default template will be used.
show_tracebacks = True
show_tracebacks__doc = """
If True, unexpected errors encountered during request processing will
include a traceback in the response body."""
throws = (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, cherrypy.InternalRedirect)
throws__doc = \
"""The sequence of exceptions which does not trap."""
throw_errors = False
throw_errors__doc = """
If True, will not trap any errors (except HTTPRedirect and
HTTPError, which are more properly called 'exceptions', not errors)."""
closed = False
closed__doc = """
True once the close method has been called, False otherwise."""
stage = None
stage__doc = """
A string containing the stage reached in the request-handling process.
This is useful when debugging a live server with hung requests."""
namespaces = _cpconfig.NamespaceSet(
**{"hooks": hooks_namespace,
"request": request_namespace,
"response": response_namespace,
"error_page": error_page_namespace,
def __init__(self, local_host, remote_host, scheme="http",
"""Populate a new Request object.
local_host should be an http.Host object with the server info.
remote_host should be an http.Host object with the client info.
scheme should be a string, either "http" or "https".
self.local = local_host
self.remote = remote_host
self.scheme = scheme
self.server_protocol = server_protocol
self.closed = False
# Put a *copy* of the class error_page into self.
self.error_page = self.error_page.copy()
# Put a *copy* of the class namespaces into self.
self.namespaces = self.namespaces.copy()
self.stage = None
def close(self):
"""Run cleanup code. (Core)"""
if not self.closed:
self.closed = True
self.stage = 'on_end_request''on_end_request')
self.stage = 'close'
def run(self, method, path, query_string, req_protocol, headers, rfile):
"""Process the Request. (Core)
method, path, query_string, and req_protocol should be pulled directly
from the Request-Line (e.g. "GET /path?key=val HTTP/1.0").
path should be %XX-unquoted, but query_string should not be.
headers should be a list of (name, value) tuples.
rfile should be a file-like object containing the HTTP request entity.
When run() is done, the returned object should have 3 attributes:
status, e.g. "200 OK"
header_list, a list of (name, value) tuples
body, an iterable yielding strings
Consumer code (HTTP servers) should then access these response
attributes to build the outbound stream.
self.stage = 'run'
self.error_response = cherrypy.HTTPError(500).set_response
self.method = method
path = path or "/"
self.query_string = query_string or ''
# Compare request and server HTTP protocol versions, in case our
# server does not support the requested protocol. Limit our output
# to min(req, server). We want the following output:
# request server actual written supported response
# protocol protocol response protocol feature set
# a 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
# b 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0
# c 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
# d 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
# Notice that, in (b), the response will be "HTTP/1.1" even though
# the client only understands 1.0. RFC 2616 10.5.6 says we should
# only return 505 if the _major_ version is different.
rp = int(req_protocol[5]), int(req_protocol[7])
sp = int(self.server_protocol[5]), int(self.server_protocol[7])
self.protocol = min(rp, sp)
# Rebuild first line of the request (e.g. "GET /path HTTP/1.0").
url = path
if query_string:
url += '?' + query_string
self.request_line = '%s %s %s' % (method, url, req_protocol)
self.header_list = list(headers)
self.rfile = rfile
self.headers = http.HeaderMap()
self.cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
self.handler = None
# path_info should be the path from the
# app root (script_name) to the handler.
self.script_name =
self.path_info = pi = path[len(self.script_name):]
self.stage = 'respond'
except self.throws:
if self.throw_errors:
# Failure in setup, error handler or finalize. Bypass them.
# Can't use handle_error because we may not have hooks yet.
cherrypy.log(traceback=True, severity=40)
if self.show_tracebacks:
body = format_exc()
body = ""
r = bare_error(body)
response = cherrypy.response
response.status, response.header_list, response.body = r
if self.method == "HEAD":
# HEAD requests MUST NOT return a message-body in the response.
cherrypy.response.body = []
if cherrypy.response.timed_out:
raise cherrypy.TimeoutError()
return cherrypy.response
def respond(self, path_info):
"""Generate a response for the resource at self.path_info. (Core)"""
if is None:
raise cherrypy.NotFound()
# Get the 'Host' header, so we can HTTPRedirect properly.
self.stage = 'process_headers'
# Make a copy of the class hooks
self.hooks = self.__class__.hooks.copy()
self.toolmaps = {}
self.stage = 'get_resource'
self.stage = 'on_start_resource''on_start_resource')
if self.process_request_body:
if self.method not in self.methods_with_bodies:
self.process_request_body = False
self.stage = 'before_request_body''before_request_body')
if self.process_request_body:
self.stage = 'before_handler''before_handler')
if self.handler:
self.stage = 'handler'
cherrypy.response.body = self.handler()
self.stage = 'before_finalize''before_finalize')
except (cherrypy.HTTPRedirect, cherrypy.HTTPError), inst:
self.stage = 'before_finalize (HTTPError)''before_finalize')
self.stage = 'on_end_resource''on_end_resource')
except self.throws:
if self.throw_errors:
def process_headers(self):
"""Parse HTTP header data into Python structures. (Core)"""
self.params = http.parse_query_string(self.query_string)
# Process the headers into self.headers
headers = self.headers
for name, value in self.header_list:
# Call title() now (and use dict.__method__(headers))
# so title doesn't have to be called twice.
name = name.title()
value = value.strip()
# Warning: if there is more than one header entry for cookies (AFAIK,
# only Konqueror does that), only the last one will remain in headers
# (but they will be correctly stored in request.cookie).
if "=?" in value:
dict.__setitem__(headers, name, http.decode_TEXT(value))
dict.__setitem__(headers, name, value)
# Handle cookies differently because on Konqueror, multiple
# cookies come on different lines with the same key
if name == 'Cookie':
except Cookie.CookieError:
msg = "Illegal cookie name %s" % value.split('=')[0]
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(400, msg)
if not dict.__contains__(headers, 'Host'):
# All Internet-based HTTP/1.1 servers MUST respond with a 400
# (Bad Request) status code to any HTTP/1.1 request message
# which lacks a Host header field.
if self.protocol >= (1, 1):
msg = "HTTP/1.1 requires a 'Host' request header."
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(400, msg)
host = dict.get(headers, 'Host')
if not host:
host = or self.local.ip
self.base = "%s://%s" % (self.scheme, host)
def get_resource(self, path):
"""Call a dispatcher (which sets self.handler and .config). (Core)"""
dispatch = self.dispatch
# First, see if there is a custom dispatch at this URI. Custom
# dispatchers can only be specified in app.config, not in _cp_config
# (since custom dispatchers may not even have an app.root).
trail = path or "/"
while trail:
nodeconf =, {})
d = nodeconf.get("request.dispatch")
if d:
dispatch = d
lastslash = trail.rfind("/")
if lastslash == -1:
elif lastslash == 0 and trail != "/":
trail = "/"
trail = trail[:lastslash]
# dispatch() should set self.handler and self.config
def process_body(self):
"""Convert request.rfile into request.params (or request.body). (Core)"""
if not self.headers.get("Content-Length", ""):
# No Content-Length header supplied (or it's 0).
# If we went ahead and called cgi.FieldStorage, it would hang,
# since it cannot determine when to stop reading from the socket.
# See
# See also
# Note also that we expect any HTTP server to have decoded
# any message-body that had a transfer-coding, and we expect
# the HTTP server to have supplied a Content-Length header
# which is valid for the decoded entity-body.
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(411)
# If the headers are missing "Content-Type" then add one
# with an empty value. This ensures that FieldStorage
# won't parse the request body for params if the client
# didn't provide a "Content-Type" header.
if 'Content-Type' not in self.headers:
h = http.HeaderMap(self.headers.items())
h['Content-Type'] = ''
h = self.headers
forms = _cpcgifs.FieldStorage(fp=self.rfile,
# FieldStorage only recognizes POST.
environ={'REQUEST_METHOD': "POST"},
except Exception, e:
if e.__class__.__name__ == 'MaxSizeExceeded':
# Post data is too big
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(413)
# Note that, if headers['Content-Type'] is multipart/*,
# then forms.file will not exist; instead, each form[key]
# item will be its own file object, and will be handled
# by params_from_CGI_form.
if forms.file:
# request body was a content-type other than form params.
self.body = forms.file
self.body_params = p = http.params_from_CGI_form(forms)
def handle_error(self):
"""Handle the last unanticipated exception. (Core)"""
if self.error_response:
except cherrypy.HTTPRedirect, inst:
class Body(object):
"""The body of the HTTP response (the response entity)."""
def __get__(self, obj, objclass=None):
if obj is None:
# When calling on the class instead of an instance...
return self
return obj._body
def __set__(self, obj, value):
# Convert the given value to an iterable object.
if isinstance(value, basestring):
# strings get wrapped in a list because iterating over a single
# item list is much faster than iterating over every character
# in a long string.
if value:
value = [value]
# [''] doesn't evaluate to False, so replace it with [].
value = []
elif isinstance(value, types.FileType):
value = file_generator(value)
elif value is None:
value = []
obj._body = value
class Response(object):
"""An HTTP Response, including status, headers, and body.
Application developers should use Response.headers (a dict) to
set or modify HTTP response headers. When the response is finalized,
Response.headers is transformed into Response.header_list as
(key, value) tuples.
__metaclass__ = cherrypy._AttributeDocstrings
# Class attributes for dev-time introspection.
status = ""
status__doc = """The HTTP Status-Code and Reason-Phrase."""
header_list = []
header_list__doc = """
A list of the HTTP response headers as (name, value) tuples.
In general, you should use response.headers (a dict) instead."""
headers = http.HeaderMap()
headers__doc = """
A dict-like object containing the response headers. Keys are header
names (in Title-Case format); however, you may get and set them in
a case-insensitive manner. That is, headers['Content-Type'] and
headers['content-type'] refer to the same value. Values are header
values (decoded according to RFC 2047 if necessary). See also:
http.HeaderMap, http.HeaderElement."""
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
cookie__doc = """See help(Cookie)."""
body = Body()
body__doc = """The body (entity) of the HTTP response."""
time = None
time__doc = """The value of time.time() when created. Use in HTTP dates."""
timeout = 300
timeout__doc = """Seconds after which the response will be aborted."""
timed_out = False
timed_out__doc = """
Flag to indicate the response should be aborted, because it has
exceeded its timeout."""
stream = False
stream__doc = """If False, buffer the response body."""
def __init__(self):
self.status = None
self.header_list = None
self._body = []
self.time = time.time()
self.headers = http.HeaderMap()
# Since we know all our keys are titled strings, we can
# bypass HeaderMap.update and get a big speed boost.
dict.update(self.headers, {
"Content-Type": 'text/html',
"Server": "CherryPy/" + cherrypy.__version__,
"Date": http.HTTPDate(self.time),
self.cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
def collapse_body(self):
"""Collapse self.body to a single string; replace it and return it."""
newbody = ''.join([chunk for chunk in self.body])
self.body = newbody
return newbody
def finalize(self):
"""Transform headers (and cookies) into self.header_list. (Core)"""
code, reason, _ = http.valid_status(self.status)
except ValueError, x:
raise cherrypy.HTTPError(500, x.args[0])
self.status = "%s %s" % (code, reason)
headers = self.headers
if dict.get(headers, 'Content-Length') is None:
dict.pop(headers, 'Content-Length', None)
elif code < 200 or code in (204, 205, 304):
# "All 1xx (informational), 204 (no content),
# and 304 (not modified) responses MUST NOT
# include a message-body."
dict.pop(headers, 'Content-Length', None)
self.body = ""
# Responses which are not streamed should have a Content-Length,
# but allow user code to set Content-Length if desired.
if dict.get(headers, 'Content-Length') is None:
content = self.collapse_body()
dict.__setitem__(headers, 'Content-Length', len(content))
# Transform our header dict into a list of tuples.
self.header_list = h = headers.output(cherrypy.request.protocol)
cookie = self.cookie.output()
if cookie:
for line in cookie.split("\n"):
if line.endswith("\r"):
# Python 2.4 emits cookies joined by LF but 2.5+ by CRLF.
line = line[:-1]
name, value = line.split(": ", 1)
h.append((name, value))
def check_timeout(self):
"""If now > self.time + self.timeout, set self.timed_out.
This purposefully sets a flag, rather than raising an error,
so that a monitor thread can interrupt the Response thread.
if time.time() > self.time + self.timeout:
self.timed_out = True