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"""CherryPy tools. A "tool" is any helper, adapted to CP.
Tools are usually designed to be used in a variety of ways (although some
may only offer one if they choose):
Library calls:
All tools are callables that can be used wherever needed.
The arguments are straightforward and should be detailed within the
Function decorators:
All tools, when called, may be used as decorators which configure
individual CherryPy page handlers (methods on the CherryPy tree).
That is, "@tools.anytool()" should "turn on" the tool via the
decorated function's _cp_config attribute.
CherryPy config:
If a tool exposes a "_setup" callable, it will be called
once per Request (if the feature is "turned on" via config).
Tools may be implemented as any object with a namespace. The builtins
are generally either modules or instances of the tools.Tool class.
import cherrypy
def _getargs(func):
"""Return the names of all static arguments to the given function."""
# Use this instead of importing inspect for less mem overhead.
import types
if isinstance(func, types.MethodType):
func = func.im_func
co = func.func_code
return co.co_varnames[:co.co_argcount]
class Tool(object):
"""A registered function for use with CherryPy request-processing hooks.
help(tool.callable) should give you more information about this Tool.
namespace = "tools"
def __init__(self, point, callable, name=None, priority=50):
self._point = point
self.callable = callable
self._name = name
self._priority = priority
self.__doc__ = self.callable.__doc__
def _setargs(self):
"""Copy func parameter names to obj attributes."""
for arg in _getargs(self.callable):
setattr(self, arg, None)
except (TypeError, AttributeError):
if hasattr(self.callable, "__call__"):
for arg in _getargs(self.callable.__call__):
setattr(self, arg, None)
# IronPython 1.0 raises NotImplementedError because
# inspect.getargspec tries to access Python bytecode
# in co_code attribute.
except NotImplementedError:
# IronPython 1B1 may raise IndexError in some cases,
# but if we trap it here it doesn't prevent CP from working.
except IndexError:
def _merged_args(self, d=None):
"""Return a dict of configuration entries for this Tool."""
if d:
conf = d.copy()
conf = {}
tm = cherrypy.request.toolmaps[self.namespace]
if self._name in tm:
if "on" in conf:
del conf["on"]
return conf
def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Compile-time decorator (turn on the tool in config).
For example:
def whats_my_base(self):
return cherrypy.request.base = True
if args:
raise TypeError("The %r Tool does not accept positional "
"arguments; you must use keyword arguments."
% self._name)
def tool_decorator(f):
if not hasattr(f, "_cp_config"):
f._cp_config = {}
subspace = self.namespace + "." + self._name + "."
f._cp_config[subspace + "on"] = True
for k, v in kwargs.iteritems():
f._cp_config[subspace + k] = v
return f
return tool_decorator
def _setup(self):
"""Hook this tool into cherrypy.request.
The standard CherryPy request object will automatically call this
method when the tool is "turned on" in config.
conf = self._merged_args()
p = conf.pop("priority", None)
if p is None:
p = getattr(self.callable, "priority", self._priority)
cherrypy.request.hooks.attach(self._point, self.callable,
priority=p, **conf)
class HandlerTool(Tool):
"""Tool which is called 'before main', that may skip normal handlers.
If the tool successfully handles the request (by setting response.body),
if should return True. This will cause CherryPy to skip any 'normal' page
handler. If the tool did not handle the request, it should return False
to tell CherryPy to continue on and call the normal page handler. If the
tool is declared AS a page handler (see the 'handler' method), returning
False will raise NotFound.
def __init__(self, callable, name=None):
Tool.__init__(self, 'before_handler', callable, name)
def handler(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Use this tool as a CherryPy page handler.
For example:
class Root:
nav = tools.staticdir.handler(section="/nav", dir="nav",
def handle_func(*a, **kw):
handled = self.callable(*args, **self._merged_args(kwargs))
if not handled:
raise cherrypy.NotFound()
return cherrypy.response.body = True
return handle_func
def _wrapper(self, **kwargs):
if self.callable(**kwargs):
cherrypy.request.handler = None
def _setup(self):
"""Hook this tool into cherrypy.request.
The standard CherryPy request object will automatically call this
method when the tool is "turned on" in config.
conf = self._merged_args()
p = conf.pop("priority", None)
if p is None:
p = getattr(self.callable, "priority", self._priority)
cherrypy.request.hooks.attach(self._point, self._wrapper,
priority=p, **conf)
class HandlerWrapperTool(Tool):
"""Tool which wraps request.handler in a provided wrapper function.
The 'newhandler' arg must be a handler wrapper function that takes a
'next_handler' argument, plus *args and **kwargs. Like all page handler
functions, it must return an iterable for use as cherrypy.response.body.
For example, to allow your 'inner' page handlers to return dicts
which then get interpolated into a template:
def interpolator(next_handler, *args, **kwargs):
filename = cherrypy.request.config.get('template')
cherrypy.response.template = env.get_template(filename)
response_dict = next_handler(*args, **kwargs)
return cherrypy.response.template.render(**response_dict) = HandlerWrapperTool(interpolator)
def __init__(self, newhandler, point='before_handler', name=None, priority=50):
self.newhandler = newhandler
self._point = point
self._name = name
self._priority = priority
def callable(self):
innerfunc = cherrypy.request.handler
def wrap(*args, **kwargs):
return self.newhandler(innerfunc, *args, **kwargs)
cherrypy.request.handler = wrap
class ErrorTool(Tool):
"""Tool which is used to replace the default request.error_response."""
def __init__(self, callable, name=None):
Tool.__init__(self, None, callable, name)
def _wrapper(self):
def _setup(self):
"""Hook this tool into cherrypy.request.
The standard CherryPy request object will automatically call this
method when the tool is "turned on" in config.
cherrypy.request.error_response = self._wrapper
# Builtin tools #
from cherrypy.lib import cptools, encoding, auth, static, tidy
from cherrypy.lib import sessions as _sessions, xmlrpc as _xmlrpc
from cherrypy.lib import caching as _caching, wsgiapp as _wsgiapp
class SessionTool(Tool):
"""Session Tool for CherryPy.
When 'implicit' (the default), the session will be locked for you,
just before running the page handler.
When 'early', the session will be locked before reading the request
body. This is off by default for safety reasons; for example,
a large upload would block the session, denying an AJAX
progress meter (see
When 'explicit' (or any other value), you need to call
cherrypy.session.acquire_lock() yourself before using
session data.
def __init__(self):
# _sessions.init must be bound after headers are read
Tool.__init__(self, 'before_request_body', _sessions.init)
def _lock_session(self):
def _setup(self):
"""Hook this tool into cherrypy.request.
The standard CherryPy request object will automatically call this
method when the tool is "turned on" in config.
hooks = cherrypy.request.hooks
conf = self._merged_args()
p = conf.pop("priority", None)
if p is None:
p = getattr(self.callable, "priority", self._priority)
hooks.attach(self._point, self.callable, priority=p, **conf)
locking = conf.pop('locking', 'implicit')
if locking == 'implicit':
hooks.attach('before_handler', self._lock_session)
elif locking == 'early':
# Lock before the request body (but after _sessions.init runs!)
hooks.attach('before_request_body', self._lock_session,
# Don't lock
hooks.attach('on_end_request', _sessions.close)
def regenerate(self):
"""Drop the current session and make a new one (with a new id)."""
sess = cherrypy.serving.session
# Grab cookie-relevant tool args
conf = dict([(k, v) for k, v in self._merged_args().iteritems()
if k in ('path', 'path_header', 'name', 'timeout',
'domain', 'secure')])
class XMLRPCController(object):
"""A Controller (page handler collection) for XML-RPC.
To use it, have your controllers subclass this base class (it will
turn on the tool for you).
You can also supply the following optional config entries:
tools.xmlrpc.encoding: 'utf-8'
tools.xmlrpc.allow_none: 0
XML-RPC is a rather discontinuous layer over HTTP; dispatching to the
appropriate handler must first be performed according to the URL, and
then a second dispatch step must take place according to the RPC method
specified in the request body. It also allows a superfluous "/RPC2"
prefix in the URL, supplies its own handler args in the body, and
requires a 200 OK "Fault" response instead of 404 when the desired
method is not found.
Therefore, XML-RPC cannot be implemented for CherryPy via a Tool alone.
This Controller acts as the dispatch target for the first half (based
on the URL); it then reads the RPC method from the request body and
does its own second dispatch step based on that method. It also reads
body params, and returns a Fault on error.
The XMLRPCDispatcher strips any /RPC2 prefix; if you aren't using /RPC2
in your URL's, you can safely skip turning on the XMLRPCDispatcher.
Otherwise, you need to use declare it in config:
request.dispatch: cherrypy.dispatch.XMLRPCDispatcher()
# Note we're hard-coding this into the 'tools' namespace. We could do
# a huge amount of work to make it relocatable, but the only reason why
# would be if someone actually disabled the default_toolbox. Meh.
_cp_config = {'tools.xmlrpc.on': True}
def default(self, *vpath, **params):
rpcparams, rpcmethod = _xmlrpc.process_body()
subhandler = self
for attr in str(rpcmethod).split('.'):
subhandler = getattr(subhandler, attr, None)
if subhandler and getattr(subhandler, "exposed", False):
body = subhandler(*(vpath + rpcparams), **params)
# if a method is not found, an xmlrpclib.Fault should be returned
# raising an exception here will do that; see
# cherrypy.lib.xmlrpc.on_error
raise Exception, 'method "%s" is not supported' % attr
conf = cherrypy.request.toolmaps['tools'].get("xmlrpc", {})
conf.get('encoding', 'utf-8'),
conf.get('allow_none', 0))
return cherrypy.response.body = True
class WSGIAppTool(HandlerTool):
"""A tool for running any WSGI middleware/application within CP.
Here are the parameters:
wsgi_app - any wsgi application callable
env_update - a dictionary with arbitrary keys and values to be
merged with the WSGI environ dictionary.
class Whatever:
_cp_config = {'tools.wsgiapp.on': True,
'': some_app,
'tools.wsgiapp.env': app_environ,
def _setup(self):
# Keep request body intact so the wsgi app can have its way with it.
cherrypy.request.process_request_body = False
class SessionAuthTool(HandlerTool):
def _setargs(self):
for name in dir(cptools.SessionAuth):
if not name.startswith("__"):
setattr(self, name, None)
class CachingTool(Tool):
"""Caching Tool for CherryPy."""
def _wrapper(self, invalid_methods=("POST", "PUT", "DELETE"), **kwargs):
request = cherrypy.request
if not hasattr(cherrypy, "_cache"):
# Make a process-wide Cache object.
cherrypy._cache = kwargs.pop("cache_class", _caching.MemoryCache)()
# Take all remaining kwargs and set them on the Cache object.
for k, v in kwargs.iteritems():
setattr(cherrypy._cache, k, v)
if _caching.get(invalid_methods=invalid_methods):
request.handler = None
if request.cacheable:
# Note the devious technique here of adding hooks on the fly
request.hooks.attach('before_finalize', _caching.tee_output,
priority = 90)
_wrapper.priority = 20
def _setup(self):
"""Hook caching into cherrypy.request."""
conf = self._merged_args()
p = conf.pop("priority", None)
cherrypy.request.hooks.attach('before_handler', self._wrapper,
priority=p, **conf)
class Toolbox(object):
"""A collection of Tools.
This object also functions as a config namespace handler for itself.
Custom toolboxes should be added to each Application's toolboxes dict.
def __init__(self, namespace):
self.namespace = namespace
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
# If the Tool._name is None, supply it from the attribute name.
if isinstance(value, Tool):
if value._name is None:
value._name = name
value.namespace = self.namespace
object.__setattr__(self, name, value)
def __enter__(self):
"""Populate request.toolmaps from tools specified in config."""
cherrypy.request.toolmaps[self.namespace] = map = {}
def populate(k, v):
toolname, arg = k.split(".", 1)
bucket = map.setdefault(toolname, {})
bucket[arg] = v
return populate
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
"""Run tool._setup() for each tool in our toolmap."""
map = cherrypy.request.toolmaps.get(self.namespace)
if map:
for name, settings in map.items():
if settings.get("on", False):
tool = getattr(self, name)
default_toolbox = _d = Toolbox("tools")
_d.session_auth = SessionAuthTool(cptools.session_auth)
_d.proxy = Tool('before_request_body', cptools.proxy, priority=30)
_d.response_headers = Tool('on_start_resource', cptools.response_headers)
_d.log_tracebacks = Tool('before_error_response', cptools.log_traceback)
_d.log_headers = Tool('before_error_response', cptools.log_request_headers)
_d.log_hooks = Tool('on_end_request', cptools.log_hooks, priority=100)
_d.err_redirect = ErrorTool(cptools.redirect)
_d.etags = Tool('before_finalize', cptools.validate_etags, priority=75)
_d.decode = Tool('before_handler', encoding.decode)
# the order of encoding, gzip, caching is important
_d.encode = Tool('before_finalize', encoding.encode, priority=70)
_d.gzip = Tool('before_finalize', encoding.gzip, priority=80)
_d.staticdir = HandlerTool(static.staticdir)
_d.staticfile = HandlerTool(static.staticfile)
_d.sessions = SessionTool()
_d.xmlrpc = ErrorTool(_xmlrpc.on_error)
_d.wsgiapp = WSGIAppTool(
_d.caching = CachingTool('before_handler', _caching.get, 'caching')
_d.expires = Tool('before_finalize', _caching.expires)
_d.tidy = Tool('before_finalize', tidy.tidy)
_d.nsgmls = Tool('before_finalize', tidy.nsgmls)
_d.ignore_headers = Tool('before_request_body', cptools.ignore_headers)
_d.referer = Tool('before_request_body', cptools.referer)
_d.basic_auth = Tool('on_start_resource', auth.basic_auth)
_d.digest_auth = Tool('on_start_resource', auth.digest_auth)
_d.trailing_slash = Tool('before_handler', cptools.trailing_slash, priority=60)
_d.flatten = Tool('before_finalize', cptools.flatten)
_d.accept = Tool('on_start_resource', cptools.accept)
_d.redirect = Tool('on_start_resource', cptools.redirect)
del _d, cptools, encoding, auth, static, tidy