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Copyright 2000, International Business Machines Corporation and others.
All Rights Reserved.

This software has been released under the terms of the IBM Public
License.  For details, see the LICENSE file in the top-level source
directory or online at

Short instructions for sites upgrading from a previous version of AFS:
% ./configure --enable-transarc-paths
% make
% make dest

will create a Transarc-style dest tree in ${SYS_NAME}/dest where
${SYS_NAME} is the AFS sysname of the system you built for.
This assumes if you're building for Linux that your kernel source is
in /usr/src/linux.

Otherwise, please read on.

Building OpenAFS on UNIX and Linux

A  Configuring

   Uncompress the source into a directory of your choice. A directory
   in afs space is also valid. In the directory that you uncompressed the
   source in, you will only have an src/ directory.

   1. Pick a system to build for, and note its default AFS sys_name.
      A directory will be automatically created for binaries to be written 
      into with this name when you build.

      alpha_dux40, alpha_dux50, alpha_dux51 (client does not work)
      alpha_linux22, alpha_linux24, alpha_linux26
      alpha_nbsd15, alpha_nbsd16
      amd64_fbsd_53 (client does not work)
      amd64_linux24, amd64_linux26
      amd64_nbsd20, amd64_nbsd30, amd64_nbsd40
      arm_linux24, arm_linux26
      hp_ux11i, hp_ux110, hp_ux1123 (See notes below for information on
         getting missing header)
      hp_ux102 (Client port possible, but db servers and utilities work)
      i386_fbsd_50, i386_fbsd_51, i386_fbsd_52, i386_fbsd_53,
         i386_fbsd_60, i386_fbsd_61, i386_fbsd_62, i386_fbsd_70,
         i386_fbsd_80, i386_fbsd_81, i386_fbsd_90, amd64_fbsd_50,
         amd64_fbsd_51, amd64_fbsd_52, amd64_fbsd_53, amd64_fbsd_60,
         amd64_fbsd_61, amd64_fbsd_62, amd64_fbsd_70, amd64_fbsd_80,
         amd64_fbsd_81, amd64_fbsd_90
         (client may work on 70 and later)
      i386_linux22, i386_linux24, i386_linux26
      i386_nbsd15, i386_nbsd16, i386_nbsd20, i386_nbsd21, i386_nbsd30,
      i386_obsd31, i386_obsd32, i386_obsd33, i386_obsd34, i386_obsd35,
         i386_obsd36, i386_obsd37, i386_obsd38, i386_obsd39, i386_obsd40,
      i386_umlinux22, i386_umlinux24, i386_umlinux26
      ia64_hpux1122, ia64_hpux1123
      ia64_linux24, ia64_linux26
      ppc64_linux24, ppc64_linux26
      ppc_darwin_12, ppc_darwin_13, ppc_darwin_14, ppc_darwin_60,
         ppc_darwin_70, ppc_darwin_80, ppc_darwin_90
      ppc_linux22, ppc_linux24, ppc_linux26
      ppc_nbsd16, ppc_nbsd20
      rs_aix42, rs_aix51, rs_aix52, rs_aix53, rs_aix61
      s390_linux22, s390_linux24, s390_linux26
      s390x_linux24, s390x_linux26
      sgi_62, sgi_63, sgi_64, sgi_65 (file server not tested)
      sparc64_linux22, sparc64_linux24, sparc64_linux26
      sparc_linux22, sparc_linux24
      sun4_413 (No client support, no fileserver support, db servers only)
      sun4x_56, sun4x_57, sun4x_58, sun4x_59, sun4x_510, sun4x_511
         (logging UFS not supported for mixed-use partitions containing
         client cache)
      sunx86_57, sunx86_58, sunx86_59, sunx86_510, sunx86_511
         (logging UFS not supported for mixed-use partitions containing
         client cache)
      x86_darwin_80, x86_darwin90

   2. Using configure in the top level directory, configure for your
      AFS system type, providing the necessary flags:

      % ./configure --with-afs-sysname=sun4x_58 --enable-transarc-paths

      If you do not have the "configure" script, or if you modify the
      source files, you can re-create it by running  You will
      need autoconf to do this.

      For some systems you need also provide the path in which your kernel
      headers for your configured kernel can be found.  See the
      system-specific Notes sections below for details.  If you want to
      build only the user-space programs and servers and not the kernel
      module, specify the --disable-kernel-module option on the
      ./configure command line.

      All binaries, except for the 'fileserver' and 'volserver'
      executables and their 'da' variants, are stripped of their symbol
      table information by default.  To enable a debugging build, specify
      the --enable-debug option on the ./configure command line.  This
      builds with debugging compiler options and disables stripping of

      You can also use different combinations of --enable-debug and
      --enable (or --disable)-strip-binaries for finer control.  One can,
      for example, compile binaries for debug and strip them anyway.
      Alternatively, one can compile without debug and force the binaries
      to not be stripped.  Note that these combinations are not
      necessarily useful.

      The binaries noted above, 'fileserver' and 'volserver' and their
      'da' variants, will never be stripped, regardless of any options
      given to configure.

   There are two modes for directory path handling: "Transarc mode" and
   "default mode":

   - In Transarc mode, we retain compatibility with Transarc/IBM AFS tools
     by putting client configuaration files in /usr/vice/etc, and server
     files in /usr/afs under the traditional directory layout.
   - In default mode, files are located in standardized locations, usually
     under $(prefix), which defaults to /usr/local.
   - Client programs, libraries, and related files always go in standard
     directories under $(prefix).  This rule covers things that would go
     into $(bindir), $(includedir), $(libdir), $(mandir), and $(sbindir).
   - Other files get located in the following places:

    Directory     Transarc Mode              Default Mode
    ============  =========================  ==============================
    viceetcdir    /usr/vice/etc              $(sysconfdir)/openafs
    afssrvdir     /usr/afs/bin (servers)     $(libexecdir)/openafs
    afsconfdir    /usr/afs/etc               $(sysconfdir)/openafs/server
    afslocaldir   /usr/afs/local             $(localstatedir)/openafs
    afsdbdir      /usr/afs/db                $(localstatedir)/openafs/db
    afslogdir     /usr/afs/logs              $(localstatedir)/openafs/logs
    afsbosconfig  $(afslocaldir)/BosConfig   $(afsconfdir)/BosConfig
    afsbosserver  $(afsbindir)/bosserver     $(sbindir)/bosserver

   In default mode, you can change all of the variables named above that
   do not start with "afs" by passing the flags with the same name to
   configure.  For example, if you want to install the server binaries in
   /usr/local/lib/openafs instead of /usr/local/libexec/openafs, pass the
   --libexecdir=/usr/local/lib flag to configure.

   For additional options, see section H below.

B  Building

   1. Now, you can build OpenAFS. 

      % make

   2. Install your build using either "make install" to install 
      into the current system (you will need to be root, and files
      will be placed as appropriate for Transarc or standard paths),
      "make install DESTDIR=/some/path" to install into an alternate 
      directory tree, or if you configured with --enable-transarc-paths
      make dest to create a complete binary tree in the dest directory      
      under the directory named for the sys_name you built for,
      e.g. sun4x_57/dest or i386_linux22/dest 

   3. As appropriate you can clean up or, if you're using Linux, build for
      another kernel version.

      To clean up:

      % make clean

C  Problems

   If you have a problem building this source, you may want to visit to see if any problems have been reported 
   or to find out how to get more help.

   Mailing lists have been set up to help; More details can be found
   on the site.

D  Linux Notes

   With current Linux versions, the /lib/modules/`uname -r`/source symlink
   will be used to locate the kernel headers, but you will need to have
   the headers and build system for your kernel installed in order to
   build the kernel module.  These are usually found in a separate package
   from the kernel, often called something like linux-headers-<version>.

   For older Linux systems, you may also need to provide the path in which
   your kernel headers for your configured kernel can be found. This
   should be the path of the directory containing a child directory named
   "include". So if your version file were
   /usr/src/linux/include/linux/version.h you would run:

   % ./configure --with-afs-sysname=i386_linux24 \

   Currently you can build for only one Linux kernel at a time, and the
   version is extracted from the kernel headers in the root you specify.

   To build for another Linux kernel version, determine the sysname for
   the system type as defined in step A1 for the other kernel version and
   then run:

      % ./configure --with-afs-sysname=<sysname> \
      % make 

   Your build tree will now include an additional kernel module for your
   additional kernel headers. Be aware that if the kernel version string
   which UTS_RELEASE is defined to in include/linux/version.h matches the
   last kernel you built for, the previous kernel module will be

E  HP-UX 11.0 Notes

   HP-UX 11.0 requires a header called vfs_vm.h which HP has provided on
   their web site.  Go to, choose Software
   downloads from the side menu, and select Software: HP operating systems
   and then Operating systems: HP-UX from the select boxes.  The last
   select box will have an option for downloading vfs_vm.h.

F  OpenBSD Notes

   If you need to run to make the configure script, you should
   first install autoconf-2.59, then setenv AUTOCONF_VERSION 2.59.

   You need kernel source installed to build OpenAFS.  Use the
   --with-bsd-kernel-headers= configure option if your kernel source is
   not in /usr/src/sys.

   src/packaging/OpenBSD/ will make a tar file for installing
   the client.  There is no server package, but I am told that "make
   install" will put server binaries in /usr/afs.

   Your kernel may panic when you try to shutdown after running the
   OpenAFS client.  To prevent this, change the "dangling vnode" panic in
   sys/kern/vfs_syscalls.c to a printf and build a new kernel.

   You can't run arla and OpenAFS at the same time.

G  FreeBSD Notes

   The FreeBSD client may now work; It is tested on 7.0 and on current
   as of the commit date.

   You need kernel source installed to build OpenAFS.  Use the
   --with-bsd-kernel-headers= configure option if your kernel source is
   not in /usr/src/sys.

   You also need access to your kernel build directory for the opt_global.h
   include file.  Use the --with-bsd-kernel-build= configure option if your
   kernel build is not GENERIC in the standard place. If 
   /usr/src/sys/${CPUARCH}/compile/GENERIC does not point to 
   /usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC you may need to resolve that and retry the 

   There is no server package, but I am told that "make install" will put
   server binaries in /usr/afs.

   You can't run arla and OpenAFS at the same time.

H  AIX notes

   Make sure that your default build environment is 32bit, ie.
   the OBJECT_MODE environment variable is either unset or set to "32".

   Verify this before doing configure and make. For example, assuming

   % export OBJECT_MODE=32

   To build aklog (in order to be able to get tokens from your Kerberos v5
   ticket), you will need Kerberos libraries.  On AIX 6.1, the IBM
   Kerberos v5 libraries are in the packages krb5.client.rte and
   krb5.toolkit.adt on the Expansion Pack.

I  Other configure options

   AFS has a ton of other optional features that must be enabled using
   configure options.  Here is a summary:

       These configure options are normally not required and should not be
       given.  They're only needed if the OpenAFS build system cannot
       determine the endianness of your system, in which case configure
       will abort and say to use one of these options.

       Speeds the startup of the fileserver by deferring reading volume
       bitmaps until necessary.  Demand attach is a better solution to the
       same problem.

       Enable compiler warnings when building with GCC and turn compiler
       warnings into errors so that new warnings will cause compilation
       failures.  If you are developing patches to contribute to OpenAFS,
       please build OpenAFS with this flag enabled.  Warning-free code is
       a requirement for all new submissions to OpenAFS.

       Compile the userspace code (for --enable-debug) or the code named
       by the option with debugging information.  If --enable-debug is
       given, also do not strip binaries when installing them.

       OpenAFS now uses keyrings to manage PAGs by default on Linux, which
       does not require hooking into the system call table.  On older
       versions of Linux without keyring support, OpenAFS uses groups to
       manage PAGs and probes for the system call table to hook into it to
       preserve that group information.  Normally, which method to use is
       detected automatically, and if keyring support is present, support
       for system call table probing is not compiled in.  Use this
       configure option to force inclusion of the system call table
       probing code even if the kernel appears to support keyrings.

       Forces the namei fileserver on platforms (like Solaris 8 and 9)
       where the inode fileserver is the default.

       Enable the threaded version of Ubik and install the threaded
       versions of Ubik servers.  See README.PTHREADED_UBIK for more
       information.  (EXPERIMENTAL)

       Enable compilation of the kernel module for the Red Hat build
       system kernel.  Use this configure flag when building kernel
       modules for Red Hat Linux systems.

       Try to minimize the shared library dependencies encoded in the
       binaries.  This omits from the link line all the libraries included
       solely because the Kerberos libraries depend on them and instead
       links the programs only against libraries whose APIs are called
       directly.  This will only work with shared Kerberos libraries and
       will only work on platforms where shared libraries properly encode
       their own dependencies (such as Linux).  It is intended primarily
       for building packages for Linux distributions to avoid encoding
       unnecessary shared library dependencies that make shared library
       migrations more difficult.  If none of the above made any sense to
       you, don't bother with this flag.

       Enables support of nested groups in the ptserver.  WARNING: Once
       you make use of this option by nesting one group inside another,
       the resulting PTS database cannot be correctly and safely used by a
       ptserver built without this option.  If some of your ptservers were
       built with this option and some without this option, you will
       probably corrupt your PTS database.

       Build with the Tivoli TSM API libraries for butc support of the
       Tivoli backup system.

       As discussed in A2 above, build for the traditional paths used by
       the Transarc and IBM AFS distributions instead of the more typical
       open source /usr/local paths.  Passing this option to configure and
       then running make dest will generate, in the dest directory, the
       set of files and directory layout matching a Transarc or IBM AFS
       tape distribution.

       Enable compilation warnings when built with GCC.  This is similar
       to --enable-checking, but new warnings will only be displayed, not
       cause a build failure.

   It's also possible to disable some standard features.  None of these
   options are normally needed, but they may be useful in unusual

       Even if kernel headers are found, do not attempt to build the
       kernel module.  On Linux, if you provide this flag, you'll also
       need to provide --with-afs-sysname, since OpenAFS cannot determine
       the correct sysname automatically without the kernel headers.

       Disable optimization for the given portion of the OpenAFS code.
       Usually used either for debugging to avoid code optimization making
       it harder to use a debugger, or to work around bugs in the compiler
       optimizers or in the OpenAFS code.

       Do not build the AFS PAM modules.  Normally building them is
       harmless, but the PAM modules that come with OpenAFS are deprecated
       and should not be used unless you're still using the OpenAFS
       kaserver (which is itself deprecated and should not be used).

       Disable stripping of binaries on installation.  You probably want
       to use --enable-debug instead of this flag to also inclusion of
       debugging information.

       Disable use of UNIX domain sockets for fssync.  A TCP connection to
       localhost will be used instead.

   You may need to pass one or more of the following options to specify
   paths and locations of files needed by the OpenAFS build process or
   additional information required by the build process:

       Specifies the AFS sysname of the target system is SYSNAME.
       Normally this is determined automatically from the build
       architecture plus additional information (such as, on Linux, from
       the kernel headers).  The SYSNAME should be one of the options
       listed in A2.

       Normally, OpenAFS will automatically build with Kerberos support if
       Kerberos is found during the build.  If your Kerberos libraries are
       in an unusual location, however, you may need to pass one or more
       of these flags.  --with-krb5 forces building with Kerberos support
       if given and will cause configure to fail if Kerberos is not found.
       You may optionally specify the root path to your Kerberos
       installation as an argument to --with-krb5.

       If you have a krb5-config script, it's used to find the flags to
       build with Kerberos.  If you have no krb5-config script, you can
       specify the location to the include files with --with-krb5-include
       and the libraries with --with-krb5-lib.  You may need to do this if
       Autoconf can't figure out whether to use lib, lib32, or lib64 on
       your platform.

       Specifies the path to the kernel headers and build system.  See the
       information above for Linux and *BSD systems.

       Tells the OpenAFS kernel module build system to use conventions
       appropriate for building modules to include in Linux kernel module
       packages.  Primarily, this renames the kernel module to openafs.ko
       rather than libafs-<VERSION>.ko, which is easier to handle in Linux
       distribution init scripts.

       Specifies the XSLT style sheet and XSLT processor to use to convert
       the DocBook manuals into HTML.

   There are also some environment variables that you can set to control
   aspects of the build.  They can be set either on the configure command
   line (preferred) or in the environment.

       The C compiler to use.  Be aware that this is overridden on some
       architectures that require a specific compiler be used to build the
       kernel module.

       Additional flags to pass to the C compiler.

       The C preprocessor to use.  Defaults to cpp if found, otherwise
       $CC -E.

       Additional flags to pass to the C preprocessor or compiler.  This
       is where to put -I options to add paths to the include file search.

       Compiler flags required for building applications that use FUSE.

       Libraries required for linking applications that use FUSE.

       To specify a particular krb5-config script to use, either set the
       KRB5_CONFIG environment variable or pass it to configure like:

           ./configure KRB5_CONFIG=/path/to/krb5-config

       To not use krb5-config and force library probing even if there is a
       krb5-config script on your path, set KRB5_CONFIG to a nonexistent

           ./configure KRB5_CONFIG=/nonexistent

       Additional flags to pass to the linker.  This is where to put -L
       options to add paths to the library search.

       Additional libraries to link all userspace programs with.

       The path to the pkg-config utility.  Currently, this is only used
       to locate the flags for building the FUSE version of afsd.

       The yacc implementation to use.  Defaults to bison, byacc, or yacc,
       whichever is found first.

       Additional flags to pass to yacc.
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