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(define (variable? x) (symbol? x))
(define (same-variable? v1 v2)
(and (variable? v1) (variable? v2) (eq? v1 v2)))
(define (=number? exp num)
(and (number? exp) (= exp num)))
(define (make-sum a1 a2)
(cond ((=number? a1 0) a2)
((=number? a2 0) a1)
((and (number? a1) (number? a2)) (+ a1 a2))
(else (list '+ a1 a2))))
(define (make-product m1 m2)
(cond ((or (=number? m1 0) (=number? m2 0)) 0)
((=number? m1 1) m2)
((=number? m2 1) m1)
((and (number? m1) (number? m2)) (* m1 m2))
(else (list '* m1 m2))))
(define (sum? x)
(and (pair? x) (eq? (car x) '+)))
(define (addend s) (cadr s))
(define (augend s) (caddr s))
(define (product? x)
(and (pair? x) (eq? (car x) '*)))
(define (multiplier p) (cadr p))
(define (multiplicand p) (caddr p))
(define (exponentiation? x)
(and (pair? x) (eq? (car x) '**)))
(define (base e) (cadr e))
(define (exponent e) (caddr e))
(define (make-exponentiation a1 a2)
(cond ((=number? a2 0) 1)
((=number? a2 1) a1)
(else (list '** a1 a2))))
(define (deriv exp var)
(cond ((number? exp) 0)
((variable? exp)
(if (same-variable? exp var) 1 0))
((sum? exp)
(make-sum (deriv (addend exp) var)
(deriv (augend exp) var)))
((product? exp)
(make-sum
(make-product (multiplier exp)
(deriv (multiplicand exp) var))
(make-product (deriv (multiplier exp) var)
(multiplicand exp))))
((exponentiation? exp)
(make-product (exponent exp)
(make-product
(make-exponentiation
(base exp)
(- (exponent exp) 1))
(deriv (base exp) var))))
(else
(error "unknown expression type -- DERIV" exp))))
;;; 使用例
(deriv '(** x 2) 'x) ; (* 2 x)
(deriv '(** x 3) 'x) ; (* 3 (** x 2))
(deriv '(* 3 (** x 2)) 'x) ; (* 3 (* 2 x))
(deriv '(** a 3) 'x) ; 0