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:speech_balloon: Google Translate to serve as a command-line tool

README.md

Translate Shell

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Translate Shell (previously Google Translate CLI) is a command-line interface and interactive shell for Google Translate. It works just the way you want it to be.

$ trans "Saluton, Mondo"
Hello, World

Translations of Saluton, Mondo
(Esperanto -> English)
Saluton(Hello/Hail/Hi/A greeting/Saluton) , Mondo(, World)

Translations with detailed explanations are shown by default. You can also translate the text briefly, i.e., only the most relevant translation is shown: (this will give you the same result as in Google Translate CLI Legacy)

$ trans -b "Saluton, Mondo"
Hello, World

Translations can be done interactively; input your text line by line:

$ trans -b -I
> Was mich nicht umbringt, macht mich stärker.
What does not kill me makes me stronger.
> Юмор есть остроумие глубокого чувства.
Humor is a deep sense of wit.
> 學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆。
Learning without thought is labor lost, thought without learning is perilous.
> 幸福になるためには、人から愛されるのが一番の近道。
In order to be happy, the shortest way is from being loved by the people.

Translate Shell is a complete rewrite of Google Translate CLI Legacy, which is a tiny script written in 100 lines of AWK code. Translate Shell is backward compatible with Google Translate CLI Legacy in its command-line usage; furthermore, it provides more functionality including verbose translation, Text-to-Speech and interactive mode, etc.

Prerequisites

System Requirements

Any POSIX-compliant system should work, including but not limited to:

  • GNU/Linux
  • BSD family, including OS X
  • illumos family, including SmartOS
  • Cygwin on Windows

Dependencies

  • GNU Awk (gawk) >=4.0
    • This program relies heavily on GNU-only extensions of the AWK language, which are not possible with POSIX AWK or other AWK implementations.
    • gawk comes with (almost) all GNU/Linux distributions. On BSD systems, it is available in ports. On OS X, it is available in MacPorts and Homebrew.
    • If you have an older version of gawk (>=3.1), you may still want to use Google Translate CLI Legacy.
    • Be aware that msys-gawk shipped with MinGW is outdated; however, you may still use Google Translate CLI Legacy as well.

Optional Dependencies

  • GNU Bash or Zsh
    • You can use Translate Shell from any modern Unix shell of your choice (bash, zsh, ksh, tcsh, fish, etc.); however, it requires either bash or zsh installed for interpreting the wrapper script.
  • GNU FriBidi: an implementation of the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm (bidi)
    • needed for displaying right-to-left (RTL) languages
  • MPlayer, mplayer2, mpv, mpg123, or eSpeak
    • needed for the Text-to-Speech functionality
  • rlwrap: a GNU readline wrapper
    • needed for readline-style editing and history in the interactive mode
  • groff: GNU troff (pre-installed on most systems)
    • needed for formatting man pages
  • GNU Emacs
    • for using the Emacs interface

Environment and Encoding

It is strongly recommended that you use UTF-8 codeset for your default locale, as it potentially supports all languages. You can check whether your codeset is UTF-8 using:

$ echo $LC_CTYPE
en_US.UTF-8

Or:

$ locale

And you need to have necessary Unicode fonts installed for the languages you want to display.

Try It Out

As long as you have gawk already, you're good to go!

$ gawk "$(curl -Ls git.io/translate)" -I

Installation

Direct Download (Latest Release)

Download this executable and place it into your path.

$ wget git.io/trans
$ chmod +x ./trans

Additionally, you may verify this signature if you want:

$ gpg --verify trans.sig trans

From Your OS

OS X

Available as a self-hosted Homebrew formula: (always the latest release since it's maintained by the author)

$ brew install http://www.soimort.org/translate-shell/translate-shell.rb

FreeBSD

Available in FreeBSD Ports collection:

$ cd /usr/ports/textproc/google-translate-cli
$ make install

Debian

Available in Debian Testing (Jessie):

$ apt-get install translate-shell

Arch Linux

Available in the Arch User Repository:

$ cower -d translate-shell
$ cd translate-shell/
$ makepkg -si

From Git (For Developers and Advanced Users)

$ git clone https://github.com/soimort/translate-shell
$ cd translate-shell/
$ make install

By default, a bash script trans will be installed to your /usr/bin. If you prefer to use zsh, you can specify zsh as the build target:

$ make TARGET=zsh install

You can specify the installation path too:

$ make INSTDIR=~/bin install

Examples

Translate a Word

From any language to your language

Google Translate will detect the language of the source text automatically, and Translate Shell will translate it into the language of your locale.

$ trans vorto

From any language to one or more specific languages

Translate a word into French:

$ trans :fr word

Translate a word into Chinese and Japanese: (use a plus sign "+" as the delimiter)

$ trans :zh+ja word

You can use an equals sign ("=") in place of ":". The traditional way of using a pair of curly brackets in Google Translate CLI Legacy is still supported: (depending on your shell)

$ trans {=zh+ja} word

You can also use the -target option to specify this:

$ trans -t zh+ja word

From a specific language

Google Translate could identify the language of the source text incorrectly; in that case, you will need to specify the language yourself:

$ trans :en 手紙
$ trans ja:en 手紙
$ trans zh:en 手紙

You can also use the -source option to specify this:

$ trans -s ja -t en 手紙

Translate Multiple Words or a Phrase

Translate each word alone:

$ trans en:zh freedom of speech

Put words into one argument and translate them as a whole:

$ trans en:zh "freedom of speech"

Translate a Sentence

Translating a sentence is much the same like translating a phrase; you can quote words into one argument:

$ trans :zh "Words will always retain their power."
$ trans :zh 'Words will always retain their power.'

To avoid punctuation marks and other special characters (e.g. "!") being interpreted by the shell, use single quotes:

$ trans :zh 'Yes we can!'

There are some cases though, you may still want to use double quotes: (i.e. the sentence contains a single quotation mark "'")

$ trans :zh "I'm lovin' it! McDonald's"

Brief Mode

By default, Translate Shell displays translations in a verbose manner. If you prefer to see only the most relevant translation, you can fallback to brief mode using the -brief option:

$ trans :fr -b "Saluton, Mondo"

In brief mode, phonetic notation (for some languages) is not shown by default. To enable this, put an at sign "@" in front of the language code:

$ trans :@ja -b "Saluton, Mondo"

Text-to-Speech

Use the -play option to listen to the translation:

$ trans :ja -b -p "Saluton, Mondo"

Right-to-Left (RTL) Languages

You can use the -width option to specify the screen width for padding when displaying right-to-left languages, if you want:

$ trans :he -b -w 40 "Saluton, Mondo"

Input and Output

When no non-option argument is given, Translate Shell will read from standard input, or from the file specified by the -input option:

$ echo "Saluton, Mondo" | trans :fr -b
$ trans :fr -b -i input.txt

Translations will be written to standard output, or to the file specified by the -output option:

$ echo "Saluton, Mondo" | trans :fr -b -o output.txt

Translate a File

Instead of using the -input option, a URI scheme of file can be provided as a parameter (file:// followed by the file name):

$ trans :fr file://input.txt

Brief mode is used when translating from URI schemes.

Translate a Web Page

For the translation of a web page, a URI scheme of HTTP(S) can be provided as a parameter:

$ trans :fr http://www.w3.org/

A browser session will be started for viewing the translation (in Google Translate). To specify the web browser, use the -browser option:

$ trans :fr -browser firefox http://www.w3.org/

Interactive Mode

Start an interactive shell, using the -interactive option:

$ trans -I

Text Editors

trans is just a command-line program which you can easily integrate with your favorite text editor. Any way you want.

Below are some might-be-useful tips. Feel free to roll your own Emacs mode or Vim script!

Emacs

Interactive shell

You can, of course, use Emacs as a front-end of Translate Shell, in the same way you emulate your favorite shell with M-x shell. There is a shortcut for starting Emacs with Translate Shell, using the -emacs option:

$ trans -E

Text translation

When editing a text file, viewing the translation of a region is just one single command: (translating any language to Japanese, for example)

M-| trans :ja

Vim

Text translation

Add one line to your ~/.vimrc:

set keywordprg=trans\ :ja

Use Shift-K to view the translation of the word under the cursor.

Usage

Use $ trans -H to view the detailed man page.

Usage: trans [options] [source]:[target] [text] ...
       trans [options] [source]:[target1]+[target2]+... [text] ...

Options:
  -V, -version
    Print version and exit.
  -H, -h, -help
    Print the help message and exit.
  -M, -m, -manual
    Show the manual.
  -r, -reference
    Print a list of languages (displayed in endonyms) and their ISO 639 codes for reference, and exit.
  -R, -reference-english
    Print a list of languages (displayed in English names) and their ISO 639 codes for reference, and exit.
  -v, -verbose
    Verbose mode. (default)
  -b, -brief
    Brief mode.
  -no-ansi
    Don't use ANSI escape codes in the translation.
  -w [num], -width [num]
    Specify the screen width for padding when displaying right-to-left languages.
  -browser [program]
    Specify the web browser to use.
  -p, -play
    Listen to the translation.
  -player [program]
    Specify the command-line audio player to use, and listen to the translation.
  -x [proxy], -proxy [proxy]
    Use proxy on given port.
  -I, -interactive
    Start an interactive shell, invoking `rlwrap` whenever possible (unless `-no-rlwrap` is specified).
  -no-rlwrap
    Don't invoke `rlwrap` when starting an interactive shell with `-I`.
  -E, -emacs
    Start an interactive shell within GNU Emacs, invoking `emacs`.
  -prompt [prompt_string]
    Customize your prompt string in the interactive shell.
  -prompt-color [color_code]
    Customize your prompt color in the interactive shell.
  -i [file], -input [file]
    Specify the input file name.
  -o [file], -output [file]
    Specify the output file name.
  -l [code], -lang [code]
    Specify your own, native language ("home/host language").
  -s [code], -source [code]
    Specify the source language (language of the original text).
  -t [codes], -target [codes]
    Specify the target language(s) (language(s) of the translated text).

See the man page trans(1) for more information.

Environment Variables

You can export some environment variables as your default configuration. This will save you from typing the same command-line options each time.

  • BROWSER: for option -browser
  • PLAYER: for option -player
  • HTTP_PROXY and http_proxy: for option -proxy
  • TRANS_PS: for option -prompt
  • TRANS_PS_COLOR: for option -prompt-color
  • HOME_LANG: for option -l
  • SOURCE_LANG: for option -s
  • TARGET_LANG: for option -t

Example:

$ export TARGET_LANG=zh
$ trans text
$ trans word

Language Codes

Use $ trans -R to view the list of language codes.

┌─────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────┬─────────────────┐
│ Afrikaans           - af    │ Hausa          - ha  │ Persian    - fa │
│ Albanian            - sq    │ Hebrew         - he  │ Polish     - pl │
│ Arabic              - ar    │ Hindi          - hi  │ Portuguese - pt │
│ Armenian            - hy    │ Hmong          - hmn │ Punjabi    - pa │
│ Azerbaijani         - az    │ Hungarian      - hu  │ Romanian   - ro │
│ Basque              - eu    │ Icelandic      - is  │ Russian    - ru │
│ Belarusian          - be    │ Igbo           - ig  │ Serbian    - sr │
│ Bengali             - bn    │ Indonesian     - id  │ Sesotho    - st │
│ Bosnian             - bs    │ Irish          - ga  │ Sinhala    - si │
│ Bulgarian           - bg    │ Italian        - it  │ Slovak     - sk │
│ Catalan             - ca    │ Japanese       - ja  │ Slovenian  - sl │
│ Cebuano             - ceb   │ Javanese       - jv  │ Somali     - so │
│ Chichewa            - ny    │ Kannada        - kn  │ Spanish    - es │
│ Chinese Simplified  - zh-CN │ Kazakh         - kk  │ Sundanese  - su │
│ Chinese Traditional - zh-TW │ Khmer          - km  │ Swahili    - sw │
│ Croatian            - hr    │ Korean         - ko  │ Swedish    - sv │
│ Czech               - cs    │ Lao            - lo  │ Tajik      - tg │
│ Danish              - da    │ Latin          - la  │ Tamil      - ta │
│ Dutch               - nl    │ Latvian        - lv  │ Telugu     - te │
│ English             - en    │ Lithuanian     - lt  │ Thai       - th │
│ Esperanto           - eo    │ Macedonian     - mk  │ Turkish    - tr │
│ Estonian            - et    │ Malagasy       - mg  │ Ukrainian  - uk │
│ Filipino            - tl    │ Malay          - ms  │ Urdu       - ur │
│ Finnish             - fi    │ Malayalam      - ml  │ Uzbek      - uz │
│ French              - fr    │ Maltese        - mt  │ Vietnamese - vi │
│ Galician            - gl    │ Maori          - mi  │ Welsh      - cy │
│ Georgian            - ka    │ Marathi        - mr  │ Yiddish    - yi │
│ German              - de    │ Myanmar        - my  │ Yoruba     - yo │
│ Greek               - el    │ Mongolian      - mn  │ Zulu       - zu │
│ Gujarati            - gu    │ Nepali         - ne  │                 │
│ Haitian Creole      - ht    │ Norwegian      - no  │                 │
└─────────────────────────────┴──────────────────────┴─────────────────┘

FAQ

  • Q: How many languages does Google Translate support?

  • A: 90 languages, as far as we know. There are 91 distinct language codes in total (including two codes for the Chinese language). A few aliases of these codes exist.

  • Q: What are these language codes?

  • A: A language code is used to identify a language. Most of these codes are ISO 639-1 codes (alpha-2), consisted of two alphabet letters; very few languages supported by Google Translate use the ISO 639-2 code (alpha-3), e.g., Hmong (hmn); the Chinese language has two language codes, distinguished by the uppercase region code after its ISO 639-1 code.

  • Q: Why are there two codes for Chinese? When to use them?

  • A: Two writing systems exist for the Chinese language: Simplified Chinese (zh-CN), used in China and Singapore; and Traditional Chinese (zh-TW), used in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Language code "zh" is an alias of "zh-CN".

  • Q: What about writing systems? What is the writing system of my language?

  • A: Some languages other than Chinese, also have multiple writing systems. Unfortunately, Google Translate seems to support only one of them:

    • Belarusian (be): Cyrillic alphabet
    • Bosnian (bs): Latin alphabet
    • Hausa (ha): Latin / Boko alphabet
    • Javanese (jv or jw): Latin alphabet
    • Kazakh (kk): Cyrillic alphabet
    • Mongolian (mn): Cyrillic alphabet
    • Punjabi (pa): Brahmic / Gurmukhī alphabet
    • Serbian (sr): Cyrillic alphabet
    • Sundanese (su): Latin alphabet
    • Tajik (tg): Cyrillic alphabet
    • Uzbek (uz): Latin alphabet
  • Q: What are right-to-left (RTL) languages, and why do I need GNU FriBidi for them?

  • A: 5 languages supported by Google Translate are written from right to left. In order to display bi-directional text correctly for these languages, GNU FriBidi, which implements Unicode bidirectional algorithm, will be used:

    • Arabic (ar)
    • Persian (fa)
    • Hebrew (he or iw)
    • Urdu (ur)
    • Yiddish (yi or ji)
  • Q: What is my "home" language?

  • A: By default, home language is set to the language of your current locale (i.e. environment variable LC_CTYPE and LANG). It will affect the display in verbose mode. If you are comfortable with your current locale (e.g. en_US.UTF-8), just leave it alone.

  • Q: What is the target language, if I don't specify one?

  • A: If no target language is specified, text will be translated into the language of your locale, i.e., your most preferable language.

  • Q: I tried to translate some very long text but failed to get the complete translation.

  • A: There is a limit of length for each translation. As a general suggestion, don't try to do everything in one hit. Split your text into sentences or lines and translate one at a time.

  • Q: My terminal does not support ANSI escape sequences and the display looks like a mess. How do I disable them?

  • A: Translate Shell uses ANSI escape sequences to display colors and other effects. You can disable them by either using the option -no-ansi, or telling Translate Shell that your terminal type is dumb via the environment variable TERM: $ TERM=dumb trans ...

Contributing

Report an issue: https://github.com/soimort/translate-shell/issues

Please review the guidelines for contributing before reporting an issue or sending a pull request.

Licensing

This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.

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