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// vim: noet
// System.Numerics.BigInteger
//
// Rodrigo Kumpera (rkumpera@novell.com)
// MODIFIED 2011 BY SOREAR
// - Added GetData function, IFreeze instance for serialization
//
// Copyright (C) 2010 Novell, Inc (http://www.novell.com)
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
// a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
// permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
// the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
// included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
// EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
// NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
// LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
// OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
// WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//
// A big chuck of code comes the DLR (as hosted in http://ironpython.codeplex.com),
// which has the following License:
//
/* ****************************************************************************
*
* Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.
*
* This source code is subject to terms and conditions of the Microsoft Public License. A
* copy of the license can be found in the License.html file at the root of this distribution. If
* you cannot locate the Microsoft Public License, please send an email to
* dlr@microsoft.com. By using this source code in any fashion, you are agreeing to be bound
* by the terms of the Microsoft Public License.
*
* You must not remove this notice, or any other, from this software.
*
*
* ***************************************************************************/
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;
/*
Optimization
Have proper popcount function for IsPowerOfTwo
Use unsafe ops to avoid bounds check
CoreAdd could avoid some resizes by checking for equal sized array that top overflow
For bitwise operators, hoist the conditionals out of their main loop
Optimize BitScanBackward
Use a carry variable to make shift opts do half the number of array ops.
Schoolbook multiply is O(n^2), use Karatsuba /Toom-3 for large numbers
*/
namespace Niecza {
public struct BigInteger : IComparable, IFormattable, IComparable<BigInteger>, IEquatable<BigInteger>, Niecza.Serialization.IFreeze
{
//LSB on [0]
readonly uint[] data;
readonly short sign;
[Immutable] static readonly uint[] ZERO = new uint [1];
[Immutable] static readonly uint[] ONE = new uint [1] { 1 };
public BigInteger (short sign, uint[] data)
{
this.sign = sign;
this.data = data;
}
public uint[] GetWords() {
return data;
}
public BigInteger (int value)
{
if (value == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
} else if (value > 0) {
sign = 1;
data = new uint[] { (uint) value };
} else {
sign = -1;
data = new uint[1] { (uint)-value };
}
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public BigInteger (uint value)
{
if (value == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
} else {
sign = 1;
data = new uint [1] { value };
}
}
public BigInteger (long value)
{
if (value == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
} else if (value > 0) {
sign = 1;
uint low = (uint)value;
uint high = (uint)(value >> 32);
data = new uint [high != 0 ? 2 : 1];
data [0] = low;
if (high != 0)
data [1] = high;
} else {
sign = -1;
value = -value;
uint low = (uint)value;
uint high = (uint)((ulong)value >> 32);
data = new uint [high != 0 ? 2 : 1];
data [0] = low;
if (high != 0)
data [1] = high;
}
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public BigInteger (ulong value)
{
if (value == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
} else {
sign = 1;
uint low = (uint)value;
uint high = (uint)(value >> 32);
data = new uint [high != 0 ? 2 : 1];
data [0] = low;
if (high != 0)
data [1] = high;
}
}
static bool Negative (byte[] v)
{
return ((v[7] & 0x80) != 0);
}
static ushort Exponent (byte[] v)
{
return (ushort)((((ushort)(v[7] & 0x7F)) << (ushort)4) | (((ushort)(v[6] & 0xF0)) >> 4));
}
static ulong Mantissa(byte[] v)
{
uint i1 = ((uint)v[0] | ((uint)v[1] << 8) | ((uint)v[2] << 16) | ((uint)v[3] << 24));
uint i2 = ((uint)v[4] | ((uint)v[5] << 8) | ((uint)(v[6] & 0xF) << 16));
return (ulong)((ulong)i1 | ((ulong)i2 << 32));
}
const int bias = 1075;
public BigInteger (double value)
{
if (double.IsNaN (value) || Double.IsInfinity (value))
throw new OverflowException ();
byte[] bytes = BitConverter.GetBytes (value);
ulong mantissa = Mantissa (bytes);
if (mantissa == 0) {
// 1.0 * 2**exp, we have a power of 2
int exponent = Exponent (bytes);
if (exponent == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
return;
}
BigInteger res = Negative (bytes) ? MinusOne : One;
res = res << (exponent - 0x3ff);
this.sign = res.sign;
this.data = res.data;
} else {
// 1.mantissa * 2**exp
int exponent = Exponent(bytes);
mantissa |= 0x10000000000000ul;
BigInteger res = mantissa;
res = exponent > bias ? res << (exponent - bias) : res >> (bias - exponent);
this.sign = (short) (Negative (bytes) ? -1 : 1);
this.data = res.data;
}
}
public BigInteger (float value) : this ((double)value)
{
}
const Int32 DecimalScaleFactorMask = 0x00FF0000;
const Int32 DecimalSignMask = unchecked((Int32)0x80000000);
public BigInteger (decimal value)
{
// First truncate to get scale to 0 and extract bits
int[] bits = Decimal.GetBits(Decimal.Truncate(value));
int size = 3;
while (size > 0 && bits[size - 1] == 0) size--;
if (size == 0) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
return;
}
sign = (short) ((bits [3] & DecimalSignMask) != 0 ? -1 : 1);
data = new uint [size];
data [0] = (uint)bits [0];
if (size > 1)
data [1] = (uint)bits [1];
if (size > 2)
data [2] = (uint)bits [2];
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public BigInteger (byte[] value)
{
if (value == null)
throw new ArgumentNullException ("value");
int len = value.Length;
if (len == 0 || (len == 1 && value [0] == 0)) {
sign = 0;
data = ZERO;
return;
}
if ((value [len - 1] & 0x80) != 0)
sign = -1;
else
sign = 1;
if (sign == 1) {
while (value [len - 1] == 0)
--len;
int full_words, size;
full_words = size = len / 4;
if ((len & 0x3) != 0)
++size;
data = new uint [size];
int j = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < full_words; ++i) {
data [i] = (uint)value [j++] |
(uint)(value [j++] << 8) |
(uint)(value [j++] << 16) |
(uint)(value [j++] << 24);
}
size = len & 0x3;
if (size > 0) {
int idx = data.Length - 1;
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i)
data [idx] |= (uint)(value [j++] << (i * 8));
}
} else {
int full_words, size;
full_words = size = len / 4;
if ((len & 0x3) != 0)
++size;
data = new uint [size];
uint word, borrow = 1;
ulong sub = 0;
int j = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < full_words; ++i) {
word = (uint)value [j++] |
(uint)(value [j++] << 8) |
(uint)(value [j++] << 16) |
(uint)(value [j++] << 24);
sub = (ulong)word - borrow;
word = (uint)sub;
borrow = (uint)(sub >> 32) & 0x1u;
data [i] = ~word;
}
size = len & 0x3;
if (size > 0) {
word = 0;
uint store_mask = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
word |= (uint)(value [j++] << (i * 8));
store_mask = (store_mask << 8) | 0xFF;
}
sub = word - borrow;
word = (uint)sub;
borrow = (uint)(sub >> 32) & 0x1u;
data [data.Length - 1] = ~word & store_mask;
}
if (borrow != 0) //FIXME I believe this can't happen, can someone write a test for it?
throw new Exception ("non zero final carry");
}
}
public bool IsEven {
get { return (data [0] & 0x1) == 0; }
}
public bool IsOne {
get { return sign == 1 && data.Length == 1 && data [0] == 1; }
}
//Gem from Hacker's Delight
//Returns the number of bits set in @x
static int PopulationCount (uint x)
{
x = x - ((x >> 1) & 0x55555555);
x = (x & 0x33333333) + ((x >> 2) & 0x33333333);
x = (x + (x >> 4)) & 0x0F0F0F0F;
x = x + (x >> 8);
x = x + (x >> 16);
return (int)(x & 0x0000003F);
}
public bool IsPowerOfTwo {
get {
bool foundBit = false;
if (sign != 1)
return false;
//This function is pop count == 1 for positive numbers
for (int i = 0; i < data.Length; ++i) {
int p = PopulationCount (data [i]);
if (p > 0) {
if (p > 1 || foundBit)
return false;
foundBit = true;
}
}
return foundBit;
}
}
public bool IsZero {
get { return sign == 0; }
}
public int Sign {
get { return sign; }
}
public static BigInteger MinusOne {
get { return new BigInteger (-1, ONE); }
}
public static BigInteger One {
get { return new BigInteger (1, ONE); }
}
public static BigInteger Zero {
get { return new BigInteger (0, ZERO); }
}
public static explicit operator int (BigInteger value)
{
int r;
if (!value.AsInt32(out r))
throw new OverflowException ();
return r;
}
public bool AsInt32(out int val)
{
val = 0;
if (data.Length > 1) return false;
uint d = data [0];
if (sign == 1) {
if (d > (uint)int.MaxValue)
return false;
val = (int)d;
} else if (sign == -1) {
if (d > 0x80000000u)
return false;
val = -(int)d;
}
return true;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static explicit operator uint (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.data.Length > 1 || value.sign == -1)
throw new OverflowException ();
return value.data [0];
}
public static explicit operator short (BigInteger value)
{
int val = (int)value;
if (val < short.MinValue || val > short.MaxValue)
throw new OverflowException ();
return (short)val;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static explicit operator ushort (BigInteger value)
{
uint val = (uint)value;
if (val > ushort.MaxValue)
throw new OverflowException ();
return (ushort)val;
}
public static explicit operator byte (BigInteger value)
{
uint val = (uint)value;
if (val > byte.MaxValue)
throw new OverflowException ();
return (byte)val;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static explicit operator sbyte (BigInteger value)
{
int val = (int)value;
if (val < sbyte.MinValue || val > sbyte.MaxValue)
throw new OverflowException ();
return (sbyte)val;
}
public static explicit operator long (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.sign == 0)
return 0;
if (value.data.Length > 2)
throw new OverflowException ();
uint low = value.data [0];
if (value.data.Length == 1) {
if (value.sign == 1)
return (long)low;
long res = (long)low;
return -res;
}
uint high = value.data [1];
if (value.sign == 1) {
if (high >= 0x80000000u)
throw new OverflowException ();
return (((long)high) << 32) | low;
}
if (high > 0x80000000u)
throw new OverflowException ();
return - ((((long)high) << 32) | (long)low);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static explicit operator ulong (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.data.Length > 2 || value.sign == -1)
throw new OverflowException ();
uint low = value.data [0];
if (value.data.Length == 1)
return low;
uint high = value.data [1];
return (((ulong)high) << 32) | low;
}
public bool AsUInt64 (out ulong val) //NIECZA
{
val = 0;
if (data.Length > 2 || sign == -1)
return false;
val = data [0];
if (data.Length == 1)
return true;
uint high = data [1];
val |= (((ulong)high) << 32);
return true;
}
public static explicit operator double (BigInteger value)
{
//FIXME
try {
return double.Parse (value.ToString (),
System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat);
} catch (OverflowException) {
return value.sign == -1 ? double.NegativeInfinity : double.PositiveInfinity;
}
}
public static explicit operator float (BigInteger value)
{
//FIXME
try {
return float.Parse (value.ToString (),
System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat);
} catch (OverflowException) {
return value.sign == -1 ? float.NegativeInfinity : float.PositiveInfinity;
}
}
public static explicit operator decimal (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.sign == 0)
return Decimal.Zero;
uint[] data = value.data;
if (data.Length > 3)
throw new OverflowException ();
int lo = 0, mi = 0, hi = 0;
if (data.Length > 2)
hi = (Int32)data [2];
if (data.Length > 1)
mi = (Int32)data [1];
if (data.Length > 0)
lo = (Int32)data [0];
return new Decimal(lo, mi, hi, value.sign < 0, 0);
}
public static implicit operator BigInteger (int value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static implicit operator BigInteger (uint value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static implicit operator BigInteger (short value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static implicit operator BigInteger (ushort value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static implicit operator BigInteger (byte value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static implicit operator BigInteger (sbyte value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static implicit operator BigInteger (long value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static implicit operator BigInteger (ulong value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static explicit operator BigInteger (double value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static explicit operator BigInteger (float value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static explicit operator BigInteger (decimal value)
{
return new BigInteger (value);
}
public static BigInteger operator+ (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.sign == 0)
return right;
if (right.sign == 0)
return left;
if (left.sign == right.sign)
return new BigInteger (left.sign, CoreAdd (left.data, right.data));
int r = CoreCompare (left.data, right.data);
if (r == 0)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (r > 0) //left > right
return new BigInteger (left.sign, CoreSub (left.data, right.data));
return new BigInteger (right.sign, CoreSub (right.data, left.data));
}
public static BigInteger operator- (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (right.sign == 0)
return left;
if (left.sign == 0)
return new BigInteger ((short)-right.sign, right.data);
if (left.sign == right.sign) {
int r = CoreCompare (left.data, right.data);
if (r == 0)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (r > 0) //left > right
return new BigInteger (left.sign, CoreSub (left.data, right.data));
return new BigInteger ((short)-right.sign, CoreSub (right.data, left.data));
}
return new BigInteger (left.sign, CoreAdd (left.data, right.data));
}
public static BigInteger operator* (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.sign == 0 || right.sign == 0)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (left.data [0] == 1 && left.data.Length == 1) {
if (left.sign == 1)
return right;
return new BigInteger ((short)-right.sign, right.data);
}
if (right.data [0] == 1 && right.data.Length == 1) {
if (right.sign == 1)
return left;
return new BigInteger ((short)-left.sign, left.data);
}
uint[] a = left.data;
uint[] b = right.data;
uint[] res = new uint [a.Length + b.Length];
for (int i = 0; i < a.Length; ++i) {
uint ai = a [i];
int k = i;
ulong carry = 0;
for (int j = 0; j < b.Length; ++j) {
carry = carry + ((ulong)ai) * b [j] + res [k];
res[k++] = (uint)carry;
carry >>= 32;
}
while (carry != 0) {
carry += res [k];
res[k++] = (uint)carry;
carry >>= 32;
}
}
int m;
for (m = res.Length - 1; m >= 0 && res [m] == 0; --m) ;
if (m < res.Length - 1)
res = Resize (res, m + 1);
return new BigInteger ((short)(left.sign * right.sign), res);
}
public static BigInteger operator/ (BigInteger dividend, BigInteger divisor)
{
if (divisor.sign == 0)
throw new DivideByZeroException ();
if (dividend.sign == 0)
return dividend;
uint[] quotient;
uint[] remainder_value;
DivModUnsigned (dividend.data, divisor.data, out quotient, out remainder_value);
int i;
for (i = quotient.Length - 1; i >= 0 && quotient [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < quotient.Length - 1)
quotient = Resize (quotient, i + 1);
return new BigInteger ((short)(dividend.sign * divisor.sign), quotient);
}
public static BigInteger operator% (BigInteger dividend, BigInteger divisor)
{
if (divisor.sign == 0)
throw new DivideByZeroException ();
if (dividend.sign == 0)
return dividend;
uint[] quotient;
uint[] remainder_value;
DivModUnsigned (dividend.data, divisor.data, out quotient, out remainder_value);
int i;
for (i = remainder_value.Length - 1; i >= 0 && remainder_value [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < remainder_value.Length - 1)
remainder_value = Resize (remainder_value, i + 1);
return new BigInteger (dividend.sign, remainder_value);
}
public static BigInteger operator- (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.sign == 0)
return value;
return new BigInteger ((short)-value.sign, value.data);
}
public static BigInteger operator+ (BigInteger value)
{
return value;
}
public static BigInteger operator++ (BigInteger value)
{
short sign = value.sign;
uint[] data = value.data;
if (data.Length == 1) {
if (sign == -1 && data [0] == 1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (sign == 0)
return new BigInteger (1, ONE);
}
if (sign == -1)
data = CoreSub (data, 1);
else
data = CoreAdd (data, 1);
return new BigInteger (sign, data);
}
public static BigInteger operator-- (BigInteger value)
{
short sign = value.sign;
uint[] data = value.data;
if (data.Length == 1) {
if (sign == 1 && data [0] == 1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (sign == 0)
return new BigInteger (-1, ONE);
}
if (sign == -1)
data = CoreAdd (data, 1);
else
data = CoreSub (data, 1);
return new BigInteger (sign, data);
}
public static BigInteger operator& (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.sign == 0)
return left;
if (right.sign == 0)
return right;
uint[] a = left.data;
uint[] b = right.data;
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
bool neg_res = (ls == rs) && (ls == -1);
uint[] result = new uint [Math.Max (a.Length, b.Length)];
ulong ac = 1, bc = 1, borrow = 1;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < result.Length; ++i) {
uint va = 0;
if (i < a.Length)
va = a [i];
if (ls == -1) {
ac = ~va + ac;
va = (uint)ac;
ac = (uint)(ac >> 32);
}
uint vb = 0;
if (i < b.Length)
vb = b [i];
if (rs == -1) {
bc = ~vb + bc;
vb = (uint)bc;
bc = (uint)(bc >> 32);
}
uint word = va & vb;
if (neg_res) {
borrow = word - borrow;
word = ~(uint)borrow;
borrow = (uint)(borrow >> 32) & 0x1u;
}
result [i] = word;
}
for (i = result.Length - 1; i >= 0 && result [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < result.Length - 1)
result = Resize (result, i + 1);
return new BigInteger (neg_res ? (short)-1 : (short)1, result);
}
public static BigInteger operator| (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.sign == 0)
return right;
if (right.sign == 0)
return left;
uint[] a = left.data;
uint[] b = right.data;
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
bool neg_res = (ls == -1) || (rs == -1);
uint[] result = new uint [Math.Max (a.Length, b.Length)];
ulong ac = 1, bc = 1, borrow = 1;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < result.Length; ++i) {
uint va = 0;
if (i < a.Length)
va = a [i];
if (ls == -1) {
ac = ~va + ac;
va = (uint)ac;
ac = (uint)(ac >> 32);
}
uint vb = 0;
if (i < b.Length)
vb = b [i];
if (rs == -1) {
bc = ~vb + bc;
vb = (uint)bc;
bc = (uint)(bc >> 32);
}
uint word = va | vb;
if (neg_res) {
borrow = word - borrow;
word = ~(uint)borrow;
borrow = (uint)(borrow >> 32) & 0x1u;
}
result [i] = word;
}
for (i = result.Length - 1; i >= 0 && result [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < result.Length - 1)
result = Resize (result, i + 1);
return new BigInteger (neg_res ? (short)-1 : (short)1, result);
}
public static BigInteger operator^ (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.sign == 0)
return right;
if (right.sign == 0)
return left;
uint[] a = left.data;
uint[] b = right.data;
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
bool neg_res = (ls == -1) ^ (rs == -1);
uint[] result = new uint [Math.Max (a.Length, b.Length)];
ulong ac = 1, bc = 1, borrow = 1;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < result.Length; ++i) {
uint va = 0;
if (i < a.Length)
va = a [i];
if (ls == -1) {
ac = ~va + ac;
va = (uint)ac;
ac = (uint)(ac >> 32);
}
uint vb = 0;
if (i < b.Length)
vb = b [i];
if (rs == -1) {
bc = ~vb + bc;
vb = (uint)bc;
bc = (uint)(bc >> 32);
}
uint word = va ^ vb;
if (neg_res) {
borrow = word - borrow;
word = ~(uint)borrow;
borrow = (uint)(borrow >> 32) & 0x1u;
}
result [i] = word;
}
for (i = result.Length - 1; i >= 0 && result [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < result.Length - 1)
result = Resize (result, i + 1);
return new BigInteger (neg_res ? (short)-1 : (short)1, result);
}
public static BigInteger operator~ (BigInteger value)
{
if (value.sign == 0)
return new BigInteger (-1, ONE);
uint[] data = value.data;
int sign = value.sign;
bool neg_res = sign == 1;
uint[] result = new uint [data.Length];
ulong carry = 1, borrow = 1;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < result.Length; ++i) {
uint word = data [i];
if (sign == -1) {
carry = ~word + carry;
word = (uint)carry;
carry = (uint)(carry >> 32);
}
word = ~word;
if (neg_res) {
borrow = word - borrow;
word = ~(uint)borrow;
borrow = (uint)(borrow >> 32) & 0x1u;
}
result [i] = word;
}
for (i = result.Length - 1; i >= 0 && result [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < result.Length - 1)
result = Resize (result, i + 1);
return new BigInteger (neg_res ? (short)-1 : (short)1, result);
}
//returns the 0-based index of the most significant set bit
//returns 0 if no bit is set, so extra care when using it
static int BitScanBackward (uint word)
{
for (int i = 31; i >= 0; --i) {
uint mask = 1u << i;
if ((word & mask) == mask)
return i;
}
return 0;
}
public static BigInteger operator<< (BigInteger value, int shift)
{
if (shift == 0 || value.sign == 0)
return value;
if (shift < 0)
return value >> -shift;
uint[] data = value.data;
int sign = value.sign;
int topMostIdx = BitScanBackward (data [data.Length - 1]);
int bits = shift - (31 - topMostIdx);
int extra_words = (bits >> 5) + ((bits & 0x1F) != 0 ? 1 : 0);
uint[] res = new uint [data.Length + extra_words];
int idx_shift = shift >> 5;
int bit_shift = shift & 0x1F;
int carry_shift = 32 - bit_shift;
for (int i = 0; i < data.Length; ++i) {
uint word = data [i];
res [i + idx_shift] |= word << bit_shift;
if (i + idx_shift + 1 < res.Length)
res [i + idx_shift + 1] = word >> carry_shift;
}
return new BigInteger ((short)sign, res);
}
public static BigInteger operator>> (BigInteger value, int shift)
{
if (shift == 0 || value.sign == 0)
return value;
if (shift < 0)
return value << -shift;
uint[] data = value.data;
int sign = value.sign;
int topMostIdx = BitScanBackward (data [data.Length - 1]);
int idx_shift = shift >> 5;
int bit_shift = shift & 0x1F;
int extra_words = idx_shift;
if (bit_shift > topMostIdx)
++extra_words;
int size = data.Length - extra_words;
if (size <= 0) {
if (sign == 1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
return new BigInteger (-1, ONE);
}
uint[] res = new uint [size];
int carry_shift = 32 - bit_shift;
for (int i = data.Length - 1; i >= idx_shift; --i) {
uint word = data [i];
if (i - idx_shift < res.Length)
res [i - idx_shift] |= word >> bit_shift;
if (i - idx_shift - 1 >= 0)
res [i - idx_shift - 1] = word << carry_shift;
}
//Round down instead of toward zero
if (sign == -1) {
for (int i = 0; i < idx_shift; i++) {
if (data [i] != 0u) {
var tmp = new BigInteger ((short)sign, res);
--tmp;
return tmp;
}
}
if (bit_shift > 0 && (data [idx_shift] << carry_shift) != 0u) {
var tmp = new BigInteger ((short)sign, res);
--tmp;
return tmp;
}
}
return new BigInteger ((short)sign, res);
}
public static bool operator< (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) < 0;
}
public static bool operator< (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) < 0;
}
public static bool operator< (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) > 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator< (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) < 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator< (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) > 0;
}
public static bool operator<= (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) <= 0;
}
public static bool operator<= (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) <= 0;
}
public static bool operator<= (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) >= 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator<= (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) <= 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator<= (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) >= 0;
}
public static bool operator> (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) > 0;
}
public static bool operator> (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) > 0;
}
public static bool operator> (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) < 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator> (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) > 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator> (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) < 0;
}
public static bool operator>= (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) >= 0;
}
public static bool operator>= (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) >= 0;
}
public static bool operator>= (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) <= 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator>= (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) >= 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator>= (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) <= 0;
}
public static bool operator== (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) == 0;
}
public static bool operator== (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) == 0;
}
public static bool operator== (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) == 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator== (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) == 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator== (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) == 0;
}
public static bool operator!= (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return Compare (left, right) != 0;
}
public static bool operator!= (BigInteger left, long right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) != 0;
}
public static bool operator!= (long left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) != 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator!= (BigInteger left, ulong right)
{
return left.CompareTo (right) != 0;
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public static bool operator!= (ulong left, BigInteger right)
{
return right.CompareTo (left) != 0;
}
public override bool Equals (object obj)
{
if (!(obj is BigInteger))
return false;
return Equals ((BigInteger)obj);
}
public bool Equals (BigInteger other)
{
if (sign != other.sign)
return false;
if (data.Length != other.data.Length)
return false;
for (int i = 0; i < data.Length; ++i) {
if (data [i] != other.data [i])
return false;
}
return true;
}
public bool Equals (long other)
{
return CompareTo (other) == 0;
}
public override string ToString ()
{
return ToString (10, null);
}
string ToStringWithPadding (string format, uint radix, IFormatProvider provider)
{
if (format.Length > 1) {
int precision = Convert.ToInt32(format.Substring (1), CultureInfo.InvariantCulture.NumberFormat);
string baseStr = ToString (radix, provider);
if (baseStr.Length < precision) {
string additional = new String ('0', precision - baseStr.Length);
if (baseStr[0] != '-') {
return additional + baseStr;
} else {
return "-" + additional + baseStr.Substring (1);
}
}
return baseStr;
}
return ToString (radix, provider);
}
public string ToString (string format)
{
return ToString (format, null);
}
public string ToString (IFormatProvider provider)
{
return ToString (null, provider);
}
public string ToString (string format, IFormatProvider provider)
{
if (format == null || format == "")
return ToString (10, provider);
switch (format[0]) {
case 'd':
case 'D':
case 'g':
case 'G':
case 'r':
case 'R':
return ToStringWithPadding (format, 10, provider);
case 'x':
case 'X':
return ToStringWithPadding (format, 16, null);
default:
throw new FormatException (string.Format ("format '{0}' not implemented", format));
}
}
static uint[] MakeTwoComplement (uint[] v)
{
uint[] res = new uint [v.Length];
ulong carry = 1;
for (int i = 0; i < v.Length; ++i) {
uint word = v [i];
carry = (ulong)~word + carry;
word = (uint)carry;
carry = (uint)(carry >> 32);
res [i] = word;
}
uint last = res [res.Length - 1];
int idx = FirstNonFFByte (last);
uint mask = 0xFF;
for (int i = 1; i < idx; ++i)
mask = (mask << 8) | 0xFF;
res [res.Length - 1] = last & mask;
return res;
}
string ToString (uint radix, IFormatProvider provider)
{
const string characterSet = "0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
if (characterSet.Length < radix)
throw new ArgumentException ("charSet length less than radix", "characterSet");
if (radix == 1)
throw new ArgumentException ("There is no such thing as radix one notation", "radix");
if (sign == 0)
return "0";
if (data.Length == 1 && data [0] == 1)
return sign == 1 ? "1" : "-1";
List<char> digits = new List<char> (1 + data.Length * 3 / 10);
BigInteger a;
if (sign == 1)
a = this;
else {
uint[] dt = data;
if (radix > 10)
dt = MakeTwoComplement (dt);
a = new BigInteger (1, dt);
}
while (a != 0) {
BigInteger rem;
a = DivRem (a, radix, out rem);
digits.Add (characterSet [(int) rem]);
}
if (sign == -1 && radix == 10) {
NumberFormatInfo info = null;
if (provider != null)
info = provider.GetFormat (typeof (NumberFormatInfo)) as NumberFormatInfo;
if (info != null) {
string str = info.NegativeSign;
for (int i = str.Length - 1; i >= 0; --i)
digits.Add (str [i]);
} else {
digits.Add ('-');
}
}
char last = digits [digits.Count - 1];
if (sign == 1 && radix > 10 && (last < '0' || last > '9'))
digits.Add ('0');
digits.Reverse ();
return new String (digits.ToArray ());
}
public static BigInteger Parse (string value)
{
Exception ex;
BigInteger result;
if (!Parse (value, false, out result, out ex))
throw ex;
return result;
}
public static bool TryParse (string value, out BigInteger result)
{
Exception ex;
return Parse (value, true, out result, out ex);
}
static Exception GetFormatException ()
{
return new FormatException ("Input string was not in the correct format");
}
static bool ProcessTrailingWhitespace (bool tryParse, string s, int position, ref Exception exc)
{
int len = s.Length;
for (int i = position; i < len; i++){
char c = s [i];
if (c != 0 && !Char.IsWhiteSpace (c)){
if (!tryParse)
exc = GetFormatException ();
return false;
}
}
return true;
}
static bool Parse (string s, bool tryParse, out BigInteger result, out Exception exc)
{
int len;
int i, sign = 1;
bool digits_seen = false;
result = Zero;
exc = null;
if (s == null) {
if (!tryParse)
exc = new ArgumentNullException ("value");
return false;
}
len = s.Length;
char c;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++){
c = s [i];
if (!Char.IsWhiteSpace (c))
break;
}
if (i == len) {
if (!tryParse)
exc = GetFormatException ();
return false;
}
var info = Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture.NumberFormat;
string negative = info.NegativeSign;
string positive = info.PositiveSign;
if (string.CompareOrdinal (s, i, positive, 0, positive.Length) == 0)
i += positive.Length;
else if (string.CompareOrdinal (s, i, negative, 0, negative.Length) == 0) {
sign = -1;
i += negative.Length;
}
BigInteger val = Zero;
for (; i < len; i++){
c = s [i];
if (c == '\0') {
i = len;
continue;
}
if (c >= '0' && c <= '9'){
byte d = (byte) (c - '0');
val = val * 10 + d;
digits_seen = true;
} else if (!ProcessTrailingWhitespace (tryParse, s, i, ref exc))
return false;
}
if (!digits_seen) {
if (!tryParse)
exc = GetFormatException ();
return false;
}
if (val.sign == 0)
result = val;
else if (sign == -1)
result = new BigInteger (-1, val.data);
else
result = new BigInteger (1, val.data);
return true;
}
public static BigInteger Min (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
if (ls < rs)
return left;
if (rs < ls)
return right;
int r = CoreCompare (left.data, right.data);
if (ls == -1)
r = -r;
if (r <= 0)
return left;
return right;
}
public static BigInteger Max (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
if (ls > rs)
return left;
if (rs > ls)
return right;
int r = CoreCompare (left.data, right.data);
if (ls == -1)
r = -r;
if (r >= 0)
return left;
return right;
}
public static BigInteger Abs (BigInteger value)
{
return new BigInteger ((short)Math.Abs (value.sign), value.data);
}
public static BigInteger DivRem (BigInteger dividend, BigInteger divisor, out BigInteger remainder)
{
if (divisor.sign == 0)
throw new DivideByZeroException ();
if (dividend.sign == 0) {
remainder = dividend;
return dividend;
}
uint[] quotient;
uint[] remainder_value;
DivModUnsigned (dividend.data, divisor.data, out quotient, out remainder_value);
int i;
for (i = remainder_value.Length - 1; i >= 0 && remainder_value [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1) {
remainder = new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
} else {
if (i < remainder_value.Length - 1)
remainder_value = Resize (remainder_value, i + 1);
remainder = new BigInteger (dividend.sign, remainder_value);
}
for (i = quotient.Length - 1; i >= 0 && quotient [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i == -1)
return new BigInteger (0, ZERO);
if (i < quotient.Length - 1)
quotient = Resize (quotient, i + 1);
return new BigInteger ((short)(dividend.sign * divisor.sign), quotient);
}
public static BigInteger Pow (BigInteger value, int exponent)
{
if (exponent < 0)
throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("exponent", "exp must be >= 0");
if (exponent == 0)
return One;
if (exponent == 1)
return value;
BigInteger result = One;
while (exponent != 0) {
if ((exponent & 1) != 0)
result = result * value;
if (exponent == 1)
break;
value = value * value;
exponent >>= 1;
}
return result;
}
public static BigInteger ModPow (BigInteger value, BigInteger exponent, BigInteger modulus) {
if (exponent.sign == -1)
throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("exponent", "power must be >= 0");
if (modulus.sign == 0)
throw new DivideByZeroException ();
BigInteger result = One % modulus;
while (exponent.sign != 0) {
if (!exponent.IsEven) {
result = result * value;
result = result % modulus;
}
if (exponent.IsOne)
break;
value = value * value;
value = value % modulus;
exponent >>= 1;
}
return result;
}
public static BigInteger GreatestCommonDivisor (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
if (left.data.Length == 1 && left.data [0] == 1)
return new BigInteger (1, ONE);
if (right.data.Length == 1 && right.data [0] == 1)
return new BigInteger (1, ONE);
if (left.IsZero)
return right;
if (right.IsZero)
return left;
BigInteger x = new BigInteger (1, left.data);
BigInteger y = new BigInteger (1, right.data);
BigInteger g = y;
while (x.data.Length > 1) {
g = x;
x = y % x;
y = g;
}
if (x.IsZero) return g;
// TODO: should we have something here if we can convert to long?
//
// Now we can just do it with single precision. I am using the binary gcd method,
// as it should be faster.
//
uint yy = x.data [0];
uint xx = (uint)(y % yy);
int t = 0;
while (((xx | yy) & 1) == 0) {
xx >>= 1; yy >>= 1; t++;
}
while (xx != 0) {
while ((xx & 1) == 0) xx >>= 1;
while ((yy & 1) == 0) yy >>= 1;
if (xx >= yy)
xx = (xx - yy) >> 1;
else
yy = (yy - xx) >> 1;
}
return yy << t;
}
/*LAMESPEC Log doesn't specify to how many ulp is has to be precise
We are equilavent to MS with about 2 ULP
*/
public static double Log (BigInteger value, Double baseValue)
{
if (value.sign == -1 || baseValue == 1.0d || baseValue == -1.0d ||
baseValue == Double.NegativeInfinity || double.IsNaN (baseValue))
return double.NaN;
if (baseValue == 0.0d || baseValue == Double.PositiveInfinity)
return value.IsOne ? 0 : double.NaN;
if (value.sign == 0)
return double.NegativeInfinity;
int length = value.data.Length - 1;
int bitCount = -1;
for (int curBit = 31; curBit >= 0; curBit--) {
if ((value.data [length] & (1 << curBit)) != 0) {
bitCount = curBit + length * 32;
break;
}
}
long bitlen = bitCount;
Double c = 0, d = 1;
BigInteger testBit = One;
long tempBitlen = bitlen;
while (tempBitlen > Int32.MaxValue) {
testBit = testBit << Int32.MaxValue;
tempBitlen -= Int32.MaxValue;
}
testBit = testBit << (int)tempBitlen;
for (long curbit = bitlen; curbit >= 0; --curbit) {
if ((value & testBit).sign != 0)
c += d;
d *= 0.5;
testBit = testBit >> 1;
}
return (System.Math.Log (c) + System.Math.Log (2) * bitlen) / System.Math.Log (baseValue);
}
public static double Log (BigInteger value)
{
return Log (value, Math.E);
}
public static double Log10 (BigInteger value)
{
return Log (value, 10);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public bool Equals (ulong other)
{
return CompareTo (other) == 0;
}
public override int GetHashCode ()
{
uint hash = (uint)(sign * 0x01010101u);
for (int i = 0; i < data.Length; ++i)
hash ^= data [i];
return (int)hash;
}
public static BigInteger Add (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return left + right;
}
public static BigInteger Subtract (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return left - right;
}
public static BigInteger Multiply (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
return left * right;
}
public static BigInteger Divide (BigInteger dividend, BigInteger divisor)
{
return dividend / divisor;
}
public static BigInteger Remainder (BigInteger dividend, BigInteger divisor)
{
return dividend % divisor;
}
public static BigInteger Negate (BigInteger value)
{
return - value;
}
public int CompareTo (object obj)
{
if (obj == null)
return 1;
if (!(obj is BigInteger))
return -1;
return Compare (this, (BigInteger)obj);
}
public int CompareTo (BigInteger other)
{
return Compare (this, other);
}
//[CLSCompliantAttribute (false)]
public int CompareTo (ulong other)
{
if (sign < 0)
return -1;
if (sign == 0)
return other == 0 ? 0 : -1;
if (data.Length > 2)
return 1;
uint high = (uint)(other >> 32);
uint low = (uint)other;
return LongCompare (low, high);
}
int LongCompare (uint low, uint high)
{
uint h = 0;
if (data.Length > 1)
h = data [1];
if (h > high)
return 1;
if (h < high)
return -1;
uint l = data [0];
if (l > low)
return 1;
if (l < low)
return -1;
return 0;
}
public int CompareTo (long other)
{
int ls = sign;
int rs = Math.Sign (other);
if (ls != rs)
return ls > rs ? 1 : -1;
if (ls == 0)
return 0;
if (data.Length > 2)
return sign;
if (other < 0)
other = -other;
uint low = (uint)other;
uint high = (uint)((ulong)other >> 32);
int r = LongCompare (low, high);
if (ls == -1)
r = -r;
return r;
}
public static int Compare (BigInteger left, BigInteger right)
{
int ls = left.sign;
int rs = right.sign;
if (ls != rs)
return ls > rs ? 1 : -1;
int r = CoreCompare (left.data, right.data);
if (ls < 0)
r = -r;
return r;
}
static int TopByte (uint x)
{
if ((x & 0xFFFF0000u) != 0) {
if ((x & 0xFF000000u) != 0)
return 4;
return 3;
}
if ((x & 0xFF00u) != 0)
return 2;
return 1;
}
static int FirstNonFFByte (uint word)
{
if ((word & 0xFF000000u) != 0xFF000000u)
return 4;
else if ((word & 0xFF0000u) != 0xFF0000u)
return 3;
else if ((word & 0xFF00u) != 0xFF00u)
return 2;
return 1;
}
public byte[] ToByteArray ()
{
if (sign == 0)
return new byte [1];
//number of bytes not counting upper word
int bytes = (data.Length - 1) * 4;
bool needExtraZero = false;
uint topWord = data [data.Length - 1];
int extra;
//if the topmost bit is set we need an extra
if (sign == 1) {
extra = TopByte (topWord);
uint mask = 0x80u << ((extra - 1) * 8);
if ((topWord & mask) != 0) {
needExtraZero = true;
}
} else {
extra = TopByte (topWord);
}
byte[] res = new byte [bytes + extra + (needExtraZero ? 1 : 0) ];
if (sign == 1) {
int j = 0;
int end = data.Length - 1;
for (int i = 0; i < end; ++i) {
uint word = data [i];
res [j++] = (byte)word;
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 8);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 16);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 24);
}
while (extra-- > 0) {
res [j++] = (byte)topWord;
topWord >>= 8;
}
} else {
int j = 0;
int end = data.Length - 1;
uint carry = 1, word;
ulong add;
for (int i = 0; i < end; ++i) {
word = data [i];
add = (ulong)~word + carry;
word = (uint)add;
carry = (uint)(add >> 32);
res [j++] = (byte)word;
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 8);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 16);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 24);
}
add = (ulong)~topWord + (carry);
word = (uint)add;
carry = (uint)(add >> 32);
if (carry == 0) {
int ex = FirstNonFFByte (word);
bool needExtra = (word & (1 << (ex * 8 - 1))) == 0;
int to = ex + (needExtra ? 1 : 0);
if (to != extra)
res = Resize (res, bytes + to);
while (ex-- > 0) {
res [j++] = (byte)word;
word >>= 8;
}
if (needExtra)
res [j++] = 0xFF;
} else {
res = Resize (res, bytes + 5);
res [j++] = (byte)word;
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 8);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 16);
res [j++] = (byte)(word >> 24);
res [j++] = 0xFF;
}
}
return res;
}
static byte[] Resize (byte[] v, int len)
{
byte[] res = new byte [len];
Array.Copy (v, res, Math.Min (v.Length, len));
return res;
}
static uint[] Resize (uint[] v, int len)
{
uint[] res = new uint [len];
Array.Copy (v, res, Math.Min (v.Length, len));
return res;
}
static uint[] CoreAdd (uint[] a, uint[] b)
{
if (a.Length < b.Length) {
uint[] tmp = a;
a = b;
b = tmp;
}
int bl = a.Length;
int sl = b.Length;
uint[] res = new uint [bl];
ulong sum = 0;
int i = 0;
for (; i < sl; i++) {
sum = sum + a [i] + b [i];
res [i] = (uint)sum;
sum >>= 32;
}
for (; i < bl; i++) {
sum = sum + a [i];
res [i] = (uint)sum;
sum >>= 32;
}
if (sum != 0) {
res = Resize (res, bl + 1);
res [i] = (uint)sum;
}
return res;
}
/*invariant a > b*/
static uint[] CoreSub (uint[] a, uint[] b)
{
int bl = a.Length;
int sl = b.Length;
uint[] res = new uint [bl];
ulong borrow = 0;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < sl; ++i) {
borrow = (ulong)a [i] - b [i] - borrow;
res [i] = (uint)borrow;
borrow = (borrow >> 32) & 0x1;
}
for (; i < bl; i++) {
borrow = (ulong)a [i] - borrow;
res [i] = (uint)borrow;
borrow = (borrow >> 32) & 0x1;
}
//remove extra zeroes
for (i = bl - 1; i >= 0 && res [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i < bl - 1)
res = Resize (res, i + 1);
return res;
}
static uint[] CoreAdd (uint[] a, uint b)
{
int len = a.Length;
uint[] res = new uint [len];
ulong sum = b;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
sum = sum + a [i];
res [i] = (uint)sum;
sum >>= 32;
}
if (sum != 0) {
res = Resize (res, len + 1);
res [i] = (uint)sum;
}
return res;
}
static uint[] CoreSub (uint[] a, uint b)
{
int len = a.Length;
uint[] res = new uint [len];
ulong borrow = b;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
borrow = (ulong)a [i] - borrow;
res [i] = (uint)borrow;
borrow = (borrow >> 32) & 0x1;
}
//remove extra zeroes
for (i = len - 1; i >= 0 && res [i] == 0; --i) ;
if (i < len - 1)
res = Resize (res, i + 1);
return res;
}
static int CoreCompare (uint[] a, uint[] b)
{
int al = a.Length;
int bl = b.Length;
if (al > bl)
return 1;
if (bl > al)
return -1;
for (int i = al - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
uint ai = a [i];
uint bi = b [i];
if (ai > bi)
return 1;
if (ai < bi)
return -1;
}
return 0;
}
static int GetNormalizeShift(uint value) {
int shift = 0;
if ((value & 0xFFFF0000) == 0) { value <<= 16; shift += 16; }
if ((value & 0xFF000000) == 0) { value <<= 8; shift += 8; }
if ((value & 0xF0000000) == 0) { value <<= 4; shift += 4; }
if ((value & 0xC0000000) == 0) { value <<= 2; shift += 2; }
if ((value & 0x80000000) == 0) { value <<= 1; shift += 1; }
return shift;
}
static void Normalize (uint[] u, int l, uint[] un, int shift)
{
uint carry = 0;
int i;
if (shift > 0) {
int rshift = 32 - shift;
for (i = 0; i < l; i++) {
uint ui = u [i];
un [i] = (ui << shift) | carry;
carry = ui >> rshift;
}
} else {
for (i = 0; i < l; i++) {
un [i] = u [i];
}
}
while (i < un.Length) {
un [i++] = 0;
}
if (carry != 0) {
un [l] = carry;
}
}
static void Unnormalize (uint[] un, out uint[] r, int shift)
{
int length = un.Length;
r = new uint [length];
if (shift > 0) {
int lshift = 32 - shift;
uint carry = 0;
for (int i = length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
uint uni = un [i];
r [i] = (uni >> shift) | carry;
carry = (uni << lshift);
}
} else {
for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
r [i] = un [i];
}
}
}
const ulong Base = 0x100000000;
static void DivModUnsigned (uint[] u, uint[] v, out uint[] q, out uint[] r)
{
int m = u.Length;
int n = v.Length;
if (n <= 1) {
// Divide by single digit
//
ulong rem = 0;
uint v0 = v [0];
q = new uint[m];
r = new uint [1];
for (int j = m - 1; j >= 0; j--) {
rem *= Base;
rem += u[j];
ulong div = rem / v0;
rem -= div * v0;
q[j] = (uint)div;
}
r [0] = (uint)rem;
} else if (m >= n) {
int shift = GetNormalizeShift (v [n - 1]);
uint[] un = new uint [m + 1];
uint[] vn = new uint [n];
Normalize (u, m, un, shift);
Normalize (v, n, vn, shift);
q = new uint [m - n + 1];
r = null;
// Main division loop
//
for (int j = m - n; j >= 0; j--) {
ulong rr, qq;
int i;
rr = Base * un [j + n] + un [j + n - 1];
qq = rr / vn [n - 1];
rr -= qq * vn [n - 1];
for (; ; ) {
// Estimate too big ?
//
if ((qq >= Base) || (qq * vn [n - 2] > (rr * Base + un [j + n - 2]))) {
qq--;
rr += (ulong)vn [n - 1];
if (rr < Base)
continue;
}
break;
}
// Multiply and subtract
//
long b = 0;
long t = 0;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
ulong p = vn [i] * qq;
t = (long)un [i + j] - (long)(uint)p - b;
un [i + j] = (uint)t;
p >>= 32;
t >>= 32;
b = (long)p - t;
}
t = (long)un [j + n] - b;
un [j + n] = (uint)t;
// Store the calculated value
//
q [j] = (uint)qq;
// Add back vn[0..n] to un[j..j+n]
//
if (t < 0) {
q [j]--;
ulong c = 0;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
c = (ulong)vn [i] + un [j + i] + c;
un [j + i] = (uint)c;
c >>= 32;
}
c += (ulong)un [j + n];
un [j + n] = (uint)c;
}
}
Unnormalize (un, out r, shift);
} else {
q = new uint [] { 0 };
r = u;
}
}
void Niecza.Serialization.IFreeze.Freeze(
Niecza.Serialization.FreezeBuffer fb) {
fb.Byte((byte) Niecza.Serialization.SerializationCode.BigInteger);
fb.Int(sign * data.Length);
if (sign != 0)
foreach (uint x in data)
fb.Int((int)x);
}
internal static BigInteger Thaw(
Niecza.Serialization.ThawBuffer tb) {
int s_l = tb.Int();
short sign;
int ct;
if (s_l > 0) { sign = 1; ct = s_l; }
else if (s_l == 0) { sign = 0; ct = 0; }
else { sign = -1; ct = -s_l; }
uint[] d = new uint[ct];
for (int i = 0; i < ct; i++)
d[i] = (uint)tb.Int();
BigInteger r = new BigInteger(sign, sign == 0 ? ZERO : d);
tb.Register(r);
return r;
}
}
}
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