CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for the characterization of citations, both factually and rhetorically. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies.
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Citation Typing Ontology (CiTO)

The Citation Typing Ontology (CiTO) is an ontology that enables characterization of the nature or type of citations, both factually and rhetorically.


Creators: David Shotton, Silvio Peroni

Contributors: Paolo Ciccarese, Tim Clark

License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International


Cite as: Peroni, S., Shotton, D. (2012). FaBiO and CiTO: ontologies for describing bibliographic resources and citations. In Journal of Web Semantics, 17: 33-43. Open Access at: