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Browser support

This page describes the way that we support different browsers and browser versions when building sites at Springer Nature.

Our criteria for browser support

We follow the guidelines for Graded Browser Support outlined by Nate Koechley at Yahoo in their Graded Browser Support guide.

Graded Browser Support works by classifying all browser versions in one of three different grades:

  • Grade-A are capable or very popular browser versions. These browsers will receive the full experience, with all styling and behaviour. Bugs are addressed with high priority.
  • Grade-C are incapable and/or uncommon browser versions which are known to break if receiving full styling and behaviour. These browsers will receive a core experience, with only minimum CSS and JavaScript. Bugs are addressed with high priority.
  • Grade-X browsers exist in the grey area between Grade-A and Grade-C. We serve them the same code as Grade-A, so they will receive the full experience, but we do not test our products against these browser versions. We expect our sites to work in these browsers. Over time, analysis of errors and usage patterns may cause some browsers in Grade-X to be deliberately changed to either Grade-A or Grade-C, to allow for better support.

Graded browser support list

This is the current list of browser versions and their corresponding grades:

Tables Grade-A support Grade-C support
Chrome latest stable, latest stable -1 < 29
Edge latest stable, latest stable -1 none
Firefox latest stable, latest stable -1 < 29
IE 11 < 11
Opera latest stable < 16
Safari iOS latest stable, latest stable -1 < 7
Safari MacOS latest stable, latest stable -1 < 6.1
Android Webview latest stable < 30 (Android 4.4)

Every unlisted browser version is Grade-X.

Implementing graded browser support

Our primary approach to Graded Browser Support is the "Cutting the Mustard (CTM)" progressive enhancement technique, based upon the principles developed by the BBC.

This approach works by using feature detection in order to determine which browsers (Grade-A and Grade-X) will receive the full experience (i.e. they "cut the mustard") and which ones (Grade-C) will receive the core experience.

Implementation details

All browser versions load a basic stylesheet that contains only normalisation and a few small enhancements to the user-agent stylesheet.

We then use CSS media queries to detect capable browsers. Unlike the approach described by the BBC, we don't use a JavaScript-based featured detection. We want users to have the best possible experience even if JavaScript is not available.

To load the full experience only in Grade-A and Grade-X browsers we implement logic in the media attribute of the <link> element that identifies the main stylesheet, loading the stylesheet only in browsers that recognise the properties of that media query:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="your-css.css" media="only screen and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (min-color-index:0), (-ms-high-contrast: none), only all and (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio:0) and (min-resolution: 3e1dpcm)" id="core-stylesheet">

This technique is documented in Cutting the Mustard with Media queries. The specific media queries we use are based upon CSS Only Mustard Cut, with a preference towards combining them into one rather than separating them out into multiple <link> elements. Note that you cannot add line breaks to the media query if they are combined.

We couple the loading of JavaScript to the loading of the enhanced CSS. We use the window.matchMedia API to detect when the browser loads the CSS within the media query. Once the enhanced CSS loads, this will cause the JavaScript code to load too.

(function() {
  var linkEl = document.getElementById('core-stylesheet');
  if (window.matchMedia && window.matchMedia( {
    var script = document.createElement('script');
    script.src = 'your-script.js';
    script.async = true;

Please note that this JavaScript code will fail in Internet Explorer if there is more than one link element. You can get around this by targeting the specific link element using a class or ID.


Internet Explorer 10 support

As of January 2017, we consider Internet Explorer 10 as Grade-C. This is mainly due to its lack of support for certain modern features plus a very low usage. IE10 also stopped receiving security updates in January 2016 from its manufacturer.

Unfortunately, both IE10 and IE11 support the same CSS media queries, which means that it is not possible to use a CSS-only method of differentiating between both browsers.

This means that even if we consider IE10 a Grade-C browser, we currently serve IE10 users the full experience.

Internet Explorer and CSS Grid

CSS Grid has been available in all evergreen browsers for the last year. It offers a much-simplified way of working with layout and offers new design opportunities.

However, CSS Grid is not available in the full standardised form in Internet Explorer 10 or 11, both of which are currently de facto supported as Grade A browsers by us (see above).

The syntax and capabilities for CSS Grid are radically different in IE than in any other browser. As a result the development costs to match the visual experience in IE with other browsers can range from trivial, for simple component-level layouts, to major for page-level layouts.

We therefore accept that some teams will wish to develop their layouts using CSS Grid, but will not be able to justify devoting time to supporting IE. For those teams we suggest a highly-styled linear layout, which has all the features of a Grade A browser experience, except for the page layout. It is up to any teams making this decision to ensure the IE10/11 Grade A experience is acceptable to their users and business owners.

Browsers without TLS 1.2 support

As of June 2018, all our sites are served through HTTPS using the TLS 1.2 cryptographic protocol or newer. This means that users of browsers that don't support TLS 1.2 (e.g. Safari on iOS 4) will not be able to access our sites. Browsers that have support for TLS 1.2 not enabled by default (e.g. Internet Explorer on Windows 7) will not be able to access our sites, unless they change their default settings. We consider that this is required in order to keep our users secure.

The way that we restrict the connection to our sites when not using TLS 1.2 doesn't impact the way that we design and build our sites and our commitment to an approach based on progressive enhancement techniques.