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# orm/util.py
# Copyright (C) 2005-2019 the SQLAlchemy authors and contributors
# <see AUTHORS file>
#
# This module is part of SQLAlchemy and is released under
# the MIT License: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php
import re
import types
from . import attributes # noqa
from .base import _class_to_mapper # noqa
from .base import _never_set # noqa
from .base import _none_set # noqa
from .base import attribute_str # noqa
from .base import class_mapper # noqa
from .base import InspectionAttr # noqa
from .base import instance_str # noqa
from .base import object_mapper # noqa
from .base import object_state # noqa
from .base import state_attribute_str # noqa
from .base import state_class_str # noqa
from .base import state_str # noqa
from .interfaces import MapperProperty # noqa
from .interfaces import PropComparator # noqa
from .path_registry import PathRegistry # noqa
from .. import event
from .. import exc as sa_exc
from .. import inspection
from .. import sql
from .. import util
from ..sql import coercions
from ..sql import expression
from ..sql import roles
from ..sql import util as sql_util
all_cascades = frozenset(
(
"delete",
"delete-orphan",
"all",
"merge",
"expunge",
"save-update",
"refresh-expire",
"none",
)
)
class CascadeOptions(frozenset):
"""Keeps track of the options sent to relationship().cascade"""
_add_w_all_cascades = all_cascades.difference(
["all", "none", "delete-orphan"]
)
_allowed_cascades = all_cascades
__slots__ = (
"save_update",
"delete",
"refresh_expire",
"merge",
"expunge",
"delete_orphan",
)
def __new__(cls, value_list):
if isinstance(value_list, util.string_types) or value_list is None:
return cls.from_string(value_list)
values = set(value_list)
if values.difference(cls._allowed_cascades):
raise sa_exc.ArgumentError(
"Invalid cascade option(s): %s"
% ", ".join(
[
repr(x)
for x in sorted(
values.difference(cls._allowed_cascades)
)
]
)
)
if "all" in values:
values.update(cls._add_w_all_cascades)
if "none" in values:
values.clear()
values.discard("all")
self = frozenset.__new__(CascadeOptions, values)
self.save_update = "save-update" in values
self.delete = "delete" in values
self.refresh_expire = "refresh-expire" in values
self.merge = "merge" in values
self.expunge = "expunge" in values
self.delete_orphan = "delete-orphan" in values
if self.delete_orphan and not self.delete:
util.warn(
"The 'delete-orphan' cascade " "option requires 'delete'."
)
return self
def __repr__(self):
return "CascadeOptions(%r)" % (",".join([x for x in sorted(self)]))
@classmethod
def from_string(cls, arg):
values = [c for c in re.split(r"\s*,\s*", arg or "") if c]
return cls(values)
def _validator_events(desc, key, validator, include_removes, include_backrefs):
"""Runs a validation method on an attribute value to be set or
appended.
"""
if not include_backrefs:
def detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
impl = state.manager[key].impl
return initiator.impl is not impl
if include_removes:
def append(state, value, initiator):
if initiator.op is not attributes.OP_BULK_REPLACE and (
include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator)
):
return validator(state.obj(), key, value, False)
else:
return value
def bulk_set(state, values, initiator):
if include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
obj = state.obj()
values[:] = [
validator(obj, key, value, False) for value in values
]
def set_(state, value, oldvalue, initiator):
if include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
return validator(state.obj(), key, value, False)
else:
return value
def remove(state, value, initiator):
if include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
validator(state.obj(), key, value, True)
else:
def append(state, value, initiator):
if initiator.op is not attributes.OP_BULK_REPLACE and (
include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator)
):
return validator(state.obj(), key, value)
else:
return value
def bulk_set(state, values, initiator):
if include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
obj = state.obj()
values[:] = [validator(obj, key, value) for value in values]
def set_(state, value, oldvalue, initiator):
if include_backrefs or not detect_is_backref(state, initiator):
return validator(state.obj(), key, value)
else:
return value
event.listen(desc, "append", append, raw=True, retval=True)
event.listen(desc, "bulk_replace", bulk_set, raw=True)
event.listen(desc, "set", set_, raw=True, retval=True)
if include_removes:
event.listen(desc, "remove", remove, raw=True, retval=True)
def polymorphic_union(
table_map, typecolname, aliasname="p_union", cast_nulls=True
):
"""Create a ``UNION`` statement used by a polymorphic mapper.
See :ref:`concrete_inheritance` for an example of how
this is used.
:param table_map: mapping of polymorphic identities to
:class:`.Table` objects.
:param typecolname: string name of a "discriminator" column, which will be
derived from the query, producing the polymorphic identity for
each row. If ``None``, no polymorphic discriminator is generated.
:param aliasname: name of the :func:`~sqlalchemy.sql.expression.alias()`
construct generated.
:param cast_nulls: if True, non-existent columns, which are represented
as labeled NULLs, will be passed into CAST. This is a legacy behavior
that is problematic on some backends such as Oracle - in which case it
can be set to False.
"""
colnames = util.OrderedSet()
colnamemaps = {}
types = {}
for key in table_map:
table = table_map[key]
table = coercions.expect(
roles.StrictFromClauseRole, table, allow_select=True
)
table_map[key] = table
m = {}
for c in table.c:
colnames.add(c.key)
m[c.key] = c
types[c.key] = c.type
colnamemaps[table] = m
def col(name, table):
try:
return colnamemaps[table][name]
except KeyError:
if cast_nulls:
return sql.cast(sql.null(), types[name]).label(name)
else:
return sql.type_coerce(sql.null(), types[name]).label(name)
result = []
for type_, table in table_map.items():
if typecolname is not None:
result.append(
sql.select(
[col(name, table) for name in colnames]
+ [
sql.literal_column(
sql_util._quote_ddl_expr(type_)
).label(typecolname)
],
from_obj=[table],
)
)
else:
result.append(
sql.select(
[col(name, table) for name in colnames], from_obj=[table]
)
)
return sql.union_all(*result).alias(aliasname)
def identity_key(*args, **kwargs):
"""Generate "identity key" tuples, as are used as keys in the
:attr:`.Session.identity_map` dictionary.
This function has several call styles:
* ``identity_key(class, ident, identity_token=token)``
This form receives a mapped class and a primary key scalar or
tuple as an argument.
E.g.::
>>> identity_key(MyClass, (1, 2))
(<class '__main__.MyClass'>, (1, 2), None)
:param class: mapped class (must be a positional argument)
:param ident: primary key, may be a scalar or tuple argument.
:param identity_token: optional identity token
.. versionadded:: 1.2 added identity_token
* ``identity_key(instance=instance)``
This form will produce the identity key for a given instance. The
instance need not be persistent, only that its primary key attributes
are populated (else the key will contain ``None`` for those missing
values).
E.g.::
>>> instance = MyClass(1, 2)
>>> identity_key(instance=instance)
(<class '__main__.MyClass'>, (1, 2), None)
In this form, the given instance is ultimately run though
:meth:`.Mapper.identity_key_from_instance`, which will have the
effect of performing a database check for the corresponding row
if the object is expired.
:param instance: object instance (must be given as a keyword arg)
* ``identity_key(class, row=row, identity_token=token)``
This form is similar to the class/tuple form, except is passed a
database result row as a :class:`.RowProxy` object.
E.g.::
>>> row = engine.execute("select * from table where a=1 and b=2").\
first()
>>> identity_key(MyClass, row=row)
(<class '__main__.MyClass'>, (1, 2), None)
:param class: mapped class (must be a positional argument)
:param row: :class:`.RowProxy` row returned by a :class:`.ResultProxy`
(must be given as a keyword arg)
:param identity_token: optional identity token
.. versionadded:: 1.2 added identity_token
"""
if args:
row = None
largs = len(args)
if largs == 1:
class_ = args[0]
try:
row = kwargs.pop("row")
except KeyError:
ident = kwargs.pop("ident")
elif largs in (2, 3):
class_, ident = args
else:
raise sa_exc.ArgumentError(
"expected up to three positional arguments, " "got %s" % largs
)
identity_token = kwargs.pop("identity_token", None)
if kwargs:
raise sa_exc.ArgumentError(
"unknown keyword arguments: %s" % ", ".join(kwargs)
)
mapper = class_mapper(class_)
if row is None:
return mapper.identity_key_from_primary_key(
util.to_list(ident), identity_token=identity_token
)
else:
return mapper.identity_key_from_row(
row, identity_token=identity_token
)
else:
instance = kwargs.pop("instance")
if kwargs:
raise sa_exc.ArgumentError(
"unknown keyword arguments: %s" % ", ".join(kwargs.keys)
)
mapper = object_mapper(instance)
return mapper.identity_key_from_instance(instance)
class ORMAdapter(sql_util.ColumnAdapter):
"""ColumnAdapter subclass which excludes adaptation of entities from
non-matching mappers.
"""
def __init__(
self,
entity,
equivalents=None,
adapt_required=False,
allow_label_resolve=True,
anonymize_labels=False,
):
info = inspection.inspect(entity)
self.mapper = info.mapper
selectable = info.selectable
is_aliased_class = info.is_aliased_class
if is_aliased_class:
self.aliased_class = entity
else:
self.aliased_class = None
sql_util.ColumnAdapter.__init__(
self,
selectable,
equivalents,
adapt_required=adapt_required,
allow_label_resolve=allow_label_resolve,
anonymize_labels=anonymize_labels,
include_fn=self._include_fn,
)
def _include_fn(self, elem):
entity = elem._annotations.get("parentmapper", None)
return not entity or entity.isa(self.mapper)
class AliasedClass(object):
r"""Represents an "aliased" form of a mapped class for usage with Query.
The ORM equivalent of a :func:`~sqlalchemy.sql.expression.alias`
construct, this object mimics the mapped class using a
``__getattr__`` scheme and maintains a reference to a
real :class:`~sqlalchemy.sql.expression.Alias` object.
A primary purpose of :class:`.AliasedClass` is to serve as an alternate
within a SQL statement generated by the ORM, such that an existing
mapped entity can be used in multiple contexts. A simple example::
# find all pairs of users with the same name
user_alias = aliased(User)
session.query(User, user_alias).\
join((user_alias, User.id > user_alias.id)).\
filter(User.name == user_alias.name)
:class:`.AliasedClass` is also capable of mapping an existing mapped
class to an entirely new selectable, provided this selectable is column-
compatible with the existing mapped selectable, and it can also be
configured in a mapping as the target of a :func:`.relationship`.
See the links below for examples.
The :class:`.AliasedClass` object is constructed typically using the
:func:`.orm.aliased` function. It also is produced with additional
configuration when using the :func:`.orm.with_polymorphic` function.
The resulting object is an instance of :class:`.AliasedClass`.
This object implements an attribute scheme which produces the
same attribute and method interface as the original mapped
class, allowing :class:`.AliasedClass` to be compatible
with any attribute technique which works on the original class,
including hybrid attributes (see :ref:`hybrids_toplevel`).
The :class:`.AliasedClass` can be inspected for its underlying
:class:`.Mapper`, aliased selectable, and other information
using :func:`.inspect`::
from sqlalchemy import inspect
my_alias = aliased(MyClass)
insp = inspect(my_alias)
The resulting inspection object is an instance of :class:`.AliasedInsp`.
.. seealso::
:func:`.aliased`
:func:`.with_polymorphic`
:ref:`relationship_aliased_class`
:ref:`relationship_to_window_function`
"""
def __init__(
self,
cls,
alias=None,
name=None,
flat=False,
adapt_on_names=False,
# TODO: None for default here?
with_polymorphic_mappers=(),
with_polymorphic_discriminator=None,
base_alias=None,
use_mapper_path=False,
represents_outer_join=False,
):
mapper = _class_to_mapper(cls)
if alias is None:
alias = mapper._with_polymorphic_selectable._anonymous_fromclause(
name=name, flat=flat
)
self._aliased_insp = AliasedInsp(
self,
mapper,
alias,
name,
with_polymorphic_mappers
if with_polymorphic_mappers
else mapper.with_polymorphic_mappers,
with_polymorphic_discriminator
if with_polymorphic_discriminator is not None
else mapper.polymorphic_on,
base_alias,
use_mapper_path,
adapt_on_names,
represents_outer_join,
)
self.__name__ = "AliasedClass_%s" % mapper.class_.__name__
def __getattr__(self, key):
try:
_aliased_insp = self.__dict__["_aliased_insp"]
except KeyError:
raise AttributeError()
else:
target = _aliased_insp._target
# maintain all getattr mechanics
attr = getattr(target, key)
# attribute is a method, that will be invoked against a
# "self"; so just return a new method with the same function and
# new self
if hasattr(attr, "__call__") and hasattr(attr, "__self__"):
return types.MethodType(attr.__func__, self)
# attribute is a descriptor, that will be invoked against a
# "self"; so invoke the descriptor against this self
if hasattr(attr, "__get__"):
attr = attr.__get__(None, self)
# attributes within the QueryableAttribute system will want this
# to be invoked so the object can be adapted
if hasattr(attr, "adapt_to_entity"):
attr = attr.adapt_to_entity(_aliased_insp)
setattr(self, key, attr)
return attr
def __repr__(self):
return "<AliasedClass at 0x%x; %s>" % (
id(self),
self._aliased_insp._target.__name__,
)
def __str__(self):
return str(self._aliased_insp)
class AliasedInsp(InspectionAttr):
"""Provide an inspection interface for an
:class:`.AliasedClass` object.
The :class:`.AliasedInsp` object is returned
given an :class:`.AliasedClass` using the
:func:`.inspect` function::
from sqlalchemy import inspect
from sqlalchemy.orm import aliased
my_alias = aliased(MyMappedClass)
insp = inspect(my_alias)
Attributes on :class:`.AliasedInsp`
include:
* ``entity`` - the :class:`.AliasedClass` represented.
* ``mapper`` - the :class:`.Mapper` mapping the underlying class.
* ``selectable`` - the :class:`.Alias` construct which ultimately
represents an aliased :class:`.Table` or :class:`.Select`
construct.
* ``name`` - the name of the alias. Also is used as the attribute
name when returned in a result tuple from :class:`.Query`.
* ``with_polymorphic_mappers`` - collection of :class:`.Mapper` objects
indicating all those mappers expressed in the select construct
for the :class:`.AliasedClass`.
* ``polymorphic_on`` - an alternate column or SQL expression which
will be used as the "discriminator" for a polymorphic load.
.. seealso::
:ref:`inspection_toplevel`
"""
def __init__(
self,
entity,
mapper,
selectable,
name,
with_polymorphic_mappers,
polymorphic_on,
_base_alias,
_use_mapper_path,
adapt_on_names,
represents_outer_join,
):
self.entity = entity
self.mapper = mapper
self.selectable = (
self.persist_selectable
) = self.local_table = selectable
self.name = name
self.polymorphic_on = polymorphic_on
self._base_alias = _base_alias or self
self._use_mapper_path = _use_mapper_path
self.represents_outer_join = represents_outer_join
if with_polymorphic_mappers:
self._is_with_polymorphic = True
self.with_polymorphic_mappers = with_polymorphic_mappers
self._with_polymorphic_entities = []
for poly in self.with_polymorphic_mappers:
if poly is not mapper:
ent = AliasedClass(
poly.class_,
selectable,
base_alias=self,
adapt_on_names=adapt_on_names,
use_mapper_path=_use_mapper_path,
)
setattr(self.entity, poly.class_.__name__, ent)
self._with_polymorphic_entities.append(ent._aliased_insp)
else:
self._is_with_polymorphic = False
self.with_polymorphic_mappers = [mapper]
self._adapter = sql_util.ColumnAdapter(
selectable,
equivalents=mapper._equivalent_columns,
adapt_on_names=adapt_on_names,
anonymize_labels=True,
)
self._adapt_on_names = adapt_on_names
self._target = mapper.class_
is_aliased_class = True
"always returns True"
def __clause_element__(self):
return self.selectable
@property
def class_(self):
"""Return the mapped class ultimately represented by this
:class:`.AliasedInsp`."""
return self.mapper.class_
@util.memoized_property
def _path_registry(self):
if self._use_mapper_path:
return self.mapper._path_registry
else:
return PathRegistry.per_mapper(self)
def __getstate__(self):
return {
"entity": self.entity,
"mapper": self.mapper,
"alias": self.selectable,
"name": self.name,
"adapt_on_names": self._adapt_on_names,
"with_polymorphic_mappers": self.with_polymorphic_mappers,
"with_polymorphic_discriminator": self.polymorphic_on,
"base_alias": self._base_alias,
"use_mapper_path": self._use_mapper_path,
"represents_outer_join": self.represents_outer_join,
}
def __setstate__(self, state):
self.__init__(
state["entity"],
state["mapper"],
state["alias"],
state["name"],
state["with_polymorphic_mappers"],
state["with_polymorphic_discriminator"],
state["base_alias"],
state["use_mapper_path"],
state["adapt_on_names"],
state["represents_outer_join"],
)
def _adapt_element(self, elem):
return self._adapter.traverse(elem)._annotate(
{"parententity": self, "parentmapper": self.mapper}
)
def _entity_for_mapper(self, mapper):
self_poly = self.with_polymorphic_mappers
if mapper in self_poly:
if mapper is self.mapper:
return self
else:
return getattr(
self.entity, mapper.class_.__name__
)._aliased_insp
elif mapper.isa(self.mapper):
return self
else:
assert False, "mapper %s doesn't correspond to %s" % (mapper, self)
@util.memoized_property
def _get_clause(self):
onclause, replacemap = self.mapper._get_clause
return (
self._adapter.traverse(onclause),
{
self._adapter.traverse(col): param
for col, param in replacemap.items()
},
)
@util.memoized_property
def _memoized_values(self):
return {}
def _memo(self, key, callable_, *args, **kw):
if key in self._memoized_values:
return self._memoized_values[key]
else:
self._memoized_values[key] = value = callable_(*args, **kw)
return value
def __repr__(self):
if self.with_polymorphic_mappers:
with_poly = "(%s)" % ", ".join(
mp.class_.__name__ for mp in self.with_polymorphic_mappers
)
else:
with_poly = ""
return "<AliasedInsp at 0x%x; %s%s>" % (
id(self),
self.class_.__name__,
with_poly,
)
def __str__(self):
if self._is_with_polymorphic:
return "with_polymorphic(%s, [%s])" % (
self._target.__name__,
", ".join(
mp.class_.__name__
for mp in self.with_polymorphic_mappers
if mp is not self.mapper
),
)
else:
return "aliased(%s)" % (self._target.__name__,)
inspection._inspects(AliasedClass)(lambda target: target._aliased_insp)
inspection._inspects(AliasedInsp)(lambda target: target)
def aliased(element, alias=None, name=None, flat=False, adapt_on_names=False):
"""Produce an alias of the given element, usually an :class:`.AliasedClass`
instance.
E.g.::
my_alias = aliased(MyClass)
session.query(MyClass, my_alias).filter(MyClass.id > my_alias.id)
The :func:`.aliased` function is used to create an ad-hoc mapping
of a mapped class to a new selectable. By default, a selectable
is generated from the normally mapped selectable (typically a
:class:`.Table`) using the :meth:`.FromClause.alias` method.
However, :func:`.aliased` can also be used to link the class to
a new :func:`.select` statement. Also, the :func:`.with_polymorphic`
function is a variant of :func:`.aliased` that is intended to specify
a so-called "polymorphic selectable", that corresponds to the union
of several joined-inheritance subclasses at once.
For convenience, the :func:`.aliased` function also accepts plain
:class:`.FromClause` constructs, such as a :class:`.Table` or
:func:`.select` construct. In those cases, the :meth:`.FromClause.alias`
method is called on the object and the new :class:`.Alias` object
returned. The returned :class:`.Alias` is not ORM-mapped in this case.
:param element: element to be aliased. Is normally a mapped class,
but for convenience can also be a :class:`.FromClause` element.
:param alias: Optional selectable unit to map the element to. This should
normally be a :class:`.Alias` object corresponding to the :class:`.Table`
to which the class is mapped, or to a :func:`.select` construct that
is compatible with the mapping. By default, a simple anonymous
alias of the mapped table is generated.
:param name: optional string name to use for the alias, if not specified
by the ``alias`` parameter. The name, among other things, forms the
attribute name that will be accessible via tuples returned by a
:class:`.Query` object.
:param flat: Boolean, will be passed through to the
:meth:`.FromClause.alias` call so that aliases of :class:`.Join` objects
don't include an enclosing SELECT. This can lead to more efficient
queries in many circumstances. A JOIN against a nested JOIN will be
rewritten as a JOIN against an aliased SELECT subquery on backends that
don't support this syntax.
.. versionadded:: 0.9.0
.. seealso:: :meth:`.Join.alias`
:param adapt_on_names: if True, more liberal "matching" will be used when
mapping the mapped columns of the ORM entity to those of the
given selectable - a name-based match will be performed if the
given selectable doesn't otherwise have a column that corresponds
to one on the entity. The use case for this is when associating
an entity with some derived selectable such as one that uses
aggregate functions::
class UnitPrice(Base):
__tablename__ = 'unit_price'
...
unit_id = Column(Integer)
price = Column(Numeric)
aggregated_unit_price = Session.query(
func.sum(UnitPrice.price).label('price')
).group_by(UnitPrice.unit_id).subquery()
aggregated_unit_price = aliased(UnitPrice,
alias=aggregated_unit_price, adapt_on_names=True)
Above, functions on ``aggregated_unit_price`` which refer to
``.price`` will return the
``func.sum(UnitPrice.price).label('price')`` column, as it is
matched on the name "price". Ordinarily, the "price" function
wouldn't have any "column correspondence" to the actual
``UnitPrice.price`` column as it is not a proxy of the original.
"""
if isinstance(element, expression.FromClause):
if adapt_on_names:
raise sa_exc.ArgumentError(
"adapt_on_names only applies to ORM elements"
)
return coercions.expect(
roles.AnonymizedFromClauseRole, element, name=name, flat=flat
)
else:
return AliasedClass(
element,
alias=alias,
flat=flat,
name=name,
adapt_on_names=adapt_on_names,
)
def with_polymorphic(
base,
classes,
selectable=False,
flat=False,
polymorphic_on=None,
aliased=False,
innerjoin=False,
_use_mapper_path=False,
_existing_alias=None,
):
"""Produce an :class:`.AliasedClass` construct which specifies
columns for descendant mappers of the given base.
Using this method will ensure that each descendant mapper's
tables are included in the FROM clause, and will allow filter()
criterion to be used against those tables. The resulting
instances will also have those columns already loaded so that
no "post fetch" of those columns will be required.
.. seealso::
:ref:`with_polymorphic` - full discussion of
:func:`.orm.with_polymorphic`.
:param base: Base class to be aliased.
:param classes: a single class or mapper, or list of
class/mappers, which inherit from the base class.
Alternatively, it may also be the string ``'*'``, in which case
all descending mapped classes will be added to the FROM clause.
:param aliased: when True, the selectable will be wrapped in an
alias, that is ``(SELECT * FROM <fromclauses>) AS anon_1``.
This can be important when using the with_polymorphic()
to create the target of a JOIN on a backend that does not
support parenthesized joins, such as SQLite and older
versions of MySQL. However if the
:paramref:`.with_polymorphic.selectable` parameter is in use
with an existing :class:`.Alias` construct, then you should not
set this flag.
:param flat: Boolean, will be passed through to the
:meth:`.FromClause.alias` call so that aliases of :class:`.Join`
objects don't include an enclosing SELECT. This can lead to more
efficient queries in many circumstances. A JOIN against a nested JOIN
will be rewritten as a JOIN against an aliased SELECT subquery on
backends that don't support this syntax.
Setting ``flat`` to ``True`` implies the ``aliased`` flag is
also ``True``.
.. versionadded:: 0.9.0
.. seealso:: :meth:`.Join.alias`
:param selectable: a table or subquery that will
be used in place of the generated FROM clause. This argument is
required if any of the desired classes use concrete table
inheritance, since SQLAlchemy currently cannot generate UNIONs
among tables automatically. If used, the ``selectable`` argument
must represent the full set of tables and columns mapped by every
mapped class. Otherwise, the unaccounted mapped columns will
result in their table being appended directly to the FROM clause
which will usually lead to incorrect results.
:param polymorphic_on: a column to be used as the "discriminator"
column for the given selectable. If not given, the polymorphic_on
attribute of the base classes' mapper will be used, if any. This
is useful for mappings that don't have polymorphic loading
behavior by default.
:param innerjoin: if True, an INNER JOIN will be used. This should
only be specified if querying for one specific subtype only
"""
primary_mapper = _class_to_mapper(base)
if _existing_alias:
assert _existing_alias.mapper is primary_mapper
classes = util.to_set(classes)
new_classes = set(
[mp.class_ for mp in _existing_alias.with_polymorphic_mappers]
)
if classes == new_classes:
return _existing_alias
else:
classes = classes.union(new_classes)
mappers, selectable = primary_mapper._with_polymorphic_args(
classes, selectable, innerjoin=innerjoin
)
if aliased or flat:
selectable = selectable._anonymous_fromclause(flat=flat)
return AliasedClass(
base,
selectable,
with_polymorphic_mappers=mappers,
with_polymorphic_discriminator=polymorphic_on,
use_mapper_path=_use_mapper_path,
represents_outer_join=not innerjoin,
)
def _orm_annotate(element, exclude=None):
"""Deep copy the given ClauseElement, annotating each element with the
"_orm_adapt" flag.
Elements within the exclude collection will be cloned but not annotated.
"""
return sql_util._deep_annotate(element, {"_orm_adapt": True}, exclude)
def _orm_deannotate(element):
"""Remove annotations that link a column to a particular mapping.
Note this doesn't affect "remote" and "foreign" annotations
passed by the :func:`.orm.foreign` and :func:`.orm.remote`
annotators.
"""
return sql_util._deep_deannotate(
element, values=("_orm_adapt", "parententity")
)
def _orm_full_deannotate(element):
return sql_util._deep_deannotate(element)
class _ORMJoin(expression.Join):
"""Extend Join to support ORM constructs as input."""
__visit_name__ = expression.Join.__visit_name__
def __init__(
self,
left,
right,
onclause=None,
isouter=False,
full=False,
_left_memo=None,
_right_memo=None,
):
left_info = inspection.inspect(left)
left_orm_info = getattr(left, "_joined_from_info", left_info)
right_info = inspection.inspect(right)
adapt_to = right_info.selectable
self._joined_from_info = right_info
self._left_memo = _left_memo
self._right_memo = _right_memo
if isinstance(onclause, util.string_types):
onclause = getattr(left_orm_info.entity, onclause)
if isinstance(onclause, attributes.QueryableAttribute):
on_selectable = onclause.comparator._source_selectable()
prop = onclause.property
elif isinstance(onclause, MapperProperty):
prop = onclause
on_selectable = prop.parent.selectable
else:
prop = None
if prop:
if sql_util.clause_is_present(on_selectable, left_info.selectable):
adapt_from = on_selectable
else:
adapt_from = left_info.selectable
(
pj,
sj,
source,
dest,
secondary,
target_adapter,
) = prop._create_joins(
source_selectable=adapt_from,
dest_selectable=adapt_to,
source_polymorphic=True,
dest_polymorphic=True,
of_type_mapper=right_info.mapper,
)
if sj is not None:
if isouter:
# note this is an inner join from secondary->right
right = sql.join(secondary, right, sj)
onclause = pj
else:
left = sql.join(left, secondary, pj, isouter)
onclause = sj
else:
onclause = pj
self._target_adapter = target_adapter
expression.Join.__init__(self, left, right, onclause, isouter, full)
if (
not prop
and getattr(right_info, "mapper", None)
and right_info.mapper.single
):
# if single inheritance target and we are using a manual
# or implicit ON clause, augment it the same way we'd augment the
# WHERE.
single_crit = right_info.mapper._single_table_criterion
if single_crit is not None:
if right_info.is_aliased_class:
single_crit = right_info._adapter.traverse(single_crit)
self.onclause = self.onclause & single_crit
def _splice_into_center(self, other):
"""Splice a join into the center.
Given join(a, b) and join(b, c), return join(a, b).join(c)
"""
leftmost = other
while isinstance(leftmost, sql.Join):
leftmost = leftmost.left
assert self.right is leftmost
left = _ORMJoin(
self.left,
other.left,
self.onclause,
isouter=self.isouter,
_left_memo=self._left_memo,
_right_memo=other._left_memo,
)
return _ORMJoin(
left,
other.right,
other.onclause,
isouter=other.isouter,
_right_memo=other._right_memo,
)
def join(
self,
right,
onclause=None,
isouter=False,
full=False,
join_to_left=None,
):
return _ORMJoin(self, right, onclause, full=full, isouter=isouter)
def outerjoin(self, right, onclause=None, full=False, join_to_left=None):
return _ORMJoin(self, right, onclause, isouter=True, full=full)
def join(
left, right, onclause=None, isouter=False, full=False, join_to_left=None
):
r"""Produce an inner join between left and right clauses.
:func:`.orm.join` is an extension to the core join interface
provided by :func:`.sql.expression.join()`, where the
left and right selectables may be not only core selectable
objects such as :class:`.Table`, but also mapped classes or
:class:`.AliasedClass` instances. The "on" clause can
be a SQL expression, or an attribute or string name
referencing a configured :func:`.relationship`.
:func:`.orm.join` is not commonly needed in modern usage,
as its functionality is encapsulated within that of the
:meth:`.Query.join` method, which features a
significant amount of automation beyond :func:`.orm.join`
by itself. Explicit usage of :func:`.orm.join`
with :class:`.Query` involves usage of the
:meth:`.Query.select_from` method, as in::
from sqlalchemy.orm import join
session.query(User).\
select_from(join(User, Address, User.addresses)).\
filter(Address.email_address=='foo@bar.com')
In modern SQLAlchemy the above join can be written more
succinctly as::
session.query(User).\
join(User.addresses).\
filter(Address.email_address=='foo@bar.com')
See :meth:`.Query.join` for information on modern usage
of ORM level joins.
.. deprecated:: 0.8
the ``join_to_left`` parameter is deprecated, and will be removed
in a future release. The parameter has no effect.
"""
return _ORMJoin(left, right, onclause, isouter, full)
def outerjoin(left, right, onclause=None, full=False, join_to_left=None):
"""Produce a left outer join between left and right clauses.
This is the "outer join" version of the :func:`.orm.join` function,
featuring the same behavior except that an OUTER JOIN is generated.
See that function's documentation for other usage details.
"""
return _ORMJoin(left, right, onclause, True, full)
def with_parent(instance, prop, from_entity=None):
"""Create filtering criterion that relates this query's primary entity
to the given related instance, using established :func:`.relationship()`
configuration.
The SQL rendered is the same as that rendered when a lazy loader
would fire off from the given parent on that attribute, meaning
that the appropriate state is taken from the parent object in
Python without the need to render joins to the parent table
in the rendered statement.
:param instance:
An instance which has some :func:`.relationship`.
:param property:
String property name, or class-bound attribute, which indicates
what relationship from the instance should be used to reconcile the
parent/child relationship.
:param from_entity:
Entity in which to consider as the left side. This defaults to the
"zero" entity of the :class:`.Query` itself.
.. versionadded:: 1.2
"""
if isinstance(prop, util.string_types):
mapper = object_mapper(instance)
prop = getattr(mapper.class_, prop).property
elif isinstance(prop, attributes.QueryableAttribute):
prop = prop.property
return prop._with_parent(instance, from_entity=from_entity)
def has_identity(object_):
"""Return True if the given object has a database
identity.
This typically corresponds to the object being
in either the persistent or detached state.
.. seealso::
:func:`.was_deleted`
"""
state = attributes.instance_state(object_)
return state.has_identity
def was_deleted(object_):
"""Return True if the given object was deleted
within a session flush.
This is regardless of whether or not the object is
persistent or detached.
.. seealso::
:attr:`.InstanceState.was_deleted`
"""
state = attributes.instance_state(object_)
return state.was_deleted
def _entity_corresponds_to(given, entity):
"""determine if 'given' corresponds to 'entity', in terms
of an entity passed to Query that would match the same entity
being referred to elsewhere in the query.
"""
if entity.is_aliased_class:
if given.is_aliased_class:
if entity._base_alias is given._base_alias:
return True
return False
elif given.is_aliased_class:
if given._use_mapper_path:
return entity in given.with_polymorphic_mappers
else:
return entity is given
return entity.common_parent(given)
def _entity_corresponds_to_use_path_impl(given, entity):
"""determine if 'given' corresponds to 'entity', in terms
of a path of loader options where a mapped attribute is taken to
be a member of a parent entity.
e.g.::
someoption(A).someoption(A.b) # -> fn(A, A) -> True
someoption(A).someoption(C.d) # -> fn(A, C) -> False
a1 = aliased(A)
someoption(a1).someoption(A.b) # -> fn(a1, A) -> False
someoption(a1).someoption(a1.b) # -> fn(a1, a1) -> True
wp = with_polymorphic(A, [A1, A2])
someoption(wp).someoption(A1.foo) # -> fn(wp, A1) -> False
someoption(wp).someoption(wp.A1.foo) # -> fn(wp, wp.A1) -> True
"""
if given.is_aliased_class:
return (
entity.is_aliased_class
and not entity._use_mapper_path
and (given is entity or given in entity._with_polymorphic_entities)
)
elif not entity.is_aliased_class:
return given.common_parent(entity.mapper)
else:
return (
entity._use_mapper_path
and given in entity.with_polymorphic_mappers
)
def _entity_isa(given, mapper):
"""determine if 'given' "is a" mapper, in terms of the given
would load rows of type 'mapper'.
"""
if given.is_aliased_class:
return mapper in given.with_polymorphic_mappers or given.mapper.isa(
mapper
)
elif given.with_polymorphic_mappers:
return mapper in given.with_polymorphic_mappers
else:
return given.isa(mapper)
def randomize_unitofwork():
"""Use random-ordering sets within the unit of work in order
to detect unit of work sorting issues.
This is a utility function that can be used to help reproduce
inconsistent unit of work sorting issues. For example,
if two kinds of objects A and B are being inserted, and
B has a foreign key reference to A - the A must be inserted first.
However, if there is no relationship between A and B, the unit of work
won't know to perform this sorting, and an operation may or may not
fail, depending on how the ordering works out. Since Python sets
and dictionaries have non-deterministic ordering, such an issue may
occur on some runs and not on others, and in practice it tends to
have a great dependence on the state of the interpreter. This leads
to so-called "heisenbugs" where changing entirely irrelevant aspects
of the test program still cause the failure behavior to change.
By calling ``randomize_unitofwork()`` when a script first runs, the
ordering of a key series of sets within the unit of work implementation
are randomized, so that the script can be minimized down to the
fundamental mapping and operation that's failing, while still reproducing
the issue on at least some runs.
This utility is also available when running the test suite via the
``--reversetop`` flag.
"""
from sqlalchemy.orm import unitofwork, session, mapper, dependency
from sqlalchemy.util import topological
from sqlalchemy.testing.util import RandomSet
topological.set = (
unitofwork.set
) = session.set = mapper.set = dependency.set = RandomSet
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