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function Reset-DbaAdmin {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
This function allows administrators to regain access to SQL Servers in the event that passwords or access was lost.
Supports SQL Server 2005 and above. Windows administrator access is required.
.DESCRIPTION
This function allows administrators to regain access to local or remote SQL Servers by either resetting the sa password, adding the sysadmin role to existing login, or adding a new login (SQL or Windows) and granting it sysadmin privileges.
This is accomplished by stopping the SQL services or SQL Clustered Resource Group, then restarting SQL via the command-line using the /mReset-DbaAdmin parameter which starts the server in Single-User mode and only allows this script to connect.
Once the service is restarted, the following tasks are performed:
- Login is added if it doesn't exist
- If login is a Windows User, an attempt is made to ensure it exists
- If login is a SQL Login, password policy will be set to OFF when creating the login, and SQL Server authentication will be set to Mixed Mode.
- Login will be enabled and unlocked
- Login will be added to sysadmin role
If failures occur at any point, a best attempt is made to restart the SQL Server.
In order to make this script as portable as possible, System.Data.SqlClient and Get-WmiObject are used (as opposed to requiring the Failover Cluster Admin tools or SMO).
If using this function against a remote SQL Server, ensure WinRM is configured and accessible. If this is not possible, run the script locally.
Tested on Windows XP, 7, 8.1, Server 2012 and Windows Server Technical Preview 2.
Tested on SQL Server 2005 SP4 through 2016 CTP2.
.PARAMETER SqlInstance
The target SQL Server instance or instances. SQL Server must be 2005 and above, and can be a clustered or stand-alone instance.
.PARAMETER Login
By default, the Login parameter is "sa" but any other SQL or Windows account can be specified. If a login does not currently exist, it will be added.
When adding a Windows login to remote servers, ensure the SQL Server can add the login (ie, don't add WORKSTATION\Admin to remoteserver\instance. Domain users and Groups are valid input.
.PARAMETER SecurePassword
By default, if a SQL Login is detected, you will be prompted for a password. Use this to securely bypass the prompt.
.PARAMETER WhatIf
If this switch is enabled, no actions are performed but informational messages will be displayed that explain what would happen if the command were to run.
.PARAMETER Confirm
If this switch is enabled, you will be prompted for confirmation before executing any operations that change state.
.PARAMETER Force
If this switch is enabled, the Login(s) will be dropped and recreated on Destination. Logins that own Agent jobs cannot be dropped at this time.
.PARAMETER EnableException
By default, when something goes wrong we try to catch it, interpret it and give you a friendly warning message.
This avoids overwhelming you with "sea of red" exceptions, but is inconvenient because it basically disables advanced scripting.
Using this switch turns this "nice by default" feature off and enables you to catch exceptions with your own try/catch.
.NOTES
Tags: WSMan
Author: Chrissy LeMaire (@cl), netnerds.net
Website: https://dbatools.io
Copyright: (c) 2018 by dbatools, licensed under MIT
License: MIT https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
Requires: Admin access to server (not SQL Services),
Remoting must be enabled and accessible if $SqlInstance is not local
.LINK
https://dbatools.io/Reset-DbaAdmin
.EXAMPLE
PS C:\> Reset-DbaAdmin -SqlInstance sqlcluster
Prompts for password, then resets the "sa" account password on sqlcluster.
.EXAMPLE
PS C:\> Reset-DbaAdmin -SqlInstance sqlserver\sqlexpress -Login ad\administrator
Prompts user to confirm that they understand the SQL Service will be restarted.
Adds the domain account "ad\administrator" as a sysadmin to the SQL instance.
If the account already exists, it will be added to the sysadmin role.
.EXAMPLE
PS C:\> Reset-DbaAdmin -SqlInstance sqlserver\sqlexpress -Login sqladmin -Force
Skips restart confirmation, prompts for password, then adds a SQL Login "sqladmin" with sysadmin privileges.
If the account already exists, it will be added to the sysadmin role and the password will be reset.
#>
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess = $true, ConfirmImpact = "High")]
[Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingWMICmdlet", "", Justification = "Using Get-WmiObject for client backwards compatibilty")]
param (
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
[DbaInstanceParameter]
$SqlInstance,
[string]$Login = "sa",
[SecureString]$SecurePassword,
[switch]$Force,
[Alias('Silent')]
[switch]$EnableException
)
begin {
Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn "1.0.0" -EnableException:$false -Alias Reset-SqlAdmin
#region Utility functions
function ConvertTo-PlainText {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Internal function.
#>
[CmdletBinding()]
param (
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[Security.SecureString]
$Password
)
$marshal = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]
$plaintext = $marshal::PtrToStringAuto($marshal::SecureStringToBSTR($Password))
return $plaintext
}
function Invoke-ResetSqlCmd {
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Internal function. Executes a SQL statement against specified computer, and uses "Reset-DbaAdmin" as the Application Name.
#>
[OutputType([System.Boolean])]
[CmdletBinding()]
param (
[Parameter(Mandatory)]
[Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
[DbaInstanceParameter]
$SqlInstance,
[string]$sql
)
try {
$connstring = "Data Source=$SqlInstance;Integrated Security=True;Connect Timeout=2;Application Name=Reset-DbaAdmin"
$conn = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection $connstring
$conn.Open()
$cmd = New-Object system.data.sqlclient.sqlcommand($null, $conn)
$cmd.CommandText = $sql
$cmd.ExecuteNonQuery() | Out-Null
$cmd.Dispose()
$conn.Close()
$conn.Dispose()
return $true
} catch {
return $false
}
}
#endregion Utility functions
}
process {
if ($Force) {
$ConfirmPreference = "none"
}
$baseaddress = $SqlInstance.ComputerName
# Before we continue, we need confirmation.
if ($pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($baseaddress, "Reset-DbaAdmin (SQL Server instance $SqlInstance will restart)")) {
# Get hostname
if ($baseaddress -eq "." -or $baseaddress -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME -or $baseaddress -eq "localhost") {
$ipaddr = "."
$hostname = $env:COMPUTERNAME
$baseaddress = $env:COMPUTERNAME
}
# If server is not local, get IP address and NetBios name in case CNAME records were referenced in the SQL hostname
if ($baseaddress -ne $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
# Test for WinRM #Test-WinRM neh
winrm id -r:$baseaddress 2>$null | Out-Null
if ($LastExitCode -ne 0) {
throw "Remote PowerShell access not enabled on on $source or access denied. Quitting."
}
# Test Connection first using Test-Connection which requires ICMP access then failback to tcp if pings are blocked
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Testing connection to $baseaddress"
$testconnect = Test-Connection -ComputerName $baseaddress -Count 1 -Quiet
if ($testconnect -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "First attempt using ICMP failed. Trying to connect using sockets. This may take up to 20 seconds."
$tcp = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TcpClient
try {
$tcp.Connect($hostname, 135)
$tcp.Close()
$tcp.Dispose()
} catch {
throw "Can't connect to $baseaddress either via ping or tcp (WMI port 135)"
}
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Resolving IP address."
try {
$hostentry = [System.Net.Dns]::GetHostEntry($baseaddress)
$ipaddr = ($hostentry.AddressList | Where-Object { $_ -notlike '169.*' } | Select-Object -First 1).IPAddressToString
} catch {
throw "Could not resolve SqlServer IP or NetBIOS name"
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Resolving NetBIOS name."
try {
$hostname = (Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration -Filter IPEnabled=TRUE -ComputerName $ipaddr).PSComputerName
if ($null -eq $hostname) {
$hostname = (nbtstat -A $ipaddr | Where-Object { $_ -match '\<00\> UNIQUE' } | ForEach-Object { $_.SubString(4, 14) }).Trim()
}
} catch {
throw "Could not access remote WMI object. Check permissions and firewall."
}
}
# Setup remote session if server is not local
if ($hostname -ne $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
try {
$session = New-PSSession -ComputerName $hostname
} catch {
throw "Can't access $hostname using PSSession. Check your firewall settings and ensure Remoting is enabled or run the script locally."
}
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Detecting login type."
# Is login a Windows login? If so, does it exist?
if ($login -match "\\") {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Windows login detected. Checking to ensure account is valid."
$windowslogin = $true
try {
if ($hostname -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
$account = New-Object System.Security.Principal.NTAccount($args)
#Variable $sid marked as unused by PSScriptAnalyzer replace with $null to catch output
$null = $account.Translate([System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier])
} else {
Invoke-Command -ErrorAction Stop -Session $session -ArgumentList $login -ScriptBlock {
$account = New-Object System.Security.Principal.NTAccount($args)
#Variable $sid marked as unused by PSScriptAnalyzer replace with $null to catch output
$null = $account.Translate([System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier])
}
}
} catch {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Cannot resolve Windows User or Group $login. Trying anyway."
}
}
# If it's not a Windows login, it's a SQL login, so it needs a password.
if ($windowslogin -ne $true -and (Test-Bound -Not -ParameterName SecurePassword)) {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "SQL login detected"
do {
$Password = Read-Host -AsSecureString "Please enter a new password for $login"
}
while ($Password.Length -eq 0)
}
If ((Test-Bound -ParameterName SecurePassword)) {
$Password = $SecurePassword
}
# Get instance and service display name, then get services
$instance = $null
$instance = $SqlInstance.InstanceName
if (-not $instance) {
$instance = "MSSQLSERVER"
}
$displayName = "SQL Server ($instance)"
try {
if ($hostname -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
$instanceservices = Get-Service -ErrorAction Stop | Where-Object { $_.DisplayName -like "*($instance)*" -and $_.Status -eq "Running" }
$sqlservice = Get-Service -ErrorAction Stop | Where-Object DisplayName -eq "SQL Server ($instance)"
} else {
$instanceservices = Get-Service -ComputerName $ipaddr -ErrorAction Stop | Where-Object { $_.DisplayName -like "*($instance)*" -and $_.Status -eq "Running" }
$sqlservice = Get-Service -ComputerName $ipaddr -ErrorAction Stop | Where-Object DisplayName -eq "SQL Server ($instance)"
}
} catch {
Stop-Function -Message "Cannot connect to WMI on $hostname or SQL Service does not exist. Check permissions, firewall and SQL Server running status." -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $SqlInstance
return
}
if (-not $instanceservices) {
Stop-Function -Message "Couldn't find SQL Server instance. Check the spelling, ensure the service is running and try again." -Target $SqlInstance
return
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Attempting to stop SQL Services."
# Check to see if service is clustered. Clusters don't support -m (since the cluster service
# itself connects immediately) or -f, so they are handled differently.
try {
$checkcluster = Get-Service -ComputerName $ipaddr -ErrorAction Stop | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "ClusSvc" -and $_.Status -eq "Running" }
} catch {
Stop-Function -Message "Can't check services." -Target $SqlInstance -ErrorRecord $_
return
}
if ($null -ne $checkcluster) {
$clusterResource = Get-DbaCmObject -ClassName "MSCluster_Resource" -Namespace "root\mscluster" -ComputerName $hostname |
Where-Object { $_.Name.StartsWith("SQL Server") -and $_.OwnerGroup -eq "SQL Server ($instance)" }
}
# Take SQL Server offline so that it can be started in single-user mode
if ($clusterResource.count -gt 0) {
$isclustered = $true
try {
$clusterResource | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "SQL Server" } | ForEach-Object { $_.TakeOffline(60) }
} catch {
$clusterResource | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "SQL Server" } | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
$clusterResource | Where-Object { $_.Name -ne "SQL Server" } | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
Stop-Function -Message "Could not stop the SQL Service. Restarted SQL Service and quit." -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $SqlInstance
return
}
} else {
try {
Stop-Service -InputObject $sqlservice -Force -ErrorAction Stop
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully stopped SQL service."
} catch {
Start-Service -InputObject $instanceservices -ErrorAction Stop
Stop-Function -Message "Could not stop the SQL Service. Restarted SQL service and quit." -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $SqlInstance
return
}
}
# /mReset-DbaAdmin Starts an instance of SQL Server in single-user mode and only allows this script to connect.
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Starting SQL Service from command line."
try {
if ($hostname -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
$netstart = net start ""$displayname"" /mReset-DbaAdmin 2>&1
if ("$netstart" -notmatch "success") {
throw
}
} else {
$netstart = Invoke-Command -ErrorAction Stop -Session $session -ArgumentList $displayname -ScriptBlock { net start ""$args"" /mReset-DbaAdmin } 2>&1
foreach ($line in $netstart) {
if ($line.length -gt 0) { Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message $line }
}
}
} catch {
Stop-Service -InputObject $sqlservice -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if ($isclustered) {
$clusterResource | Where-Object Name -eq "SQL Server" | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
$clusterResource | Where-Object Name -ne "SQL Server" | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
} else {
Start-Service -InputObject $instanceservices -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
}
Stop-Function -Message "Couldn't execute net start command. Restarted services and quit." -ErrorRecord $_
return
}
try {
$null = Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql "SELECT 1" -ErrorAction Stop
} catch {
try {
Start-Sleep 3
$null = Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql "SELECT 1" -ErrorAction Stop
} catch {
Stop-Service Input-Object $sqlservice -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if ($isclustered) {
$clusterResource | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq "SQL Server" } | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
$clusterResource | Where-Object { $_.Name -ne "SQL Server" } | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
} else {
Start-Service -InputObject $instanceservices -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
}
Stop-Function -Message "Could not stop the SQL Service. Restarted SQL Service and quit." -ErrorRecord $_
}
}
# Get login. If it doesn't exist, create it.
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Adding login $login if it doesn't exist."
if ($windowslogin -eq $true) {
$sql = "IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT name FROM master.sys.server_principals WHERE name = '$login')
BEGIN CREATE LOGIN [$login] FROM WINDOWS END"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't create login."
}
} elseif ($login -ne "sa") {
# Create new sql user
$sql = "IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT name FROM master.sys.server_principals WHERE name = '$login')
BEGIN CREATE LOGIN [$login] WITH PASSWORD = '$(ConvertTo-PlainText $Password)', CHECK_POLICY = OFF, CHECK_EXPIRATION = OFF END"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't create login."
}
}
# If $login is a SQL Login, Mixed mode authentication is required.
if ($windowslogin -ne $true) {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Enabling mixed mode authentication."
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Ensuring account is unlocked."
$sql = "EXEC xp_instance_regwrite N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer', N'LoginMode', REG_DWORD, 2"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't set to Mixed Mode."
}
$sql = "ALTER LOGIN [$login] WITH CHECK_POLICY = OFF
ALTER LOGIN [$login] WITH PASSWORD = '$(ConvertTo-PlainText $Password)' UNLOCK"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't unlock account."
}
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Ensuring login is enabled."
$sql = "ALTER LOGIN [$login] ENABLE"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't enable login."
}
if ($login -ne "sa") {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Ensuring login exists within sysadmin role."
$sql = "EXEC sp_addsrvrolemember '$login', 'sysadmin'"
if ($(Invoke-ResetSqlCmd -SqlInstance $sqlinstance -Sql $sql) -eq $false) {
Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Couldn't add to sysadmin role."
}
}
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Finished with login tasks."
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Restarting SQL Server."
Stop-Service -InputObject $sqlservice -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if ($isclustered -eq $true) {
$clusterResource | Where-Object Name -eq "SQL Server" | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
$clusterResource | Where-Object Name -ne "SQL Server" | ForEach-Object { $_.BringOnline(60) }
} else {
Start-Service -InputObject $instanceservices -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
}
}
}
end {
Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Script complete!"
}
}