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A clone of ruby-gmp, a library providing Ruby bindings to GMP library
C Ruby TeX Shell eC
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benchmark Fixed benchmark paths; a better solution is needed!
ext GMP::Z can now be initialized from a Float or GMP::F
lib Ugly fix for non-1.9.3 regex :/
test Fixing no-mpfr test
.gitignore Fixed benchmark paths; a better solution is needed!
.travis.yml Adding compilers for travis; might not work with a Ruby project...
CHANGELOG GMP::Z can now be initialized from a Float or GMP::F Adding license
FEATURES.html Bookkeeping
Gemfile Adding Gemfile so new rake yard task works in Travis
Gemfile.lock Adding Gemfile so new rake yard task works in Travis
Makefile Updated README for GMP 5.1.0
README.html README tweaks
README.markdown GMP::Z can now be initialized from a Float or GMP::F
Rakefile adding the 'rake yard' task
gmp-x86-mswin32.gemspec Final tweaks before bump
manual.pdf gem bump!
manual_template.latex performance documentation; tweaks
performance.2012.html Cleaning Cleaning
performance.2012.pdf Cleaning Adding performance docs which are total works-in-progress minor doc updates



Build Status

gmp is a Rubygem providing Ruby bindings to the GMP library, and to the MPFR library (optional). Here is the introduction paragraph at GMP's homepage:

GMP is a free library for arbitrary precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers. There is no practical limit to the precision except the ones implied by the available memory in the machine GMP runs on. GMP has a rich set of functions, and the functions have a regular interface.

The main target applications for GMP are cryptography applications and research, Internet security applications, algebra systems, computational algebra research, etc.

GMP is carefully designed to be as fast as possible, both for small operands and for huge operands. The speed is achieved by using fullwords as the basic arithmetic type, by using fast algorithms, with highly optimised assembly code for the most common inner loops for a lot of CPUs, and by a general emphasis on speed.

GMP is faster than any other bignum library. The advantage for GMP increases with the operand sizes for many operations, since GMP uses asymptotically faster algorithms.

The first GMP release was made in 1991. It is continually developed and maintained, with a new release about once a year.

GMP is distributed under the GNU LGPL. This license makes the library free to use, share, and improve, and allows you to pass on the result. The license gives freedoms, but also sets firm restrictions on the use with non-free programs.

GMP is part of the GNU project. For more information about the GNU project, please see the official GNU web site.

GMP's main target platforms are Unix-type systems, such as GNU/Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Mac OS X/Darwin, BSD, AIX, etc. It also is known to work on Windoze in 32-bit mode.

GMP is brought to you by a team listed in the manual.

GMP is carefully developed and maintained, both technically and legally. We of course inspect and test contributed code carefully, but equally importantly we make sure we have the legal right to distribute the contributions, meaning users can safely use GMP. To achieve this, we will ask contributors to sign paperwork where they allow us to distribute their work."


  • GMP 4.3.x and GMP 5.x are each supported against Ruby (MRI) 1.9.x, 2.0.0, and 2.1.0. GMP 5.1.x is the only version of GMP that has been tested recently.
  • MPFR 3.x is supported.
  • Other Ruby platforms (such as Rubinius and JRuby) should be supported, but have not been tested recently.


Previously, on version 0.5.47, this gem was verified as functioning in the following combinations:

Platform Ruby GMP (MPFR)
Linux (Ubuntu NR 10.04) on x86 (32-bit) (MRI) Ruby 1.8.7 GMP 4.3.1 (2.4.2)
GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.1 GMP 4.3.1 (2.4.2)
GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.2 GMP 4.3.1 (2.4.2)
GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
Linux (Ubuntu 10.04) on x86_64 (64-bit) (MRI) Ruby 1.8.7 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.1 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.2 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(RBX) Rubinius 1.1.0 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
Mac OS X 10.6.8 on x86_64 (64-bit) (MRI) Ruby 1.8.7 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.5 (3.1.1)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.3 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.5 (3.1.1)
(RBX) Rubinius 1.1.0 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
Windows 7 on x86_64 (64-bit) (MRI) Ruby 1.8.7 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.1 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
(MRI) Ruby 1.9.2 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)
Windows XP on x86 (32-bit) (MRI) Ruby 1.9.1 GMP 4.3.2 (2.4.2)
GMP 5.0.1 (3.0.0)


  • Tomasz Wegrzanowski
  • srawlins


The GMP module includes the following constants. Mathematical constants, such as pi, are defined under class methods of GMP::F, listed below.

  • GMP::GMP_VERSION - A string like "5.0.1"
  • GMP::GMP_CC - The compiler used to compile GMP
  • GMP::GMP_CFLAGS - The CFLAGS used to compile GMP
  • GMP::GMP_BITS_PER_LIMB The number of bits per limb
  • GMP::GMP_NUMB_MAX - The maximum value that can be stored in the number part of a limb

If MPFR is available:

  • GMP::MPFR_VERSION - A string like "2.4.2"
  • GMP::MPFR_PREC_MIN - The minimum precision available
  • GMP::MPFR_PREC_MAX - The maximum precision available
  • GMP::GMP_RNDN - The constant representing "round to nearest"
  • GMP::GMP_RNDZ - The constant representing "round toward zero"
  • GMP::GMP_RNDU - The constant representing "round toward plus infinity"
  • GMP::GMP_RNDD - The constant representing "round toward minus infinity"

New in MPFR 3.0.0:

  • GMP::MPFR_RNDA - The constant representing "round away from zero"


The GMP module is provided with following classes:

  • GMP::Z - infinite precision integer numbers
  • GMP::Q - infinite precision rational numbers
  • GMP::F - arbitrary precision floating point numbers
  • GMP::RandState - states of individual random number generators

Numbers are created by using new(). Constructors can take following arguments: GMP::Z initializer), Fixnum) GMP::Z initializer, any GMP::Z initializer), precision=0, rounding_mode=default), precision=0, rounding_mode=default), precision=0, rounding_mode=default), precision=0), precision=0, base=10), precision=0, base=10, rounding_mode=default), precision=0, rounding_mode=default), precision=0, rounding_mode=default),  precision=0, roundung_mode=default)
GMP::F.new_2exp(Fixnum, exp, precision=0, rounding_mode=default)
GMP::F.new_2exp(Bignum, exp, precision=0, rounding_mode=default)
GMP::F.new_2exp(GMP::Z, exp, precision=0, rounding_mode=default)\[algorithm\] \[, algorithm_args\])

You can also call them as:



GMP::Z, GMP::Q and GMP::F
  +                        addition
  -                        substraction
  *                        multiplication
  /                        division
  to_s                     convert to string. For GMP::Z and GMP::F, this
                           method takes one optional argument, a base. The
                           base can be a Fixnum in the ranges \[2, 62\] or
                           \[-36, -2\] or a Symbol: one of :bin, :oct,
                           :dec, or :hex.
  inspect                  alias for #to_s
  -@                       negation
  neg!                     in-place negation
  abs                      absolute value
  abs!                     in-place absolute value
  coerce                   promotion of arguments
  ==                       equality test
  <=>, >=, >, <=, <        comparisions
class methods of GMP::Z
  fac(n)                   factorial of n
  2fac(n), double_fac(n)   double factorial of n
  mfac(n)                  m-multi-factorial of n
  primorial(n)             primorial of n
  fib(n)                   nth Fibonacci number
  fib2(n)                  nth and (n-1)th Fibonacci numbers
  pow(n,m)                 n to mth power
GMP::Z and GMP::Q
  swap                     efficiently swap contents of two objects, there
                           is no GMP::F.swap because various GMP::F objects
                           may have different precisions, which would make
                           them unswapable
  to_i                     convert to Fixnum or Bignum
  add!                     in-place addition
  sub!                     in-place subtraction
  addmul!(b,c)             in-place += b*c
  submul!(b,c)             in-place -= b*c
  tdiv,fdiv,cdiv           truncate, floor and ceil division
  tmod,fmod,cmod           truncate, floor and ceil modulus
  >>                       shift right, floor
  divisible?(b)            true if divisible by b
  congruent?(c,d)          true if congruent to c modulus d
  **                       power
  powmod                   power modulo
  \[\],\[\]=                   testing and setting bits (as booleans)
  scan0,scan1              starting at bitnr (1st arg), scan for a 0 or 1
                           (respectively), then return the index of the
                           first instance.
  cmpabs                   comparison of absolute value
  com                      2's complement
  com!                     in-place 2's complement
  &,|,^                    logical operations: and, or, xor
  even?                    is even
  odd?                     is odd
  <<                       shift left
  tshr                     shift right, truncate
  lastbits_pos(n)          last n bits of object, modulo if negative
  lastbits_sgn(n)          last n bits of object, preserve sign
  power?                   is perfect power
  square?                  is perfect square
  sqrt                     square root
  sqrt!                    change the object into its square root
  sqrtrem                  square root, with remainder
  root(n)                  nth root
  rootrem(n)               nth root, with remainder
  probab_prime?            0 if composite, 1 if probably prime, 2 if
                           certainly prime
  nextprime                next *probable* prime
  nextprime!               change the object into its next *probable* prime
  gcd, gcdext, gcdext2     greatest common divisor
  lcm                      least common multiple
  invert(m)                invert mod m
  jacobi                   jacobi symbol
  legendre                 legendre symbol
  remove(n)                remove all occurences of factor n
  popcount                 the number of bits equal to 1
  hamdist                  the hamming distance between two integers
  out_raw                  output to IO object
  inp_raw                  input from IO object
  export                   export to a byte array (String)
  import                   import from a byte array (String)
  sizeinbase(b)            digits in base b
  size_in_bin              digits in binary
  size                     number of limbs
  num                      numerator
  den                      denominator
  inv                      inversion
  inv!                     in-place inversion
  floor,ceil,trunc         nearest integer
class methods of GMP::F
  default_prec             get default precision
  default_prec=            set default precision
  fac(n)                   new GMP::F, equal to factorial of n
  prec                     get precision
  floor,ceil,trunc         nearest integer, GMP::F is returned, not GMP::Z
  floor!,ceil!,trunc!      in-place nearest integer
  seed(integer)            seed the generator with a Fixnum or GMP::Z
  urandomb(fixnum)         get uniformly distributed random number between 0
                           and 2^fixnum-1, inclusive
  urandomm(integer)        get uniformly distributed random number between 0
                           and integer-1, inclusive
GMP (timing functions for GMPbench (0.2))
  cputime                  milliseconds of cpu time since Ruby start
  time                     times the execution of a block

*only if MPFR is available*
class methods of GMP::F
  nan                      returns NaN
  inf(sign = 1)            returns Inf or -Inf
  zero(sign = 1)           returns zero or -zero
  const_log2               returns the natural log of 2
  const_pi                 returns pi
  const_euler              returns euler
  const_catalan            returns catalan
  emin                     returns the smallest allowed exponent
  emax                     returns the largest allowed exponent
  emin=(exp)               sets the smallest allowed exponent
  emax=(exp)               sets the largest allowed exponent
  emin_min                 returns the smallest exponent allowed for GMP::F.emin=
  emin_max                 returns the largest exponent allowed for GMP::F.emin=
  emax_min                 returns the smallest exponent allowed for GMP::F.emax=
  emax_max                 returns the largest exponent allowed for GMP::F.emax=
  mpfr_buildopt_tls_p      returns whether MPFR was built as thread safe
  mpfr_buildopt_decimal_p  returns whether MPFR was compiled with decimal
                           float support
  frexp                    frexp
  lessgreater?(y)          x < y or y < x?
  unordered?(y)            either x or y is NaN?
  sqrt                     square root of the object
  rec_sqrt                 square root of the recprical of the object
  cbrt                     cube root of the object
  **                       power
  log                      natural logarithm of object
  log2                     binary logarithm of object
  log10                    decimal logarithm of object
  exp                      e^object
  exp2                     2^object
  exp10                    10^object
  log1p                    the same as (object + 1).log, with better
  expm1                    the same as (object.exp) - 1, with better
  eint                     exponential integral of object
  li2                      real part of the dilogarithm of object
  gamma                    Gamma fucntion of object
  lngamma                  logarithm of the Gamma function of object
  digamma                  Digamma function of object (MPFR_VERSION >= "3.0.0")
  zeta                     Reimann Zeta function of object
  erf                      error function of object
  erfc                     complementary error function of object
  j0                       first kind Bessel function of order 0 of object
  j1                       first kind Bessel function of order 1 of object
  jn                       first kind Bessel function of order n of object
  y0                       second kind Bessel function of order 0 of object
  y1                       second kind Bessel function of order 1 of object
  yn                       second kind Bessel function of order n of object
  agm                      arithmetic-geometric mean
  cos                      \
  sin                      |
  tan                      |
  sin_cos                  |
  sec                      |
  csc                      |
  cot                      |
  acos                     |
  asin                     |
  atan                     | trigonometric functions
  atan2                    |
  cosh                     | of the object
  sinh                     |
  tanh                     |
  sinh_cosh                |
  sec                      |
  csc                      |
  cot                      |
  acosh                    |
  asinh                    |
  atanh                    /
  nan?                     \
  infinite?                | type of floating point number
  finite?                  |
  number?                  |
  regular?                 / (MPFR_VERSION >= "3.0.0")
  mpfr_urandomb(prec = default)   get uniformly distributed random floating-point
                                  number within 0 <= rop < 1
  mpfr_urandom(prec = default)    get uniformly distributed random floating-point
                                  number (MPFR_VERSION >= "3.0.0")

Functional Mappings

In order to align better with the GMP paradigms of using return arguments, I have started creating "functional mappings", singleton methods that map directly to functions in GMP. These methods take return arguments, so that passing an object to a functional mapping may change the object itself. For example:

a = GMP::Z(0)
b = GMP::Z(13)
c = GMP::Z(17)
GMP::Z.add(a, b, c)
a  #=> 30

Here's a fun list of all of the functional mappings written so far:

  .abs          .add          .addmul       .cdiv_q_2exp  .cdiv_r_2exp  .com
  .congruent?   .divexact     .divisible?   .fdiv_q_2exp  .fdiv_r_2exp  .lcm
  .mul          .mul_2exp
  .neg          .nextprime    .sqrt         .sub          .submul       .tdiv_q_2exp

Method Tables

The following is organized in the same categories as in the GMP and MPFR manuals.

Integer Functions

Assigning Integers

GMP FunctionGMP::Z method

Converting Integers

4x C functions mapped to 3x Ruby methods; 1x unmapped C function
GMP FunctionGMP::Z method
mpz_get_d GMP::Z#to_d
mpz_get_d_2exp not implemented yet
mpz_get_str GMP::Z#to_s

Integer Arithmetic

12x C functions mapped to 19x Ruby methods; 2x unmapped C functions
GMP FunctionGMP::Z method
GMP::Z#add! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.add (in-place singleton method)
mpz_ui_sub (never used)
GMP::Z#sub! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.sub (in-place singleton method)
mpz_mul_ui (not used yet)
GMP::Z.mul (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z#addmul! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.addmul (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z#submul! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.submul (in-place singleton method)
mpz_mul_2exp GMP::Z.mul_2exp (in-place singleton method)
mpz_neg GMP::Z@-
GMP::Z#neg! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.neg (in-place singleton method)
mpz_abs GMP::Z#abs
GMP::Z#abs! (destructive method)
GMP::Z.abs (in-place singleton method)

Integer Division

26x C functions mapped to 18x Ruby methods; 11x unmapped C functions
GMP FunctionGMP::Z method
not implemented yet
mpz_cdiv_ui not implemented yet
GMP::Z.cdiv_q_2exp (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z.cdiv_r_2exp (in-place singleton method)
not implemented yet
mpz_fdiv_ui not implemented yet
GMP::Z.fdiv_q_2exp (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z.fdiv_r_2exp (in-place singleton method)
not implemented yet
mpz_tdiv_ui not implemented yet
GMP::Z.tdiv_q_2exp (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z.tdiv_r_2exp (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z.divexact (in-place singleton method)
GMP::Z.divisible? (in-place singleton method)
mpz_divisible_2exp_p not implemented yet
GMP::Z.congruent? (in-place singleton method)
mpz_congruent_2exp_p not implemented yet

Integer Exponentiation

Integer Roots

Number Theoretic Functions

Integer Comparisons

Integer Logic and Bit Fiddling

I/O of Integers

Integer Random Numbers

Integer Import and Export

Miscellaneous Integer Functions


  • This README
  • Loren Segal and the guys at are awesome: YARDoc.
  • There should be a manual.pdf here. I spend waaay too much time working on this, but it looks very pretty.


Tests can be run with rake test. I like to run tests and print out a quick report of Ruby, GMP, and MPFR versions with rake report. You can precede any rake task with GMP=gmp_install_dir and MPFR=mpfr_install_dir (or MPFR=--no-mpfr) to pass --with-gmp-dir and --with-mpfr-dir options to extconf.rb as well.

You can also run tests from an individual file with:

cd test
ruby some_test_file.rb

Known Issues

Don't call GMP::RandState(:lc_2exp_size). Give a 2nd arg.

Don't use multiple assignment (a = b = GMP::Z(0)) with functional mappings:

    >> a = b = GMP::Z(0)
    => 0
    >> GMP::Z.mul(a, GMP::Z(2), GMP::Z(3))
    => nil
    >> a
    => 6
    >> b
    => 6

JRuby has some interesting bugs and flickering tests. GMP::Z(GMP::GMP_NUMB_MAX) for example, blows up.


Precision can be explicitely set as second argument for If there is no explicit precision, highest precision of all GMP::F arguments is used. That doesn't ensure that result will be exact. For details, consult any paper about floating point arithmetics.

Default precision can be explicitely set by passing 0 as the second argument for to In particular, you can set precision of copy of GMP::F object by:

new_obj =, 0)

Precision argument, and default_precision will be rounded up to whatever GMP thinks is appropriate.


Please see performance on GitHub.


This gem is now licensed under the Apache License Version 2.0.


  • GMP::Z#to_d_2exp, #kronecker, #bin, ::lucnum2, #combit, #fits_x?
  • GMP::Q#to_s(base), GMP::F#to_s(base) (test it!)
  • benchmark pi
  • a butt-load of functional mappings. 47-ish sets.
  • investigate possible memory leaks when using GMP::Q(22/7) for example
  • beef up r_gmpq_initialize; I don't like to rely on mpz_set_value.
  • finish compile-results.rb
  • check if mpz_mul_ui would optimize GMP::Z#*
  • New in MPFR 3.1.0: mpfr_frexp, mpfr_grandom, mpfr_z_sub, divide-by-zero exception (?)
  • JRuby doesn't like some MPFR stuff, specifically sqrt tests fail.
  • Rubinius in 1.9 mode fails a sprintf test in a minor way.

The below are inherited from Tomasz. I will go through these and see which are still relevant, and which I understand.

  • mpz_fits_* and 31 vs. 32 integer variables
  • check if mpz_addmul_ui would optimize some statements
  • some system that allows using denref and numref as normal ruby objects
  • takeover code that replaces all Bignums with GMP::Z
  • better bignum parser (crawling into the Bignum extension)
  • zero-copy method for strings generation
  • benchmarks against Python GMP and Perl GMP
  • dup methods for GMP::Q and GMP::F
  • integrate F into system
  • should Z.\[\] bits be 0/1 or true/false, 0 is true, which might surprise users
  • any2small_integer()
  • powm with negative exponents
  • check if different sorting of operations gives better cache usage
  • GMP::\* op RubyFloat and RubyFloat op GMP::\*
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