Table of Contents
- USB mice on Linux
- USB mouse in virtual machines
- Wireless and Bluetooth mice
Everything in this howto relates to openSUSE Leap 15.1 but is mostly applicable to other Linux distros as well.
Author: Sebastian Parschauer
This document has been created with the help of colleagues when I worked at SUSE. But opinions are my own. Furthermore, this work is subject to continuous improvements. All contributions are welcome. Please just open issues on GitHub to start the discussion.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
USB mice on Linux
USB optical mice are usually based on a single chip from PixArt Imaging.
An example is the
identifying itself with USB IDs
Many USB mice support using them as PS/2 mouse as well (e.g. with an adapter). They also support a PS/2 legacy data report protocol. This is important for using them on the text consoles/virtual terminals (VT) as well. Currently there is support for the general USB report protocol only on the display servers on Linux. See section 5 "USB Interface" in the PAN3511 datasheet for hardware details.
Linux kernel driver usbhid
Almost all wired USB mice use the
usbhid driver but an additional user-space
driver is required. usbhid devices usually use the USB interrupt transfer. So
the default behavior of the driver is to wait for interrupts. But this can cause
buffers in some devices to overflow. So the usbhid quirk fix
HID_QUIRK_ALWAYS_POLL is often required for USB mice to work properly without
a user-space driver running.
The problem is that it can only use the USB vendor ID and product ID to identify if a quirk fix is required. And with more modern chips than the PAN3511, the USB IDs can be modified. So often quirk fixes for mice with the same chips but different IDs are missing.
The quirks table
hid_quirks is located in
usbhid vendor/product IDs are located in
of the Linux kernel source. Another important kernel source file is
containing the quirk defines. It shows that
HID_QUIRK_ALWAYS_POLL has the
A usbhid quirk can also be set by the kernel boot option
for the Dell MS116 mouse with idVendor
0x413c and idProduct
Usually up to four usbhid quirks can be provided in a comma-separated list.
0x00000004) it is also possible to exclude a device.
The USB IDs can be displayed with
If you find out that a quirk fix is required for your device, then please open a GitHub issue here for discussion. The relevant mailing list is linux-input on vger.kernel.org to get it fixed in the upstream kernel.
hid-quirks.c there is also a list
hid_have_special_driver to specify which
devices come with a special driver. This usually includes gaming mice like the
ones from Roccat.
v4.16: quirks moved from
hid_blacklistin drivers/hid/usbhid/hid-quirks.c to
Wayland compositors use
libinput. In GNOME Wayland sessions, the
processes are the ones loading it. It is the user-space driver for all input
List available input devices:
zypper install libinput-tools libinput list-devices
Test the mouse events:
zypper install evtest evtest --grab /dev/input/event23
Use the event device which you have found for your mouse. My Dell MS116 mouse
/dev/input/event23 here. Typical events are
On X Window System
Modern Linux systems use
libinput with the
xf86-input-libinput package for
the X server as well. This way it integrates nicely if the X server is running
on top of Wayland to provide compatibility.
Mouse support on the X Window System usually works fine on all Linux distros with almost all USB mice.
man 4 libinput
Alternatives are the packages
Use the following command to check which input driver is running:
xpid=$(pidof -s Xorg); if [ -z "$xpid" ]; then xpid=$(pidof -s X); fi; \ sudo cat /proc/$xpid/maps | grep input
xf86-input-mouse is usually only used on non-Linux systems.
In contrast to that, the package
xf86-input-evdev provides another generic
Linux input driver.
On text console/virtual terminal
If you want to use your PS/2 capable USB mouse on a VT as well, then you need
GPM (General Purpose Mouse) from package
gpm. It provides a "gpm" systemd
service which is usually disabled by default. Its config is located at
MOUSEDEVICE="/dev/input/mice" MOUSETYPE="imps2" GPM_PARAM="" GPM_REPEAT=""
This config is exactly what we need. Just enable and start the gpm service in your services manager (e.g. with YaST2) and your PS/2 capable USB mouse should work on your VTs.
Note: In some cases a reboot might be required after enabling and starting gpm.
The supported mouse protocols/types can be displayed with the following command executed as root:
gpm -m /dev/input/mice -t help | less
imps2 it shows:
* imps2 Microsoft Intellimouse (ps2)-autodetect 2/3 buttons,wheel unused
USB auto-suspend on Linux
Mice often don't work well with USB auto-suspend. It is safest to disable it
completely by the kernel boot option
usbcore.autosuspend=-1 to check if the
mouse is affected.
It is also possible to blacklist certain devices. It depends if they are
laptop-mode-tools, or the kernel directly. There
are enough howtos on the web for this.
USB mouse disconnects/reconnects every minute on Linux
Let's look at a Dell MS116 optical USB mouse. This is a PixArt OEM mouse. It really annoyed me that it spammed the virtual terminal and the kernel log with USB disconnect messages every minute without a user-space driver running:
[12334.243124] usb 3-14: USB disconnect, device number 12 [12335.748073] usb 3-14: new low-speed USB device number 13 using xhci_hcd [12335.879685] usb 3-14: New USB device found, idVendor=413c, idProduct=301a [12335.879689] usb 3-14: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0 [12335.879691] usb 3-14: Product: Dell MS116 USB Optical Mouse [12335.879696] usb 3-14: Manufacturer: PixArt [12335.881821] input: PixArt Dell MS116 USB Optical Mouse as /devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb3/3-14/3-14:1.0/0003:413C:301A.000A/input/input19 [12335.882034] hid-generic 0003:413C:301A.000A: input,hidraw1: USB HID v1.11 Mouse [PixArt Dell MS116 USB Optical Mouse] on usb-0000:00:14.0-14/input0
Disconnecting it physically everytime you use the VT is no good option. Its
buffer overflows if it is not always polled. This can be fixed by activating
gpm service and a reboot, or even better by the kernel boot option
usbhid.quirks=0x413c:0x301a:0x00000400 as this is a
The bit mask
For details see: Linux kernel driver usbhid
Fixing the Upstream Kernel
Of cause I've sent a patch
for this to the linux-usb mailing list (before
v4.16) which got accepted.
As I've sent it to the linux stable mailing list as well, this is fixed for
all Linux distributions now.
PixArt mice with this HW issue are known from vendors
Alienware, Chicony, Dell, HP, Lenovo, Microsoft, PixArt, and Primax.
Further suspects are Acer Lite-On, Dynex, and Jesis (see #22).
Please let me know if your mouse is affected as issues often persist for years.
There is a strong indication that PixArt chips use Logitech firmware with
that bug. Before integration, the sensor chips were usually coupled with a
Logitech USB mouse controller IC and PixArt ICs with that bug can be found in
Logitech mice as well. E.g. the Dell MS111-L is a Logitech PixArt mouse
requiring the quirk fix as well (IDs
USB mouse in virtual machines
It is most common in virtual machines that the mouse cursor is not located where
it should be. Windows VMs require absolute mouse movement and Linux VMs
require relative mouse movement. Make sure that this is properly set e.g.
With very old Linux distributions which still use GNOME 2 like e.g. SLES11, the QEMU EvTouch USB Graphics Tablet emulation does not work properly. Remove it and add a Generic USB Mouse instead.
Wireless and Bluetooth mice
Do yourself and people around you a favor and avoid using those due to harmful pulsed microwave radiation at 2.4 GHz. The related topic is electrosmog. It can be measured e.g. with the EMFields Acousticom 2.
Especially Logitech/Unifying based devices are often found to be not optimized in this regard and can cause wrist pain as the most obvious effect.
With the long range those can also be a major security issue.