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Mosaic: Processing a Trillion-Edge Graph on a Single Machine (EuroSys'17)

This repository is the main codebase for the Mosaic project, containing both the utility used to generate and convert graphs as well as the main graph engine, Mosaic.

This version of Mosaic should be runnable on most Linux-based systems. Mosaic builds for both the CPU-based version as well as the Xeon Phi-based version from almost the same code-base, although the Xeon Phi-based version requires a specialized hardware setup and a modified Kernel to support our 9p-based file system. If you would like to setup the Xeon Phi-based version, please get in touch with us.



To build Mosaic, follow these steps:

$ cd src
$ make cmake
$ make

This will build the binaries of Mosaic, in a release and debug configuration into the build-folder.


Mosaic supports multiple configurations, for different machines, to co-exist and to be picked via the hostname of the machine. As such, we recommend localizing the configuration in the config/ directory to suit the needs of your environment (e.g., if your server is called foo, create config/ We provide an example with the configuration of our ramjet server, as presented in the paper (config/

Datasets and Preparation

In the paper, we use six datasets (3 real-world, 3 synthetic):

A smaller test dataset we use is twitter_rv_small.

These graphs are already included in the configuration of Mosaic. If you wish to add another graph dataset, it has to be added in the configuration files. This is done adding the appropriate settings in config/ (i.e., the variables SG_INPUT_WEIGHTED, SG_INPUT_FILE and SG_GRAPH_SETTINGS_DELIM), following a similar pattern as the other graphs.

Binary Input

For faster generation, Mosaic can read graphs from a binary format (the same as GridGraph, in case one happens to use both for benchmarking purposes). We provide a script to convert txt-based graphs to the binary format:

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./ --input /data/graph/input/twitter-small/ --output /data/graph/input/twitter-small/twitter_rv_small.bin

Generate Graphs

With the configuration setup correctly, generating the Mosaic-internal format of a graph can be started via the src/tools/scripts/ script.

Examples of this conversion:

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./ --dataset uk2007 --binary --in-memory
$ ./ --dataset uk2007 --binary --in-memory --weighted
$ ./ --dataset rmat-27 --rmat --in-memory

Executing Mosaic


Mosaic supports using multiple disk-paths for input files. This is controlled via the parameter SG_NMIC which sets the number of edge processors that will be started. Each edge processor can read either of the tile and meta data from a different partition. This is controlled by the SG_DATAPATH_VERTEX_ENGINE configuration (for the meta-data) and the SG_DATAPATH_EDGE_ENGINE configuration for the tile data.

After setting these parameters, the input-data from the converted graph datasets needs to be copied into the correct file system locations (as set by the SG_DATAPATH_VERTEX_ENGINE and SG_DATAPATH_EDGE_ENGINE configuration). This is done via the rebalance script, which needs to be run anytime the data path or the number of edge processors (SG_NMIC configuration) is changed.

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./ --dataset twitter-small
$ ./ --dataset twitter-small-weighted

Optimization: Active Tiles

This optimization enables Mosaic to skip the computation for tiles without active vertices and edges. To build the index structure needed for this optimization (a very useful optimization for BFS, Connected Components, ...), run the following commands (specific to every dataset, here twitter-small):

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./ --dataset twitter-small

Running Mosaic

Finally, Mosaic is ready to run, e.g. for executing Pagerank or Single-Source Shortest Path on the twitter-small dataset:

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./ --dataset twitter-small --algorithm pagerank --max-iteration 20
$ ./ --dataset twitter-small-weighted --algorithm sssp --max-iteration 50

Mosaic will present statistics on the execution time per iteration and optionally log the results for later analysis.

Analyzing Results

To run a benchmark suite of algorithms and datasets as well as a quick analysis of these, we provide two scripts, you might need to customize the datasets and algorithms executed and analyzed by these scripts to match your configuration:

$ cd src/tools/scripts
$ ./
$ ./



  • EuroSys'17 (Best Student Paper):
  title        = {{Mosaic: Processing a Trillion-Edge Graph on a Single Machine}},
  author       = {Steffen Maass and Changwoo Min and Sanidhya Kashyap and Woonhak Kang and Mohan Kumar and Taesoo Kim},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Computer Systems (EuroSys)},
  month        = apr,
  year         = 2017,
  address      = {Belgrade, RS},


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