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Accounts are the central data structure in Stellar. Accounts are identified by a public key and saved in the ledger. Everything else in the ledger, such as offers or trustlines, are owned by a particular account.

Accounts are created with the Create Account operation.

Account access is controlled by public/private key cryptography. For an account to perform a transaction--e.g., make a payment--the transaction must be signed by the private key that corresponds to that account's public key. You can also set up more complicated multi-signature schemes for authorizing transactions on an account.

Account fields

Accounts have the following fields:

Account ID

The public key that was first used to create the account. You can replace the key used for signing the account's transactions with a different public key, but the original account ID will always be used to identify the account.


The number of lumens held by the account. The balance is denominated in 1/10,000,000th of a lumen, the smallest divisible unit of a lumen.

Sequence number

The current transaction sequence number of the account. This number starts equal to the ledger number at which the account was created.

Number of subentries

Number of other entries the account owns. This number is used to calculate the account's minimum balance.

Inflation destination

(optional) Account designated to receive inflation. Every account can vote to send inflation to a destination account.


Currently there are three flags, used by issuers of assets.

  • Authorization required (0x1): Requires the issuing account to give other accounts permission before they can hold the issuing account's credit.
  • Authorization revocable (0x2): Allows the issuing account to revoke its credit held by other accounts.
  • Authorization immutable (0x4): If this is set then none of the authorization flags can be set and the account can never be deleted.

Home domain

A domain name that can optionally be added to the account. Clients can look up a stellar.toml from this domain. This should be in the format of a fully qualified domain name such as

The federation protocol can use the home domain to look up more details about a transaction's memo or address details about an account. For more on federation, see the federation guide.


Operations have varying levels of access. This field specifies thresholds for low-, medium-, and high-access levels, as well as the weight of the master key. For more info, see multi-sig.


Used for multi-sig. This field lists other public keys and their weights, which can be used to authorize transactions for this account.


Starting in protocol version 10, each account also tracks its lumen liabilities. Buying liabilities equal the total amount of lumens offered to buy aggregated over all offers owned by this account, and selling liabilities equal the total amount of lumens offered to sell aggregated over all offers owned by this account. An account must always have balance sufficiently above the minimum reserve to satisfy its lumen selling liabilities, and a balance sufficiently below the maximum to accomodate its lumen buying liabilities.