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Fees

The Stellar network requires small fees on transactions and minimum balances on accounts in order to prevent people from overwhelming the network and to aid in prioritization.

There are two special values used to calculate fees:

  1. The base fee (currently 100 stroops) is used in transaction fees.
  2. The base reserve (currently 0.5 XLM) is used in minimum account balances.

Transaction Fee

The fee for a transaction is the number of operations the transaction contains multiplied by the base fee, which is 100 stroops (0.00001 XLM).

([# of operations] * [base fee])

For example, a transaction that allows trust on an account’s trustline (operation 1) and sends a payment to that account (operation 2) would have a fee of $$2 * [base fee] = 200 stroops$$.

Stellar deducts the entire fee from the transaction’s source account, regardless of which accounts are involved in each operation or who signed the transaction.

Transaction Limits

Each Stellar node usually limits the number of transactions that it will propose to the network when a ledger closes. If too many transactions are submitted, nodes propose the transactions with the highest fees for the ledger’s transaction set. Transactions that aren’t included are held for a future ledger, when fewer transactions are waiting.

See transaction life cycle for more information.

Fee Pool

The fee pool is the lot of lumens collected from transaction fees.

Stellar does not retain these lumens. They are distributed in the weekly process of inflation voting.

If there are any unallocated lumens after the vote, those lumens return to the fee pool for dispersal in the next round.

Minimum Account Balance

All Stellar accounts must maintain a minimum balance of lumens. Any transaction that would reduce an account's balance to less than the minimum will be rejected with an INSUFFICIENT_BALANCE error.

The minimum balance is calculated using the base reserve, which is 0.5 XLM:

(2 + [# of entries]) * [base reserve]

The minimum balance for a basic account is $$2 * [base reserve]$$. Each additional entry costs the base reserve. Entries include:

  • Trustlines
  • Offers
  • Signers
  • Data entries

For example, an account with 1 trustline and 2 offers would have a minimum balance of $$(2 + 3) * [base reserve] = 2.5 XLM$$.

Starting in protocol version 10, an account may also have lumen selling liabilities that must be satisfied in addition to the minimum balance discussed above. In this case, any transaction that would reduce an account's balance to less than the minimum plus lumen selling liabilities will be rejected with an INSUFFICIENT_BALANCE error.

Fee Changes

The base reserve and base fee can change, but should not do so more than once every several years. For the most part, you can think of them as fixed values. When they are changed, the change works by the same consensus process as any transaction. For details, see versioning.

You can look up the current fees by checking the details of the latest ledger.