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% Advanced macros

This chapter picks up where the introductory macro chapter left off.

Syntactic requirements

Even when Rust code contains un-expanded macros, it can be parsed as a full syntax tree. This property can be very useful for editors and other tools that process code. It also has a few consequences for the design of Rust's macro system.

One consequence is that Rust must determine, when it parses a macro invocation, whether the macro stands in for

  • zero or more items,
  • zero or more methods,
  • an expression,
  • a statement, or
  • a pattern.

A macro invocation within a block could stand for some items, or for an expression / statement. Rust uses a simple rule to resolve this ambiguity. A macro invocation that stands for items must be either

  • delimited by curly braces, e.g. foo! { ... }, or
  • terminated by a semicolon, e.g. foo!(...);

Another consequence of pre-expansion parsing is that the macro invocation must consist of valid Rust tokens. Furthermore, parentheses, brackets, and braces must be balanced within a macro invocation. For example, foo!([) is forbidden. This allows Rust to know where the macro invocation ends.

More formally, the macro invocation body must be a sequence of token trees. A token tree is defined recursively as either

  • a sequence of token trees surrounded by matching (), [], or {}, or
  • any other single token.

Within a matcher, each metavariable has a fragment specifier, identifying which syntactic form it matches.

  • ident: an identifier. Examples: x; foo.
  • path: a qualified name. Example: T::SpecialA.
  • expr: an expression. Examples: 2 + 2; if true then { 1 } else { 2 }; f(42).
  • ty: a type. Examples: i32; Vec<(char, String)>; &T.
  • pat: a pattern. Examples: Some(t); (17, 'a'); _.
  • stmt: a single statement. Example: let x = 3.
  • block: a brace-delimited sequence of statements. Example: { log(error, "hi"); return 12; }.
  • item: an item. Examples: fn foo() { }; struct Bar;.
  • meta: a "meta item", as found in attributes. Example: cfg(target_os = "windows").
  • tt: a single token tree.

There are additional rules regarding the next token after a metavariable:

  • expr variables must be followed by one of: => , ;
  • ty and path variables must be followed by one of: => , : = > as
  • pat variables must be followed by one of: => , =
  • Other variables may be followed by any token.

These rules provide some flexibility for Rust's syntax to evolve without breaking existing macros.

The macro system does not deal with parse ambiguity at all. For example, the grammar $($t:ty)* $e:expr will always fail to parse, because the parser would be forced to choose between parsing $t and parsing $e. Changing the invocation syntax to put a distinctive token in front can solve the problem. In this case, you can write $(T $t:ty)* E $e:exp.

Scoping and macro import/export

Macros are expanded at an early stage in compilation, before name resolution. One downside is that scoping works differently for macros, compared to other constructs in the language.

Definition and expansion of macros both happen in a single depth-first, lexical-order traversal of a crate's source. So a macro defined at module scope is visible to any subsequent code in the same module, which includes the body of any subsequent child mod items.

A macro defined within the body of a single fn, or anywhere else not at module scope, is visible only within that item.

If a module has the macro_use attribute, its macros are also visible in its parent module after the child's mod item. If the parent also has macro_use then the macros will be visible in the grandparent after the parent's mod item, and so forth.

The macro_use attribute can also appear on extern crate. In this context it controls which macros are loaded from the external crate, e.g.

#[macro_use(foo, bar)]
extern crate baz;

If the attribute is given simply as #[macro_use], all macros are loaded. If there is no #[macro_use] attribute then no macros are loaded. Only macros defined with the #[macro_export] attribute may be loaded.

To load a crate's macros without linking it into the output, use #[no_link] as well.

An example:

macro_rules! m1 { () => (()) }

// visible here: m1

mod foo {
    // visible here: m1

    macro_rules! m2 { () => (()) }

    // visible here: m1, m2

// visible here: m1

macro_rules! m3 { () => (()) }

// visible here: m1, m3

mod bar {
    // visible here: m1, m3

    macro_rules! m4 { () => (()) }

    // visible here: m1, m3, m4

// visible here: m1, m3, m4
# fn main() { }

When this library is loaded with #[macro_use] extern crate, only m2 will be imported.

The Rust Reference has a listing of macro-related attributes.

The variable $crate

A further difficulty occurs when a macro is used in multiple crates. Say that mylib defines

pub fn increment(x: u32) -> u32 {
    x + 1

macro_rules! inc_a {
    ($x:expr) => ( ::increment($x) )

macro_rules! inc_b {
    ($x:expr) => ( ::mylib::increment($x) )
# fn main() { }

inc_a only works within mylib, while inc_b only works outside the library. Furthermore, inc_b will break if the user imports mylib under another name.

Rust does not (yet) have a hygiene system for crate references, but it does provide a simple workaround for this problem. Within a macro imported from a crate named foo, the special macro variable $crate will expand to ::foo. By contrast, when a macro is defined and then used in the same crate, $crate will expand to nothing. This means we can write

macro_rules! inc {
    ($x:expr) => ( $crate::increment($x) )
# fn main() { }

to define a single macro that works both inside and outside our library. The function name will expand to either ::increment or ::mylib::increment.

To keep this system simple and correct, #[macro_use] extern crate ... may only appear at the root of your crate, not inside mod. This ensures that $crate is a single identifier.

The deep end

The introductory chapter mentioned recursive macros, but it did not give the full story. Recursive macros are useful for another reason: Each recursive invocation gives you another opportunity to pattern-match the macro's arguments.

As an extreme example, it is possible, though hardly advisable, to implement the Bitwise Cyclic Tag automaton within Rust's macro system.


macro_rules! bct {
    // cmd 0:  d ... => ...
    (0, $($ps:tt),* ; $_d:tt)
        => (bct!($($ps),*, 0 ; ));
    (0, $($ps:tt),* ; $_d:tt, $($ds:tt),*)
        => (bct!($($ps),*, 0 ; $($ds),*));

    // cmd 1p:  1 ... => 1 ... p
    (1, $p:tt, $($ps:tt),* ; 1)
        => (bct!($($ps),*, 1, $p ; 1, $p));
    (1, $p:tt, $($ps:tt),* ; 1, $($ds:tt),*)
        => (bct!($($ps),*, 1, $p ; 1, $($ds),*, $p));

    // cmd 1p:  0 ... => 0 ...
    (1, $p:tt, $($ps:tt),* ; $($ds:tt),*)
        => (bct!($($ps),*, 1, $p ; $($ds),*));

    // halt on empty data string
    ( $($ps:tt),* ; )
        => (());

fn main() {
# /* just check the definition
    bct!(0, 0, 1, 1, 1 ; 1, 0, 1);
# */

Exercise: use macros to reduce duplication in the above definition of the bct! macro.

Procedural macros

If Rust's macro system can't do what you need, you may want to write a compiler plugin instead. Compared to macro_rules! macros, this is significantly more work, the interfaces are much less stable, and bugs can be much harder to track down. In exchange you get the flexibility of running arbitrary Rust code within the compiler. Syntax extension plugins are sometimes called procedural macros for this reason.

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