Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
or
.
Download ZIP
Tree: 6fb20948a0
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

783 lines (693 sloc) 27.238 kB
## lib/trollop.rb -- trollop command-line processing library
## Author:: William Morgan (mailto: wmorgan-trollop@masanjin.net)
## Copyright:: Copyright 2007 William Morgan
## License:: the same terms as ruby itself
require 'date'
module Trollop
VERSION = "1.16.2"
## Thrown by Parser in the event of a commandline error. Not needed if
## you're using the Trollop::options entry.
class CommandlineError < StandardError; end
## Thrown by Parser if the user passes in '-h' or '--help'. Handled
## automatically by Trollop#options.
class HelpNeeded < StandardError; end
## Thrown by Parser if the user passes in '-h' or '--version'. Handled
## automatically by Trollop#options.
class VersionNeeded < StandardError; end
## Regex for floating point numbers
FLOAT_RE = /^-?((\d+(\.\d+)?)|(\.\d+))([eE][-+]?[\d]+)?$/
## Regex for parameters
PARAM_RE = /^-(-|\.$|[^\d\.])/
## The commandline parser. In typical usage, the methods in this class
## will be handled internally by Trollop::options. In this case, only the
## #opt, #banner and #version, #depends, and #conflicts methods will
## typically be called.
##
## If you want to instantiate this class yourself (for more complicated
## argument-parsing logic), call #parse to actually produce the output hash,
## and consider calling it from within
## Trollop::with_standard_exception_handling.
class Parser
## The set of values that indicate a flag option when passed as the
## +:type+ parameter of #opt.
FLAG_TYPES = [:flag, :bool, :boolean]
## The set of values that indicate a single-parameter (normal) option when
## passed as the +:type+ parameter of #opt.
##
## A value of +io+ corresponds to a readable IO resource, including
## a filename, URI, or the strings 'stdin' or '-'.
SINGLE_ARG_TYPES = [:int, :integer, :string, :double, :float, :io, :date]
## The set of values that indicate a multiple-parameter option (i.e., that
## takes multiple space-separated values on the commandline) when passed as
## the +:type+ parameter of #opt.
MULTI_ARG_TYPES = [:ints, :integers, :strings, :doubles, :floats, :ios, :dates]
## The complete set of legal values for the +:type+ parameter of #opt.
TYPES = FLAG_TYPES + SINGLE_ARG_TYPES + MULTI_ARG_TYPES
INVALID_SHORT_ARG_REGEX = /[\d-]/ #:nodoc:
## The values from the commandline that were not interpreted by #parse.
attr_reader :leftovers
## The complete configuration hashes for each option. (Mainly useful
## for testing.)
attr_reader :specs
## Initializes the parser, and instance-evaluates any block given.
def initialize *a, &b
@version = nil
@leftovers = []
@specs = {}
@long = {}
@short = {}
@order = []
@constraints = []
@stop_words = []
@stop_on_unknown = false
#instance_eval(&b) if b # can't take arguments
cloaker(&b).bind(self).call(*a) if b
end
## Define an option. +name+ is the option name, a unique identifier
## for the option that you will use internally, which should be a
## symbol or a string. +desc+ is a string description which will be
## displayed in help messages.
##
## Takes the following optional arguments:
##
## [+:long+] Specify the long form of the argument, i.e. the form with two dashes. If unspecified, will be automatically derived based on the argument name by turning the +name+ option into a string, and replacing any _'s by -'s.
## [+:short+] Specify the short form of the argument, i.e. the form with one dash. If unspecified, will be automatically derived from +name+.
## [+:type+] Require that the argument take a parameter or parameters of type +type+. For a single parameter, the value can be a member of +SINGLE_ARG_TYPES+, or a corresponding Ruby class (e.g. +Integer+ for +:int+). For multiple-argument parameters, the value can be any member of +MULTI_ARG_TYPES+ constant. If unset, the default argument type is +:flag+, meaning that the argument does not take a parameter. The specification of +:type+ is not necessary if a +:default+ is given.
## [+:default+] Set the default value for an argument. Without a default value, the hash returned by #parse (and thus Trollop::options) will have a +nil+ value for this key unless the argument is given on the commandline. The argument type is derived automatically from the class of the default value given, so specifying a +:type+ is not necessary if a +:default+ is given. (But see below for an important caveat when +:multi+: is specified too.) If the argument is a flag, and the default is set to +true+, then if it is specified on the the commandline the value will be +false+.
## [+:required+] If set to +true+, the argument must be provided on the commandline.
## [+:multi+] If set to +true+, allows multiple occurrences of the option on the commandline. Otherwise, only a single instance of the option is allowed. (Note that this is different from taking multiple parameters. See below.)
##
## Note that there are two types of argument multiplicity: an argument
## can take multiple values, e.g. "--arg 1 2 3". An argument can also
## be allowed to occur multiple times, e.g. "--arg 1 --arg 2".
##
## Arguments that take multiple values should have a +:type+ parameter
## drawn from +MULTI_ARG_TYPES+ (e.g. +:strings+), or a +:default:+
## value of an array of the correct type (e.g. [String]). The
## value of this argument will be an array of the parameters on the
## commandline.
##
## Arguments that can occur multiple times should be marked with
## +:multi+ => +true+. The value of this argument will also be an array.
## In contrast with regular non-multi options, if not specified on
## the commandline, the default value will be [], not nil.
##
## These two attributes can be combined (e.g. +:type+ => +:strings+,
## +:multi+ => +true+), in which case the value of the argument will be
## an array of arrays.
##
## There's one ambiguous case to be aware of: when +:multi+: is true and a
## +:default+ is set to an array (of something), it's ambiguous whether this
## is a multi-value argument as well as a multi-occurrence argument.
## In thise case, Trollop assumes that it's not a multi-value argument.
## If you want a multi-value, multi-occurrence argument with a default
## value, you must specify +:type+ as well.
def opt name, desc="", opts={}
raise ArgumentError, "you already have an argument named '#{name}'" if @specs.member? name
## fill in :type
opts[:type] = # normalize
case opts[:type]
when :boolean, :bool; :flag
when :integer; :int
when :integers; :ints
when :double; :float
when :doubles; :floats
when Class
case opts[:type].name
when 'TrueClass', 'FalseClass'; :flag
when 'String'; :string
when 'Integer'; :int
when 'Float'; :float
when 'IO'; :io
when 'Date'; :date
else
raise ArgumentError, "unsupported argument type '#{opts[:type].class.name}'"
end
when nil; nil
else
raise ArgumentError, "unsupported argument type '#{opts[:type]}'" unless TYPES.include?(opts[:type])
opts[:type]
end
## for options with :multi => true, an array default doesn't imply
## a multi-valued argument. for that you have to specify a :type
## as well. (this is how we disambiguate an ambiguous situation;
## see the docs for Parser#opt for details.)
disambiguated_default =
if opts[:multi] && opts[:default].is_a?(Array) && !opts[:type]
opts[:default].first
else
opts[:default]
end
type_from_default =
case disambiguated_default
when Integer; :int
when Numeric; :float
when TrueClass, FalseClass; :flag
when String; :string
when IO; :io
when Date; :date
when Array
if opts[:default].empty?
raise ArgumentError, "multiple argument type cannot be deduced from an empty array for '#{opts[:default][0].class.name}'"
end
case opts[:default][0] # the first element determines the types
when Integer; :ints
when Numeric; :floats
when String; :strings
when IO; :ios
when Date; :dates
else
raise ArgumentError, "unsupported multiple argument type '#{opts[:default][0].class.name}'"
end
when nil; nil
else
raise ArgumentError, "unsupported argument type '#{opts[:default].class.name}'"
end
raise ArgumentError, ":type specification and default type don't match (default type is #{type_from_default})" if opts[:type] && type_from_default && opts[:type] != type_from_default
opts[:type] = opts[:type] || type_from_default || :flag
## fill in :long
opts[:long] = opts[:long] ? opts[:long].to_s : name.to_s.gsub("_", "-")
opts[:long] =
case opts[:long]
when /^--([^-].*)$/
$1
when /^[^-]/
opts[:long]
else
raise ArgumentError, "invalid long option name #{opts[:long].inspect}"
end
raise ArgumentError, "long option name #{opts[:long].inspect} is already taken; please specify a (different) :long" if @long[opts[:long]]
## fill in :short
opts[:short] = opts[:short].to_s if opts[:short] unless opts[:short] == :none
opts[:short] = case opts[:short]
when /^-(.)$/; $1
when nil, :none, /^.$/; opts[:short]
else raise ArgumentError, "invalid short option name '#{opts[:short].inspect}'"
end
if opts[:short]
raise ArgumentError, "short option name #{opts[:short].inspect} is already taken; please specify a (different) :short" if @short[opts[:short]]
raise ArgumentError, "a short option name can't be a number or a dash" if opts[:short] =~ INVALID_SHORT_ARG_REGEX
end
## fill in :default for flags
opts[:default] = false if opts[:type] == :flag && opts[:default].nil?
## autobox :default for :multi (multi-occurrence) arguments
opts[:default] = [opts[:default]] if opts[:default] && opts[:multi] && !opts[:default].is_a?(Array)
## fill in :multi
opts[:multi] ||= false
opts[:desc] ||= desc
@long[opts[:long]] = name
@short[opts[:short]] = name if opts[:short] && opts[:short] != :none
@specs[name] = opts
@order << [:opt, name]
end
## Sets the version string. If set, the user can request the version
## on the commandline. Should probably be of the form "<program name>
## <version number>".
def version s=nil; @version = s if s; @version end
## Adds text to the help display. Can be interspersed with calls to
## #opt to build a multi-section help page.
def banner s; @order << [:text, s] end
alias :text :banner
## Marks two (or more!) options as requiring each other. Only handles
## undirected (i.e., mutual) dependencies. Directed dependencies are
## better modeled with Trollop::die.
def depends *syms
syms.each { |sym| raise ArgumentError, "unknown option '#{sym}'" unless @specs[sym] }
@constraints << [:depends, syms]
end
## Marks two (or more!) options as conflicting.
def conflicts *syms
syms.each { |sym| raise ArgumentError, "unknown option '#{sym}'" unless @specs[sym] }
@constraints << [:conflicts, syms]
end
## Defines a set of words which cause parsing to terminate when
## encountered, such that any options to the left of the word are
## parsed as usual, and options to the right of the word are left
## intact.
##
## A typical use case would be for subcommand support, where these
## would be set to the list of subcommands. A subsequent Trollop
## invocation would then be used to parse subcommand options, after
## shifting the subcommand off of ARGV.
def stop_on *words
@stop_words = [*words].flatten
end
## Similar to #stop_on, but stops on any unknown word when encountered
## (unless it is a parameter for an argument). This is useful for
## cases where you don't know the set of subcommands ahead of time,
## i.e., without first parsing the global options.
def stop_on_unknown
@stop_on_unknown = true
end
## Parses the commandline. Typically called by Trollop::options,
## but you can call it directly if you need more control.
##
## throws CommandlineError, HelpNeeded, and VersionNeeded exceptions.
def parse cmdline=ARGV
vals = {}
required = {}
opt :version, "Print version and exit" if @version unless @specs[:version] || @long["version"]
opt :help, "Show this message" unless @specs[:help] || @long["help"]
@specs.each do |sym, opts|
required[sym] = true if opts[:required]
vals[sym] = opts[:default]
vals[sym] = [] if opts[:multi] && !opts[:default] # multi arguments default to [], not nil
end
resolve_default_short_options
## resolve symbols
given_args = {}
@leftovers = each_arg cmdline do |arg, params|
sym = case arg
when /^-([^-])$/
@short[$1]
when /^--([^-]\S*)$/
@long[$1]
else
raise CommandlineError, "invalid argument syntax: '#{arg}'"
end
raise CommandlineError, "unknown argument '#{arg}'" unless sym
if given_args.include?(sym) && !@specs[sym][:multi]
raise CommandlineError, "option '#{arg}' specified multiple times"
end
given_args[sym] ||= {}
given_args[sym][:arg] = arg
given_args[sym][:params] ||= []
# The block returns the number of parameters taken.
num_params_taken = 0
unless params.nil?
if SINGLE_ARG_TYPES.include?(@specs[sym][:type])
given_args[sym][:params] << params[0, 1] # take the first parameter
num_params_taken = 1
elsif MULTI_ARG_TYPES.include?(@specs[sym][:type])
given_args[sym][:params] << params # take all the parameters
num_params_taken = params.size
end
end
num_params_taken
end
## check for version and help args
raise VersionNeeded if given_args.include? :version
raise HelpNeeded if given_args.include? :help
## check constraint satisfaction
@constraints.each do |type, syms|
constraint_sym = syms.find { |sym| given_args[sym] }
next unless constraint_sym
case type
when :depends
syms.each { |sym| raise CommandlineError, "--#{@specs[constraint_sym][:long]} requires --#{@specs[sym][:long]}" unless given_args.include? sym }
when :conflicts
syms.each { |sym| raise CommandlineError, "--#{@specs[constraint_sym][:long]} conflicts with --#{@specs[sym][:long]}" if given_args.include?(sym) && (sym != constraint_sym) }
end
end
required.each do |sym, val|
raise CommandlineError, "option --#{@specs[sym][:long]} must be specified" unless given_args.include? sym
end
## parse parameters
given_args.each do |sym, given_data|
arg = given_data[:arg]
params = given_data[:params]
opts = @specs[sym]
raise CommandlineError, "option '#{arg}' needs a parameter" if params.empty? && opts[:type] != :flag
vals["#{sym}_given".intern] = true # mark argument as specified on the commandline
case opts[:type]
when :flag
vals[sym] = !opts[:default]
when :int, :ints
vals[sym] = params.map { |pg| pg.map { |p| parse_integer_parameter p, arg } }
when :float, :floats
vals[sym] = params.map { |pg| pg.map { |p| parse_float_parameter p, arg } }
when :string, :strings
vals[sym] = params.map { |pg| pg.map { |p| p.to_s } }
when :io, :ios
vals[sym] = params.map { |pg| pg.map { |p| parse_io_parameter p, arg } }
when :date, :dates
vals[sym] = params.map { |pg| pg.map { |p| parse_date_parameter p, arg } }
end
if SINGLE_ARG_TYPES.include?(opts[:type])
unless opts[:multi] # single parameter
vals[sym] = vals[sym][0][0]
else # multiple options, each with a single parameter
vals[sym] = vals[sym].map { |p| p[0] }
end
elsif MULTI_ARG_TYPES.include?(opts[:type]) && !opts[:multi]
vals[sym] = vals[sym][0] # single option, with multiple parameters
end
# else: multiple options, with multiple parameters
end
## modify input in place with only those
## arguments we didn't process
cmdline.clear
@leftovers.each { |l| cmdline << l }
## allow openstruct-style accessors
class << vals
def method_missing(m, *args)
self[m] || self[m.to_s]
end
end
vals
end
def parse_date_parameter param, arg #:nodoc:
begin
begin
time = Chronic.parse(param)
rescue NameError
# chronic is not available
end
time ? Date.new(time.year, time.month, time.day) : Date.parse(param)
rescue ArgumentError => e
raise CommandlineError, "option '#{arg}' needs a date"
end
end
## Print the help message to +stream+.
def educate stream=$stdout
width # just calculate it now; otherwise we have to be careful not to
# call this unless the cursor's at the beginning of a line.
left = {}
@specs.each do |name, spec|
left[name] = "--#{spec[:long]}" +
(spec[:short] && spec[:short] != :none ? ", -#{spec[:short]}" : "") +
case spec[:type]
when :flag; ""
when :int; " <i>"
when :ints; " <i+>"
when :string; " <s>"
when :strings; " <s+>"
when :float; " <f>"
when :floats; " <f+>"
when :io; " <filename/uri>"
when :ios; " <filename/uri+>"
when :date; " <date>"
when :dates; " <date+>"
end
end
leftcol_width = left.values.map { |s| s.length }.max || 0
rightcol_start = leftcol_width + 6 # spaces
unless @order.size > 0 && @order.first.first == :text
stream.puts "#@version\n" if @version
stream.puts "Options:"
end
@order.each do |what, opt|
if what == :text
stream.puts wrap(opt)
next
end
spec = @specs[opt]
stream.printf " %#{leftcol_width}s: ", left[opt]
desc = spec[:desc] + begin
default_s = case spec[:default]
when $stdout; "<stdout>"
when $stdin; "<stdin>"
when $stderr; "<stderr>"
when Array
spec[:default].join(", ")
else
spec[:default].to_s
end
if spec[:default]
if spec[:desc] =~ /\.$/
" (Default: #{default_s})"
else
" (default: #{default_s})"
end
else
""
end
end
stream.puts wrap(desc, :width => width - rightcol_start - 1, :prefix => rightcol_start)
end
end
def width #:nodoc:
@width ||= if $stdout.tty?
begin
require 'curses'
Curses::init_screen
x = Curses::cols
Curses::close_screen
x
rescue Exception
80
end
else
80
end
end
def wrap str, opts={} # :nodoc:
if str == ""
[""]
else
str.split("\n").map { |s| wrap_line s, opts }.flatten
end
end
## The per-parser version of Trollop::die (see that for documentation).
def die arg, msg
if msg
$stderr.puts "Error: argument --#{@specs[arg][:long]} #{msg}."
else
$stderr.puts "Error: #{arg}."
end
$stderr.puts "Try --help for help."
exit(-1)
end
private
## yield successive arg, parameter pairs
def each_arg args
remains = []
i = 0
until i >= args.length
if @stop_words.member? args[i]
remains += args[i .. -1]
return remains
end
case args[i]
when /^--$/ # arg terminator
remains += args[(i + 1) .. -1]
return remains
when /^--(\S+?)=(.*)$/ # long argument with equals
yield "--#{$1}", [$2]
i += 1
when /^--(\S+)$/ # long argument
params = collect_argument_parameters(args, i + 1)
unless params.empty?
num_params_taken = yield args[i], params
unless num_params_taken
if @stop_on_unknown
remains += args[i + 1 .. -1]
return remains
else
remains += params
end
end
i += 1 + num_params_taken
else # long argument no parameter
yield args[i], nil
i += 1
end
when /^-(\S+)$/ # one or more short arguments
shortargs = $1.split(//)
shortargs.each_with_index do |a, j|
if j == (shortargs.length - 1)
params = collect_argument_parameters(args, i + 1)
unless params.empty?
num_params_taken = yield "-#{a}", params
unless num_params_taken
if @stop_on_unknown
remains += args[i + 1 .. -1]
return remains
else
remains += params
end
end
i += 1 + num_params_taken
else # argument no parameter
yield "-#{a}", nil
i += 1
end
else
yield "-#{a}", nil
end
end
else
if @stop_on_unknown
remains += args[i .. -1]
return remains
else
remains << args[i]
i += 1
end
end
end
remains
end
def parse_integer_parameter param, arg
raise CommandlineError, "option '#{arg}' needs an integer" unless param =~ /^\d+$/
param.to_i
end
def parse_float_parameter param, arg
raise CommandlineError, "option '#{arg}' needs a floating-point number" unless param =~ FLOAT_RE
param.to_f
end
def parse_io_parameter param, arg
case param
when /^(stdin|-)$/i; $stdin
else
require 'open-uri'
begin
open param
rescue SystemCallError => e
raise CommandlineError, "file or url for option '#{arg}' cannot be opened: #{e.message}"
end
end
end
def collect_argument_parameters args, start_at
params = []
pos = start_at
while args[pos] && args[pos] !~ PARAM_RE && !@stop_words.member?(args[pos]) do
params << args[pos]
pos += 1
end
params
end
def resolve_default_short_options
@order.each do |type, name|
next unless type == :opt
opts = @specs[name]
next if opts[:short]
c = opts[:long].split(//).find { |d| d !~ INVALID_SHORT_ARG_REGEX && !@short.member?(d) }
if c # found a character to use
opts[:short] = c
@short[c] = name
end
end
end
def wrap_line str, opts={}
prefix = opts[:prefix] || 0
width = opts[:width] || (self.width - 1)
start = 0
ret = []
until start > str.length
nextt =
if start + width >= str.length
str.length
else
x = str.rindex(/\s/, start + width)
x = str.index(/\s/, start) if x && x < start
x || str.length
end
ret << (ret.empty? ? "" : " " * prefix) + str[start ... nextt]
start = nextt + 1
end
ret
end
## instance_eval but with ability to handle block arguments
## thanks to why: http://redhanded.hobix.com/inspect/aBlockCostume.html
def cloaker &b
(class << self; self; end).class_eval do
define_method :cloaker_, &b
meth = instance_method :cloaker_
remove_method :cloaker_
meth
end
end
end
## The easy, syntactic-sugary entry method into Trollop. Creates a Parser,
## passes the block to it, then parses +args+ with it, handling any errors or
## requests for help or version information appropriately (and then exiting).
## Modifies +args+ in place. Returns a hash of option values.
##
## The block passed in should contain zero or more calls to +opt+
## (Parser#opt), zero or more calls to +text+ (Parser#text), and
## probably a call to +version+ (Parser#version).
##
## The returned block contains a value for every option specified with
## +opt+. The value will be the value given on the commandline, or the
## default value if the option was not specified on the commandline. For
## every option specified on the commandline, a key "<option
## name>_given" will also be set in the hash.
##
## Example:
##
## require 'trollop'
## opts = Trollop::options do
## opt :monkey, "Use monkey mode" # a flag --monkey, defaulting to false
## opt :goat, "Use goat mode", :default => true # a flag --goat, defaulting to true
## opt :num_limbs, "Number of limbs", :default => 4 # an integer --num-limbs <i>, defaulting to 4
## opt :num_thumbs, "Number of thumbs", :type => :int # an integer --num-thumbs <i>, defaulting to nil
## end
##
## ## if called with no arguments
## p opts # => { :monkey => false, :goat => true, :num_limbs => 4, :num_thumbs => nil }
##
## ## if called with --monkey
## p opts # => {:monkey_given=>true, :monkey=>true, :goat=>true, :num_limbs=>4, :help=>false, :num_thumbs=>nil}
##
## See more examples at http://trollop.rubyforge.org.
def options args=ARGV, *a, &b
@last_parser = Parser.new(*a, &b)
with_standard_exception_handling(@last_parser) { @last_parser.parse args }
end
## If Trollop::options doesn't do quite what you want, you can create a Parser
## object and call Parser#parse on it. That method will throw CommandlineError,
## HelpNeeded and VersionNeeded exceptions when necessary; if you want to
## have these handled for you in the standard manner (e.g. show the help
## and then exit upon an HelpNeeded exception), call your code from within
## a block passed to this method.
##
## Note that this method will call System#exit after handling an exception!
##
## Usage example:
##
## require 'trollop'
## p = Trollop::Parser.new do
## opt :monkey, "Use monkey mode" # a flag --monkey, defaulting to false
## opt :goat, "Use goat mode", :default => true # a flag --goat, defaulting to true
## end
##
## opts = Trollop::with_standard_exception_handling p do
## o = p.parse ARGV
## raise Trollop::HelpNeeded if ARGV.empty? # show help screen
## o
## end
##
## Requires passing in the parser object.
def with_standard_exception_handling parser
begin
yield
rescue CommandlineError => e
$stderr.puts "Error: #{e.message}."
$stderr.puts "Try --help for help."
exit(-1)
rescue HelpNeeded
parser.educate
exit
rescue VersionNeeded
puts parser.version
exit
end
end
## Informs the user that their usage of 'arg' was wrong, as detailed by
## 'msg', and dies. Example:
##
## options do
## opt :volume, :default => 0.0
## end
##
## die :volume, "too loud" if opts[:volume] > 10.0
## die :volume, "too soft" if opts[:volume] < 0.1
##
## In the one-argument case, simply print that message, a notice
## about -h, and die. Example:
##
## options do
## opt :whatever # ...
## end
##
## Trollop::die "need at least one filename" if ARGV.empty?
def die arg, msg=nil
if @last_parser
@last_parser.die arg, msg
else
raise ArgumentError, "Trollop::die can only be called after Trollop::options"
end
end
module_function :options, :die, :with_standard_exception_handling
end # module
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.